Weitere Kapitel dieses Buchs durch Wischen aufrufen
The panels, subassemblies and assemblies being welded are subjected to thermal cycles of heating followed by cooling. It causes shrinkage forces to develop in the welded panels. The shrinkage forces tend to cause different degrees of distortion. Non uniform shrinkage forces across thickness may lead to angular deformation, whereas the inplane compressive forces in plate panels made of thinner plates tend to buckle. In a welded joint, the base metal away from the weld zone remains at room temperature throughout the welding operation and is not subjected to any expansion or contraction. This ‘cold’ part of the base metal restrains the welded zone and the adjacent heated base metal from free expansion and contraction. This leads to stresses of near yield point magnitude in the weld. Under this stress the weld deposit and the adjacent heated base metal yields resulting in plastic strains. As the weld metal and the base metal cool down to the room temperature residual stresses are formed. If some of the external restraints such as clamps or welded lugs are removed, the residual stresses may find partial relief by causing the base metal to further deform.
Bitte loggen Sie sich ein, um Zugang zu diesem Inhalt zu erhalten
Sie möchten Zugang zu diesem Inhalt erhalten? Dann informieren Sie sich jetzt über unsere Produkte:
Huang, T. D., Dong, P., Decan, L. A., & Harwig, D. E. (2003). Residual stresses and distortions in lightweight ship panel structures (pp. 1–26). Spring/Summer: Northrop Grumman Technical Review Journal.
Huang, T. D., Dong, P., Decan, L., Harwig, D., & Kumar, R. (2004). Fabrication and engineering technology for lightweight ship structures, part 1: distortions and residual stresses in panel fabrication. Journal of Ship Production, 20(1), 43–59.
Mandal, N. R. (1999). Prediction of dimensional changes during fabrication of thin shell ship plate hull bottom units. Science and Technology of Welding and Joining, 4(5), 290–294. CrossRef
Mcpherson, N. A., & Crow, A. (2006). Plate requirements for current naval vessel builds. In Proceedings, Achieving Profile and Flatness in Flat Products Conference, January, Birmingham, UK.
Spicknall, M. H., Kumar, R., & Huang, T. D. (2005). Dimensional management in shipbuilding: a case study from the Northrup Grumman ship systems lightweight structures project. Journal of Ship Production, 21(4), 209–218.
McPherson, N. A. (2007). Thin plate distortion—The ongoing problem in shipbuilding. Journal of Ship Production, 23(2), 94–117.
Ueda, Y., Murakawa, H., & Ma, N. (2012). Welding deformation and residual stress prevention. ISBN 978-0-12-394804-5, Elsevier Inc.
Mandal, N. R., & Sundar, C. V. N. (1997). Analysis of welding shrinkage. Welding Journal, 76(6), 233s–238s.
Ractliffe, M. A. (1983). The basis and essentials of thermal residual distortion in steel structures. The Royal Institution of Naval Architects.
Bulson, P. S. (1970). Theory of flat plates. London: Chatto and Windus.
Timoshenko, S. P., & Gere, J. M. (1961). Theory of elastic stability. New York: McGraw Hill Book Company.
Mandal, N. R., Prabu, Sree Krishna, & Kumar, Sharat. (2014). Buckling of stiffened panels and its mitigation. Journal of Ship Production and Design, 30(4), 201–206. CrossRef
- Welding Residual Stress and Distortion
Nisith R. Mandal
- Springer Singapore
- Chapter 17
in-adhesives, MKVS, Hellmich GmbH/© Hellmich GmbH, Zühlke/© Zühlke