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01.12.2013 | Thematic Issue | Ausgabe 8/2013

Environmental Earth Sciences 8/2013

Well-based hydraulic and geochemical monitoring of the above zone of the CO2 reservoir at Ketzin, Germany

Zeitschrift:
Environmental Earth Sciences > Ausgabe 8/2013
Autoren:
Bernd Wiese, Martin Zimmer, Martin Nowak, Linda Pellizzari, Peter Pilz

Abstract

In order to detect hydraulic and geochemical impact on the groundwater directly above the CO2 storage reservoir at the Ketzin pilot site continuous monitoring using an observation well is carried out. The target depth (446 m below ground level, bgl.) of the well is the Exter formation (Upper Triassic, Rhaetian) which is the closest permeable stratigraphic overlying formation to the CO2 storage reservoir (630–636 m bgl. at well location). The monitoring concept comprises evaluation of hydraulic conditions, temperature, water chemistry, gas geochemistry and δ13C values. This is achieved by a tubing inserted inside the well with installed pressure sensors and a U-tube sampling system so that pumping tests or additional wireline logging can be carried out simultaneously with monitoring. The aquifer was examined using a pump test. The observation well is hydraulically connected to the regional aquifer system and the permeability of about 1.8 D is comparatively high. Between Sept. 2011 and Oct. 2012, a pressure increase of 7.4 kPa is observed during monitoring under environmental conditions. Drilling was carried out with drilling mud on carbonate basis. The concentration of residual drilling mud decreases during the pump test, but all samples show a residual concentration of drilling mud. The formation fluid composition is recalculated with PHREEQC and is comparable to the literature values for the Exter formation. The gas partial pressure is below saturation at standard conditions and the composition is dominated by N2 similar to the underlying storage reservoir prior to CO2 injection. The impact of residual drilling mud on dissolved inorganic carbon and the respective δ13C values decreases during the monitoring period. The pristine isotopic composition cannot be determined due to calcite precipitation. No conclusive results indicate a leakage from the underlying CO2 storage reservoir.

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