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Über dieses Buch

This book constitutes the refereed proceedings of the 7th International Conference on Well-Being in the Information Society, WIS 2018, held in Turku, Finland, in August 2018.

The 19 revised full papers presented were carefully reviewed and selected from 42 submissions. With the core topic "Fighting Inequalities" WIS 2018 focused on innovations and fresh ideas in the cross-section of information society and health as understood in a wide sense. The papers presented in this volume are organized along the following broad topics: digital society and e-health.



Digital Society


Describing a Design Thinking Methodology to Develop Sustainable Physical Activity and Nutrition Interventions in Low Resourced Settings

The objective of the study is to describe how design thinking as a participatory process can be applied in determining how sustainable physical activity and nutrition interventions should be implemented in a low resourced community in South Africa. Physical inactivity is the 4th leading cause of mortality world-wide. Associated with inactivity, a high prevalence of obesity is reported. Evidence based research indicate that sustainable physical activity and nutrition interventions will reduce the burden of physical inactivity and obesity. Poverty, and its inherent lack of food security, further impacts the health of people living marginalized, increasingly urban lifestyles. The intent of the project is to change attitudes and behavior towards physical activity participation and nutrition choices. Design Thinking is typically implemented using a five-step process where the community is engaged with presenting the problem they experience, defining the problem, presenting solutions to the problem and finally developing a prototype in solving the problem they experience. The principle of the Design Thinking process is that the low resourced community holds part of the answer to the problem and has a desire to change their health. The proposed solutions, coming directly from the participants, are therefore considered viable. Once a desired prototype is developed and tested in the community, feasibility can be determined. The presence of these three factors, is expected to result in an innovation.
Chrisna Botha-Ravyse, Susan Crichton, Sarah J. Moss, Susanna M. Hanekom

Behavioral Interventions from Trait Insights

Individuals have the stated and unstated beliefs and intentions. The theory of planned behavior is expressed by the mathematical function where beliefs have empirically derived coefficients. However, personality traits can help account for differences in beliefs. In this paper, we will find out how we can amplify behavioral interventions from text-based trait insights. Therefore, we research techniques (e.g., sentence and word embedding) behind text-based traits. Furthermore, we exemplify text-based traits by 52 personality characteristics (35 dimensions and facets of Big Five, 12 needs and five values) and 42 consumption preferences via API of the IBM Watson™ Personality Insights service. Finally, we discuss the possibilities of behavioral interventions based on the personality characteristics and consumption preferences (i.e., text-based differences and similarities between the individuals).
Ulla Gain, Mikko Koponen, Virpi Hotti

The Human Resources Debt in Software Business

Towards a Research Roadmap
This conceptual-analytical paper presents and defines the concept of ‘human resource debt’ (i.e., HR debt). The presented concept draws from the software engineering field’s recent work in the technical debt management, yet it departures from the existing conceptualizations by focusing on skills and competences of individual employees as well as emphasizing the need to manage the skill pool with conscious decisions. As with its paragons, this novel concept aims to help to understand, control and utilize better the phenomenon by using a simple metaphor. In addition, the metaphor, borrowed from the economics, also emphasizes the potential price that has to be paid back later. In the discussion, the ever-changing software industry is used as an example industrial domain; however, the concept should be generalizable to other fields. Finally, the paper lays foundations for future work and proposes initial actions needed for forming a proper research agenda.
Sonja M. Hyrynsalmi, Minna M. Rantanen, Johannes Holvitie, Sami Hyrynsalmi, Erkki Sutinen

The War of Talents in Software Business

Polarisation of the Software Labour Force?
The modern business world is undergoing digitalisation in fast pace and, therefore, more jobs are born in the field of information and communication technology (ICT). Only in Finland, one of the leading countries in digitalisation, there is an estimated need for 7,000–15,000 software professionals while the demand for skilled labour is growing every year. The skill set required from professionals is also changing and different skills are needed in the future. ICT companies are facing problems of finding highly skilled professionals to ensure their rapid growth and new innovations. At the same time, when companies are fighting for the talents, there are ICT professionals unemployed. Offered and requested skills are not meeting in the ICT industry, which can lead to bigger problems in the eyes of workers and companies. This study focuses on the skill polarisation between software professionals at the war of talents by using data collected with a survey (n = 90) to software businesses. The results reveal some signs of ongoing skill polarisation in the field and its possible impacts are discussed.
Sonja M. Hyrynsalmi, Minna M. Rantanen, Sami Hyrynsalmi

Unworthy Guardians: Nappula Child Welfare Information System

In this paper we examine a Finnish child protective service software Nappula. We point out some of the problems with the system in relation to the information stored and used. It shares some of the problems which are prevalent in patient information systems without exactly being one. Some of these problems include, but are not limited to privacy problems and a lack of possibility of correcting data in certain situations, amongst other ethical issues. We point out that the system has issues which cannot be justified in accordance to what the values of child protective services, social services, and the society are.
Jouko Kiesiläinen, Minna M. Rantanen, Olli I. Heimo, Kai K. Kimppa

Social in Virtual – Viewpoints into the Development of Online Rehabilitation

The emphasis of this article is in examining the phenomena “social in virtual” and related key concepts (social rehabilitation, social support, interaction), in light of previous research. Key viewpoints include the special characteristics of technology-mediated interaction, the building of trust in interaction, the activities of an instructor and peer support. Virtualization and digitalization are world-changing megatrends. Rehabilitation, along with many healthcare services, is at least partially transitioning to a virtual environment. This brings rehabilitation and adaption training into the person’s home, which saves time and expense. Online adaptation training course experiences obtained from the Verkkosova project of the Finnish Parkinson Association are discussed briefly to introduce a real-life element to the phenomena. It can be concluded that face-to-face interaction is not a mandatory requirement in peer support. When planning and guiding online rehabilitation group, it is important to recognize the special characteristics of technology-mediated interaction and acknowledge the group processes as well as the informational, emotional and behavioural aspects affecting the creation of trust. The use of two instructors is recommended. However, communications technology and networks, along with IT skills of citizens should improve, in order to take full advantage of new prospects which online rehabilitation creates.
Sirppa Kinos, Laura Jussila

What Happens in Lessons? Risks and Incidents at Schools

According to a safety paradigm that calls for human factors behind the incidents and emphasizes resilience it can be understood that near-miss cases and accidents are in relation to several physical, social, psychological and pedagogical factors. To be able to develop safety culture at schools there is need to record, monitor and analyze incidents, near-misses, accidents and injuries in learning environments. However there are no systematic procedures in regular use that would allow schools as organizations to learn from incidents and implement alterations in practice to develop their safety culture. It is more a question what schools know about their safety and how they understand their safety culture to develop it proactively. In the paper analysis for 168 incidents from three comprehensive schools in Finland, was executed. On the basis of theory driven analysis the incidents were categorized to physical, social, psychological and pedagogical dimensions. Incidents in pedagogical learning environments are introduced more detailed in this paper. This paper gives prior knowledge of incidents in pedagogical learning environments: what happens, where and to whom.
Based on results there is an obvious need to develop methods of reporting incidents in schools as well as the motivation to report, to be able to develop the safety culture. In the future students’ role in recognizing incidents should be emphazised.
Eila Lindfors

Voices of Authorities and Shareholders Affect Voices of Processes

There are several voices (e.g., needs or requirements) concern the business. In this paper, the voices of authorities, shareholders and processes are defined to be controlled voices the effects of which can be considered within functional domains and enterprise entities. The Voice of the Authority (VoA) is in common controls, the Voice of the Shareholder (VoS) is in corporate controls and the Voice of the Process (VoP) is in process controls. Three constructions are proposed to strength the meaning of the controlled voices. First, common, corporate, and process controls are mapped within two functional domains (i.e., control and operations) of the Industrial Internet Reference Architecture (IIRA) to illustrate the importance of the voices. Second, 11 related entities (i.e., control, course of action, data entity, driver, event, function, goal, measure, process, and service) of the Togaf 9.2 content metamodel are mapped within control and operations domains. Third, the definitions of the entities are mapped within the voices of authorities, shareholders and processes. The Voice of the Authority and the Voice of the Shareholder affect processes via contract, control, and course of action entities. We discuss the meaning of the constructions in the context the healthcare.
Petteri Mussalo, Virpi Hotti, Hanna Mussalo

Mapping Business Transformation in Digital Landscape: A Prescriptive Maturity Model for Small Enterprises

Developing versatile modern ICT is an insurmountable challenge to many small and medium enterprises (SMEs). Resources, such as skills, money, time [1] and knowledge [2], are scarce [3]. This makes the selection and decision of any development project a key business issue. The most important questions for SMEs are (i) where to start and (ii) what to change. While there are hundreds of descriptive maturity models for organizational development [4, 5], these offer little support for organizational decision-making. We developed a prescriptive maturity model that maps a subjective snapshot of the maturity of a business, and identifies the most promising objects for next development steps. This Business Transformation Map has three interrelated maturity dimensions: business, technology, and social, that span across past, present and future. We used the model in several test cases, and our results show that the model makes business dimensions visible in a way that makes sense to SMEs. The interviewed SME companies state that depicting company maturity levels in this manner brings clarity to overall business growth options, and it helps transforming this understanding into concrete development steps.
Juhani Naskali, Jesse Kaukola, Johannes Matintupa, Hanna Ahtosalo, Mikko Jaakola, Antti Tuomisto

The Impact of Multidimensionality of Literacy on the Use of Digital Technology: Digital Immigrants and Digital Natives

Considering the speed at which new digital technologies are evolving, it is the aim of this paper to assess the impact of multidimensionality of literacy on intention to use digital technologies. An empirical research, using antecedent factors of adoption, is executed to investigate the relationships between factors influencing digital immigrants and digital natives’ intentions to use digital technology. By using a survey data of 118 and 127 digital immigrants and digital natives, Structural Equation Modelling (SEM) and Fuzzy-set Qualitative Comparative Analysis (fsQCA) are applied. The results of the analyses while show some similarities, reveal that these two groups are different in many aspects and their intentions to use technology are influenced by different factors. Moreover, fsQCA results, while supporting the SEM findings, show that there are multiple configurations of conditions leading to the outcome of interest.
Shahrokh Nikou, Malin Brännback, Gunilla Widén

Data Federation in the Era of Digital, Consumer-Centric Cares and Empowered Citizens

Breast cancers, similar to any other types of cancers or diseases, need treatments and other actions that generate medical and patient data. As the owner of the data about him-/herself, a patient has the right to get and inspect all basic, treatment and other data recorded about her/him. However, this data is typically in the form of inconsistent data entries, such as medical reports, x-ray and other images, blood test admission notes and results, medication history and diagnoses, and is provided to the patient “as is”. The structure, format and meanings of these data entries differ enormously. Thus, when a patient is given access to all data stored about her/him, (s)he usually lacks capabilities and tools to handle the data, and to use the data for her/his benefit. Still, patients are expected to be able to act on the basis of the data available to them, for example, to make appointments or to bring laboratory test results with them. In a previous study, we made the data of similarly different medical and patient ISs interoperable to the cancer specialists of breast cancer cases by using shared attributes as the linkage between data storages. In this conceptual article, we apply our federative approach to contemplate from the patient’s point of view, how data available to a patient could be made interoperable. We explain the theoretical background of the federative approach and related tools within the mentioned breast cancer case and in general. We then describe how the federative approach could be used in the context of digitalized citizen/patient services, empowered citizens and patient/citizen-centric care. With this article we contribute to research by developing the federative approach further and by explaining how (medical and patient) data can be made interoperable to patients/citizens. Our results suggest means to support citizens and digitalized healthcare service intermediaries as well as patient empowerment.
Tiina Nokkala, Tomi Dahlberg

Chasing Professional Phronesis in Safety and Well-Being: Teacher Education Curriculum as a Case

Enhancing the safety culture in school context sets new challenges to prospective teachers, their need for safety skills and for the teacher education. This paper discusses firstly, how skill and knowledge oriented safety and well-being contents in the teacher education curriculum could be distinguished. Further on, it is explored, how these two repertoires are presented in the curriculum text of one teacher education unit and how they reflect the Aristotelian ideal of achieving phronesis, practical wisdom. The data pointed out that safety was included in the curriculum and could therefore be seen as a value in teacher education, hence the focus was very strongly in the interactive skills and the group dynamics.
Brita Somerkoski

Digital Disability Divide in Finland

The modern societies have become more and more digitalized during recent years. Owning a digital device and accessing internet at home are part of everyday life, while many essential services, such as banking, are offered through internet. However, advances in digital technologies have not affected everybody similarly and there can still be groups of people who do not use internet on daily bases. Hence, we concentrates on studying the digital divide from specific viewpoint – the one of people with disabilities. Prior studies indicate that their possibilities to access and use internet are lower than for people without disabilities. This gap is referred as digital disability divide.
This study employs a quantitative approach to analyse digital disability divide in technologically advanced society. Our data is retrieved from a nationwide survey, which was conducted in Finland during years 2012–2015 by National Institute for Health and Welfare. The data was analysed regarding two main aspects: access to internet and use of internet. The analyses focused on people with disabilities and their family members. The results indicate that both access rate and usage of internet are lower among them than the rest of the population.
Anne-Marie Tuikka, Hannu Vesala, Antti Teittinen

Active Digiage? Desirable Futures for Ageing People

The changing age structure of population, with its growing number of ageing people, is a worldwide phenomenon among industrialized countries, and Finland is not an exception. This has implications for swiftly rising healthcare and social welfare costs, but also for new type of demand in related services, and thus creates business opportunities for Finnish know-how. Through qualitative semi-structured interviews this research builds understanding on the desires, needs and challenges that the ageing people have in their every-day life and especially in their use of digital technology and different kinds of digital services. This will further provide insight for the service creation for the needs of elderly people in Finland. The results presented in this paper are part of a larger research project, of which this paper represents the pilot study phase.
Marina Weck, Tarja Meristö, Nina Helander



Reliability of Health Information in the Media as Defined by Finnish Physicians

Mass media is an important forum for the interaction between science and the general public, and media participation has been recognized by the Finnish Medical Association as a duty of physicians. Physicians are an important source of health information for journalists and their perceptions of reliability may influence which medias they are willing to collaborate with. In this study, Finnish physicians were asked to evaluate and define the characteristics of reliability for health information in the media. The survey was filled out by 266 physicians, who estimated that the most reliable mass media sources of health information are scientific publications, medical associations, universities, The Finnish National Institute for Health and Welfare, and other non-profit research centres. The lowest reliability scores were given to online discussion forums, entities representing complementary, and alternative medicine and individual patients. Female physicians and older physicians gave most health information sources higher scores than men or younger respondents. These results highlight a potential conflict between the need to translate scientific language to a form understandable to the general public, and a demand placed by physicians on journalism to be as scientifically accurate and precise as possible. In order to best convey their message to the general public, the professional skills of journalists should be utilised by physicians to overcome this issue.
Ulla Ahlmén-Laiho, Sakari Suominen, Ulla Järvi, Risto Tuominen

Preferred Biosignals to Predict Migraine Attack

Migraine is classified to two classes, with aura and without aura, and migraine seizures last usually several hours. The goal of this study was to identify the most important symptoms of migraine to be monitored by wearable sensors to predict the migraine attack. The purpose of wearable sensors is to guide patients to take the migraine medication in time, and to support their own care. Self-measurement is a growing trend worldwide and sensor technology has been used for several years in activity wristbands, smartphones, rings, mobile phones, and mobile applications. The study was conducted as an operational study, randomised for those who had been diagnosed with migraine by a doctor. The study was divided into two parts, at first a questionnaire was sent to 17 people in social media. On the basis of the questionnaire, a qualitative interview was conducted for 12 persons with migraine. Responses to the questionnaire were compared to the results of the interview, and the answers to the research questions were sought. Migraine patients considered important that device reports quality of sleep, pulse, blood pressure, stress levels, sleep apnea, and energy consumption.
Hanna-Leena Huttunen, Raija Halonen

Interpreting Behaviour and Emotions for People with Deafblindness

This case study investigates interpreting emotions and behaviour for the deafblind. Here we give examples on the different methods used for enhancing emotions based on sign language, speech-to-text and other types of interpreting. The group in question consists of individuals with a hearing impairment (the deaf and hard-of-hearing groups), individuals with a dual-sensory impairment and individuals with a deafblindness. The study investigates the interpreting process as a means to increase a person’s social inclusion and well-being. The examples given in the article consist of different types of interprets received by the individuals within a film watching event. A further note is made on venue layout and individual needs with regards to interpreting needs and preferences.
Riitta Lahtinen, Stina Ojala

Need for eHealth Ethics

The healthcare is an area where ethics has justifiably gained a central position, and this fact has acted as a safeguard for people and society. However, the increasing use of information technology has brought forth new kind of situations that the traditional medical ethics approach has not faced before. There is need for a new approach of eHealth ethics that covers the needs for modern healthcare to ensure that the ethicality will be ensured today and future likewise. We argue that a fruitful approach for this is the synthesis of traditional medical ethics and IS-ethics. In this article we look the four principles of medical ethics together with IS-ethics approaches by Moor and Brey to see what kind of values should be protected and what are the needs for justified use of information technology in healthcare.
Minna M. Rantanen, Juhani Naskali, Jani Koskinen

Combating Health Inequalities Using IT: The Case of Games for Controlling Diabetes and Obesity in Chicago’s South Side

Diabetes and obesity are serious chronic diseases that are increasing at alarming escalating rates globally; however lower socio-economic groups of populations are over represented and current attempts to stem such increases have not proved to be successful. This paper proffers the potential of serious games that invoke social influence dynamics and are developed around culturally and socially relevant contexts as a way to address this disturbing and growing problem. This paper begins with a brief review of how serious games can be used as an effective learning and communication medium as well as outlining the benefits of social influence before applying the constructs to an Urban Health (Chicago) context. The paper demonstrates how, in this context, games can be used as a pedagogical tool to foster superior learning and understanding. Playing games or using other simulation-oriented applications can offer a visual portrayal of situations, from which this population can garner understanding and applicability to clinical constructs and knowledge.
N. Wickramasinghe


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