Weitere Kapitel dieses Buchs durch Wischen aufrufen
West Nile Virus (WNV) is a vector-borne pathogen of global importance. Many factors impact the transmission, epidemiology and geographic distribution of WNV. However, climate and especially warm conditions were found to be crucially important causes that instigated the outbreaks. New areas of the WNV transmission with the occurrence of human cases have been identified during summer 2010. According to the European Center for Disease Control (ECDC), infections by WNV have occurred in Greece, Romania, Hungary, Israel, Russia, and Italy. The precise reasons for the existence of the current outbreak of WNV infection in humans in Eurasia remain unclear. However, climatic factors are believed to have increased the abundance of mosquitoes and shortened the transmission cycle in the vectors, leading to increased human cases.
Mean monthly temperature and precipitation data show the extreme behavior of the air temperature as well as the rainfall patterns during summer 2010 in selected areas where WNV circulation occurred – Macedonia (Greece), Western Turkey, Southeastern Romania and Southwestern Russia. The results show that the warming tendency during the hot season over recent years continued in summer 2010. Moreover, the air temperature was extremely higher than normal in the selected study sites. This might have an impact on the risk for WNV outbreaks.
As for the precipitation, the picture is more complex. The increase in WNV cases could be related to the unusual increase in the rainfall amounts during that summer (Macedonia and SE Romania). Alternatively, WNV may increases after an extreme dry period (SW Russia), since standing water pools become richer in organic materials.
During the summer of 2010, Eurasia had to deal with exceptional heat-waves while a record of high numbers of extreme warm nights had been documented in parts of south-eastern Europe.
In summary, although the WNV transmission is multi-factorial, it seems that the increase in the summer temperature should be considered when evaluating the risk of WNV transmission.
Bitte loggen Sie sich ein, um Zugang zu diesem Inhalt zu erhalten
Sie möchten Zugang zu diesem Inhalt erhalten? Dann informieren Sie sich jetzt über unsere Produkte:
CDC, Division of vector-born infectious diseases (2006) West Nile virus: what you need to know. Available: http://www.cdc.gov/ncidod/dvbid/westnile/wnv_factsheet.htm. Accessed 9 Jan 2007
CDC, Division of vector-born infectious diseases (2009) West Nile virus – vertebrate ecology: transmission cycle. Available: http://www.cdc.gov/ncidod/dvbid/westnile/birds&mammals.htm. Accessed 10 July 2008
Chase JM, Knight TM (2003) Drought-induced mosquito outbreaks in wetlands. Ecol Lett 6:1017–1024 CrossRef
Cornel AJP, Jupp G, Blackburn NK (1993) Environmental temperature on the vector competence of Culex univittatus (Diptera: Culicidae) for West Nile virus. J Med Entomol 30:449–456
Dohm DJ, Turell MJ (2001) Effect of incubation at overwintering temperatures on the replication of WNV in New York Culex pipiens (Diptera: Culicidae). J Med Entomol 38:462–464 CrossRef
Dohm DJ, O’Guinn ML, Turell MJ (2002) Effect of environmental temperature on the ability of Culex pipiens (Diptera: Culicidae) to transmit WNV. J Med Entomol 39:221–225 CrossRef
ECDC (2010) West Nile virus transmission in Europe. Available: http://ecdc.europa.eu/en/activities/sciadvice/Lists/ECDC%20Reviews/ECDC_DispForm.aspx?List=512ff74f%2D77d4%2D4ad8%2Db6d6%2Dbf0f23083f30&ID=940&RootFolder=%2Fen%2Factivities%2Fsciadvice%2FLists%2FECDC%20Reviews. Accessed 4 Dec 2010
ECDC (2010) Meeting report: consultation on mosquito borne disease transmission risk in Europe. Paris, 26 Nov 2010
ECDC (2010) ECDC threat assessment, outbreak of West Nile virus infection in Greece, July–August 2010. Available: http://ecdc.europa.eu/en/healthtopics/Documents/1009_Threat%20assessment_West_Nile_Virus.pdf
Epstein PR (2001) WNV and the climate. J Urban Health 78:367–371 CrossRef
Epstein PR, Defilippo C (2001) WNV and drought. Glob Change Hum Health 2:105–107 CrossRef
Epstein PR (2005) Climate change and human health. New Engl J Med 353(14):1433–1436 CrossRef
Hubalek Z, Halouzka J (1999) WNF – a reemerging mosquito-borne viral disease in Europe. Emerg Infect Dis 5:643–650 CrossRef
IPCC (2007) Climate change: impacts, adaptation and vulnerability working group II contribution to the intergovernmental panel on climate change, fourth assessment report – summary for policymakers
Gibbs SEJ, Wimberly MC, Madden M, Masour J, Yabsley MJ, Stallknecht DE (2006) Factors affecting the geographic distribution of WNV in Georgia, USA: 2002–2004. Vector Borne Zoonotic Dis 6:73–82 CrossRef
Granwehr BP, Lillibridge K, Higgs S, Mason P, Aronson J, Campbell G, Barrett A (2004) WNV: where are we now? Lancet 4:547–556 CrossRef
Green MS, Weinberger M, Ben-Ezer J, Bin H, Mendelson E, Gandacu D, Kaufman Z, Dichtiar R, Sobel A, Cohen D, Chowers MY (2005) Long-term death rates, West Nile virus epidemic, Israel, 2000. Emerg Infect Dis 11:1754–1757
Marsh MM, Gross JM Jr (2001) Environmental geography – science, land use and earth systems. Wiley, New York, pp 202–203
Mclean R, Ubico SR, Docherty DE, Hansen WR, Sileo L, McNamara TS (2001) West Nile virus transmission and ecology in birds. Ann N Y Acad Sci 951:54–57 CrossRef
McMichael AJ (2003) Global climate change and health: an old story writ large. In: McMichael AJ, Campbell-Lendrum DH, Corvalán CF et al (eds) Climate change and human health – risks and responses. WHO, Geneva, pp 1–17
Nash D, Mostashari F, Fine A, Miller J, O’Leary D, Murray K et al (2001) The outbreak of WNV infection in the New York city area in 1999. New Engl J Med 344:807–814 CrossRef
NIEHS (2010) A human health perspective on climate change a report outlining the research needs on the human health effects of climate change April 22, 2010. Environmental Health Perspectives and the National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, Research Triangle Park
Papa A, Perperidou P, Tzouli A, Castiletti C (2010) West Nile virus neutralising antibodies in humans in Greece. Vector Borne Zoonotic Dis 10(7):655–658 CrossRef
Paz S (2006) The West Nile virus outbreak in Israel (2000) from a new perspective: the regional impact of climate change. Int J Environ Heal Res 16(1):1–13 CrossRef
Paz S, Albersheim I (2008) Influence of warming tendency on Culex pipiens population abundance and on the probability of West Nile fever outbreaks (Israeli case: 2001–2005). Ecohealth 5(1):40–48 CrossRef
Paz S (2010) Climatic trends in Europe and in the Mediterranean region in relation to West Nile virus outbreaks. Presentation in the consultation on the mosquito borne disease transmission risk in Europe (ECDC and InVS), Paris, Nov 2010
Paz S, Xoplaki E, Gershunov A (2010) Scientific report of the workshop: impacts of Mediterranean climate change on human health. The European Science Foundation (ESF) – MedClivar, Jan 2010, 10 pp
Pats JA, Githeko AK, McCarty JP, Hussain S, Confalonieri U, de Wet N (2003) Climate change and infection disease. In: McMichael AJ, Campbell-Lendrum DH, Corvalán CF et al (eds) Climate change and human health – risks and responses. WHO, Geneva, pp 103–132
Reisen WK, Fang Y, Martinez VM (2006) Effects of temperature on the transmission of West Nile virus by Culex tarsalis (Diptera: Culicidae). J Med Entomol 43:309–317 CrossRef
Rosenthal J (2010) Climate change and the geographic distribution of infectious diseases. Ecohealth 6(4):489–495. doi: 10.1007/s10393-010-0314-1, published online: 25 May, 2010CrossRef
Savage HM, Ceianu C, Nicolescu G, Karabatsos N, Lanciotti R, Vladimirescu A et al (1999) Entomologic and avian investigation of an epidemic of WNV fever in Romania in 1996, with serologic and molecular characterization of a virus isolate from mosquitoes. Am J Trop Med Hyg 61:600–611
Spigland I, Jasinka-Klinberg W, Hofshi E, Goldblum N (1958) Clinical and laboratory observations in an outbreak of West Nile fever in Israel in 1957. Harefua 54:275–281
Tibbetts J (2007) Driven to extremes health effects of climate change. Environ Health Perspect 115(4):A196–A203 CrossRef
Tsai TF, Popovici F, Cernescu C, Campbell GL, Nedelcu N (1998) West Nile encephalitis epidemic in southeastern Romania. Lancet 352:767–771 CrossRef
Turell MJ, O’Guinn ML, Dohm DJ, Jones JW (2001) Vector competence of North American mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) for WNV. J Med Entomol 38:130–134 CrossRef
Weinberger M, Pitlik SD, Gandacu D, Lang R, Nassar F, Ben-David D (2001) WNF outbreak, Israel, 2000: epidemiologic aspects. Emerg Infect Dis 7:686–691 CrossRef
WMO (2010) Press release no. 904: 2010 in the top three warmest years, 2001–2010 warmest 10-year period. Available: http://www.wmo.int/pages/mediacentre/press_releases/pr_904_en.html. Accessed 11 Apr 2011
- West Nile Virus Eruptions in Summer 2010 – What Is the Possible Linkage with Climate Change?
- Springer Netherlands
- Chapter 21
Systemische Notwendigkeit zur Weiterentwicklung von Hybridnetzen