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Über dieses Buch

This book develops valuable new approaches to digital out-of-home media and digital signage in urban environments. It offers solutions for communicating interactive features of digital signage to passers-by. Digital out-of-home media and digital signage screens are becoming increasingly interactive thanks to touch input technology and gesture recognition. To optimize their conversion rate, interactive public displays must 1) attract attention, 2) communicate to passers-by that they are interactive, 3) explain the interaction, and 4) provide a motivation for passers-by to interact.

This book highlights solutions to problems 2 and 3 above. The focus is on whole-body interaction, where the positions and orientations of users and their individual body parts are captured by specialized sensors (e.g., depth cameras). The book presents revealing findings from a field study on communicating interactivity, a laboratory on analysing visual attention, a field study on mid-air gestures, and a field study on using mid-air gestures to select items on interactive public displays.

Inhaltsverzeichnis

Frontmatter

Introduction and Motivation

Frontmatter

Chapter 1. Introduction

Abstract
Urban environments have always been an attractive setting for information display and advertisement.
Robert Walter

Chapter 2. Methodology

Abstract
I investigated public display interaction through interactive prototypes that are dedicated to one specific problem or research question.
Robert Walter

Background

Frontmatter

Chapter 3. State of the Art

Abstract
This chapter provides an overview of related work, as well an outline of the current state of the art.
Robert Walter

Chapter 4. Technology

Abstract
This chapter provides a brief overview on technology applied in this dissertation.
Robert Walter

Studies

Frontmatter

Chapter 5. A Field Study on Communicating Interactivty

Abstract
In this chapter we present our findings from a lab and a field study investigating how passers-by notice the interactivity of public displays. We designed an interactive installation that uses visual feedback to the incidental movements of passers-by to communicate its interactivity. The lab study reveals: (1) Mirrored user silhouettes and images are more effective than avatar-like representations. (2) It takes time to notice the interactivity (approximately 1.2 s). In the field study, three displays were installed during three weeks in shop windows, and data from 502 interaction sessions were collected. Our observations show: (1) Significantly more passers-by interact when immediately showing the mirrored user image (+90%) or silhouette (+47%) compared to a traditional attract sequence with call-to-action. (2) Passers-by often notice interactivity late and have to walk back to interact (the landing effect). (3) If somebody is already interacting, others begin interaction behind the ones already interacting, forming multiple rows (the honeypot effect).
Robert Walter

Chapter 6. Visual Attention Analysis

Abstract
While whole body interaction can enrich user experience on public displays, it remains unclear how common visualizations of user representations impact users’ ability to perceive content on the display. In the work covered in this chapter, we use a head-mounted eye tracker to record visual behavior of 25 users interacting with a public display game that uses a silhouette user representation, mirroring the users’ movements. Results from visual attention analysis as well as post-hoc recall and recognition tasks on display contents reveal that visual attention is mostly on the user’s silhouette while peripheral screen elements remain largely unattended. In our experiment, content attached to the user representation attracted significantly more attention than other screen contents, while content placed at the top and bottom of the screen attracted significantly less. Screen contents attached to the user representation were also significantly better remembered than those at the top and bottom of the screen. Our findings provide fundamental insights into visual attention on interactive displays, that help designers to improve the placement of content and messages on the screen.
Robert Walter

Chapter 7. A Field Study on Visualizing Gesture Hints

Abstract
We investigate how to reveal an initial mid-air gesture on interactive public displays. This initial gesture can serve as gesture registration for advanced operations. We propose three strategies to reveal the initial gesture: spatial division, temporal division, and integration. Spatial division permanently shows the gesture on a dedicated screen area. Temporal division interrupts the application to reveal the gesture. Integration embeds gesture hints directly in the application. We also propose a novel initial gesture called teapot to illustrate our strategies. Our main findings from a laboratory and field study are: a large percentage of all users perform the gesture, especially with spatial division (56%). Users intuitively discover a gesture vocabulary by exploring variations of the teapot gesture by themselves, as well as by imitating and extending other users’ variations.
Robert Walter

Chapter 8. A Field Study on Mid-Air Item Selection

Abstract
Most of today’s public displays only show predefined contents that passers-by are not able to influence. We argue that interactive public displays would benefit from immediately usable mid-air techniques for choosing options, expressing opinions or more generally selecting one among several items. We propose a design space for hand-gesture based mid-air selection techniques on interactive public displays, along with four specific techniques that we evaluated at three different locations in the field. Our findings include: (1) if no hint is provided, people successfully use point+dwell for selecting items, (2) the user representation could be switched from silhouette to cursor after registration without causing confusion, (3) people tend to explore items before confirming one, (4) in a public context, people frequently interact inadvertently (without looking at the screen). We conclude by providing recommendations for designers of interactive public displays to support immediate usability for mid-air selection.
Robert Walter

Conclusion

Frontmatter

Chapter 9. Conclusion

Abstract
The main objective of my dissertation work was to facilitate whole body interaction with public displays.
Robert Walter

Chapter 10. Future Work

Abstract
In this dissertation, I made a first step towards interactive public displays that are based on whole body interaction and provide rich and multipurpose applications.
Robert Walter

Backmatter

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