Weitere Kapitel dieses Buchs durch Wischen aufrufen
Existing literature tends to see informality in Soviet times as a rational response to deficient socialist institutions. In contrast, informality in post-socialist times is explained by the stickiness of culturally embedded norms. This chapter examines the reasons and implications for these inconsistent interpretations of Soviet and post-Soviet informality using the example of Georgia. It suggests that two influential schools of thought on post-Soviet informality, new institutionalist economics and economic sociology, both fail to overcome this theoretical inconsistency. The chapter then elaborates how a Polanyian substantivist approach can overcome identified theoretical pitfalls and establish continuity in interpreting socialist and post-socialist informality. The importance of recalling this seemingly forgotten substantivist approach is illustrated using the changing institutional context and reproduction of informality in the Georgian case.
Bitte loggen Sie sich ein, um Zugang zu diesem Inhalt zu erhalten
Sie möchten Zugang zu diesem Inhalt erhalten? Dann informieren Sie sich jetzt über unsere Produkte:
Abdih, M. Y., & Medina, L. (2013). Measuring the informal economy in the caucasus and central Asia (IMF Working paper no. 13/137). International Monetary Fund.
Aliyev, H. (2014). The effects of the saakashvili era reforms on informal practices in the republic of Georgia. Studies of Transition States and Societies, 6.
Bagnardi, F. (2015). The changing pattern of social dialogue in Europe and the influence of ILO and EU: Georgian tripartism. CSSR 2.
Baumann, E. (2010). Post-soviet Georgia: The rocky path towards modern social protection. Presented at the social policy and the global crisis, the network for European social policy analysis ESPANET, Budapest, 1–21.
Becker, K. F. (2004). The informal economy (fact finding study no. SIDA3630en). Sida department for infrastructure and economic co-operation.
Beckert, J. (2007). The great transformation of embeddedness – Karl Polanyi and the new economic sociology (MPIfG Discussion paper no. 1/07). Max Planck institute for the study of societies.
Bohannan, P., & Dalton, G. (Eds.). (1965). Markets in Africa, Northwestern University (Evanston, Ill.) African studies. Garden City: Doubleday & Co.
Bohle, D., & Greskovits, B. (2012). Capitalist diversity on Europe’s periphery, Cornell studies in political economy. Ithaca: Cornell University Press.
Burawoy, M. (1999). The great involution: Russia’s response to the market. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
Dalton, G. (1968). Introduction, in: Primitive, archaic, and modern economies: Essays of KarlPolanyi. Garden City: Doubleday, p. ix–xlvi.
De Soto, H. (1989). The other path: The invisible revolution in the third world (1st ed.). New York: Harper & Row.
De Soto, H. (2000). The mystery of capital: Why capitalism triumphs in the West and fails everywhere else. New York: Basic Books.
Engvall, J. (2012). Against the grain: How Georgia fought corruption and what it means, silk road paper. Central Asia-Caucasus Institute and Silk Road studies program.
Frederiksen, M. D. (2013). Good hearts or big bellies: Dzmak’atsoba and images of masculinity in the republic of Georgia. In V. Amit & N. Dyck (Eds.), Young men in uncertain times (pp. 165–187). New York/Oxford: Berghahn Books.
Graeber, D. (2011). Debt: the first 5,000 years. Brooklyn: Melville House.
Granovetter, M. (1985). Economic action and social structure: The problem of embeddedness. American Journal of Sociology, 91, 481–510. CrossRef
Granovetter, M., & Swedberg, R. (Eds.). (1992). The sociology of economic life. Boulder: Westview Press.
Gudeman, S. (2009). Necessity or contingency: Mutuality and market. In C. M. Hann & K. Hart (Eds.), Market and society: The great transformation today (pp. 17–37). Cambridge/New York: Cambridge University Press. CrossRef
Gugushvili, D. (2014). Do the benefits of growth trickle-down to Georgia’s poor? A case for a strong welfare system (PhD in Social Policy). Kent, United Kingdom, University of Kent.
Guha-Khasnobis, B., Kanbur, R., & Ostrom, E. (2006). Beyond formality and informality. In B. Guha-Khasnobis, R. Kanbur, & E. Ostrom (Eds.), Linking the formal and informal economy (pp. 1–29). Oxford: Oxford University Press. CrossRef
Haldar, A., & Stiglitz, J. E. (2013). Analyzing legal formality and informality: Lessons from land titling and microfinance programs1. In D. Kennedy & J. E. Stiglitz (Eds.), Law and economics with Chinese characteristics (pp. 112–148). Oxford: Oxford University Press. CrossRef
Hann, C. M., & Hart, K. (Eds.). (2009). Market and society: The great transformation today. Cambridge/New York: Cambridge University Press.
Helmke, G., & Levitsky, S. (2004). Informal institutions and comparative politics: A research agenda. Perspectives on politics null (pp. 725–740). doi: 10.1017/S1537592704040472.
Herskovits, M. J. (1952). Economic anthropology: A study in comparative economics. New York: Alfred A. Knopf.
Huntington, S. P. (1968). Political order in changing societies. New Haven: Yale University Press.
Johnson, S., Kaufman, D., & Shleifer, A. (1997). The unofficial economy in transition. Brookings Papers on Economic Activity, 28, 159–240. CrossRef
Johnson, S., Kaufmann, D., & Zoido-Lobaton, P. (1998). Regulatory discretion and the unofficial economy. American Economic Review, 88, 387–392.
Karjanen, D. (2014). When is an illicit taxi driver more than a taxi driver? Case studies from transit and trucking in post-socialist Slovakia. In J. Morris & A. Polese (Eds.), The informal post-socialist economy: Embedded practices and livelihoods (Routledge Contemporary Russia and Eastern Europe Series) (pp. 102–118). New York: Routledge.
Khutsishvili, K. (2012). Bazaar culture in Georgia: Case of Tbilisi. In M. Krebs & M. Pilz (Eds.), Die Postsowjetische Stadt: Urbane Aushandlungsprozesse Im Südkaukasus (pp. 41–52). Berlin: Panama Verlag.
Kornai, J. (1992). The socialist system: The political economy of communism. Oxford: Clarendon Press. CrossRef
Ledeneva, A. (1998). Russia’s economy of favours: Blat, networking, and informal exchanges, Cambridge Russian, soviet and post-soviet studies. New York: Cambridge University Press.
Ledeneva, A. (2009). From Russia with “blat”: Can informal networks help modernize Russia? Social Research, 76, 257–288.
Loayza, N. (1999). The economics of the informal sector: A simple model and some empirical evidence from Latin America (Policy research working papers), The World Bank.
Machado, N. M. C. (2011). Karl Polanyi and the new economic sociology: Notes on the concept of (dis)embeddedness. RCCS Annual Review. A selection from the Portuguese journal Revista Crítica de Ciências Sociais.
Mars, G., & Altman, Y. (1983). The cultural bases of soviet Georgia’s second economy. Soviet Studies, 35, 546–560. CrossRef
Morris, J., & Polese, A. (Eds.). (2014a). The informal post-socialist economy: Embedded practices and livelihoods (Routledge contemporary Russia and Eastern Europe series). New York: Routledge.
Morris, J., & Polese, A. (2014b). Informal health and education sector payments in Russian and Ukrainian cities: Structuring welfare from below. European Urban and Regional Studies. doi: 10.1177/0969776414522081.
Morris, J., & Polese, A. (Eds.). (2015). Informal economies in post-socialist spaces: Practices, institutions and networks. New York: Palgrave Macmillan.
Muskhelishvili, M. (2011). Social dialogue in Georgia. Friedrich-Ebert-Stiftung. Tbilisi.
Nasritdinov, E., Rayapova, R., Kholmatova, N., Damirbek kyzy, E., & Igoshina, N. (2010). Informal economy and social vulnerability in Kyrgyzstan and Tajikistan. Social Research Center at American University of Central Asia and HelpAge International, Bishkek.
North, D. C. (1981). Structure and change in economic history (1st ed.). New York: Norton.
North, D. C. (1995). Institutions, institutional change, and economic performance, The Political economy of institutions and decisions. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Piculescu, V., & Hibbs, J. (2005). Institutions, corruption and tax evasion in the unofficial economy (Report).
Polanyi, K. (1957). The great transformation, Beacon paperbacks. Boston: Beacon Press.
Polanyi, K. (1968). Primitive, archaic, and modern economies: Essays of KarlPolanyi. Garden City: Doubleday.
Polese, A. (2014). Drinking with Vova: An individual entrepreneur between illegality and informality. In J. Morris & A. Polese (Eds.), The informal post-socialist economy: Embedded practices and livelihoods (Routledge Contemporary Russia and Eastern Europe Series) (pp. 85–101). New York: Routledge.
Rekhviashvili, L. (2013). Development and the role of the state: Visions of post-revolutionary Georgian government. Caucasus Social Science Review, 1, 1–20.
Rodrik, D. (2004). Institutions and economic performance – getting institutions right (CESifo DICE report 2), p. 10–15.
Rose, R. (1998). Getting things done in an anti-modern society: Social capital networks in Russia (Working paper no. 6). Social Capital Initiative. Washington, DC: The World Bank.
Roti, M. (2014). Spheres of semi-legality: Discourse, media and informal economic practices in St. Petersburg, Russia (2000–Present). WSU Dissertations, Wayne State University Dissertations – Digital Commons.
Rudaz. (2012). Entrepreneurship in Georgia. The Caucasus Analytical Digest, 45, 2–6.
Schneider, F., Buehn, A., & Montenegro, C. E. (2010). Shadow economies all over the world: New estimates for 162 countries from 1999 to 2007 (Policy research working paper series no. 5356). The World Bank.
Sokoloff, K. L. (2000). History lessons: Institutions, factor endowments, and paths of development in the new world [WWW document].
Stenning, A., Smith, A., Rochovská, A., & Świątek, D. (2010). Domesticating neo-liberalism: Spaces of economic practice and social reproduction in post-socialist cities (1st ed.). Malden: Wiley-Blackwell. CrossRef
Streeck, W. (2011). Taking capitalism seriously: Towards an institutionalist approach to contemporary political economy [WWW document].
The World Bank. (2012). Fighting corruption in public services, directions in development – general. The World Bank.
Verdery, K. (1999). Fuzzy property: Rights, power, and identity in Transylvania’s decollectivization. In M. Burawoy & K. Verdery (Eds.), Uncertain transition: Ethnographies of change in the postsocialist world (pp. 53–82). Lanham: Rowman and Littlefield Publishers.
Williams, C. (2005). Unraveling the meanings of underground work. Review of Social Economy, 63, 1–18. CrossRef
- Why Read Informality in a Substantivist Manner? On the Embeddedness of the Soviet Second Economy
Neuer Inhalt/© Stellmach, Neuer Inhalt/© BBL, Neuer Inhalt/© Maturus, Pluta Logo/© Pluta, Neuer Inhalt/© hww, Neuer Inhalt/© julien tromeur | Fotolia