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2012 | Buch

Wind Power Plants

Fundamentals, Design, Construction and Operation

herausgegeben von: Robert Gasch, Jochen Twele

Verlag: Springer Berlin Heidelberg

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Wind power plants teaches the physical foundations of usage of Wind Power. It includes the areas like Construction of Wind Power Plants, Design, Development of Production Series, Control, and discusses the dynamic forces acting on the systems as well as the power conversion and its connection to the distribution system.

The book is written for graduate students, practitioners and inquisitive readers of any kind. It is based on lectures held at several universities. Its German version it already is the standard text book for courses on Wind Energy Engineering but serves also as reference for practising engineers.

Inhaltsverzeichnis

Frontmatter
1. Introduction to Wind Energy
Abstract
In the history of industrial development, the golden age of heavy machinery is long since past. We now live in the era of information technologies, where the rate of technological advance is extremely rapid. Though computer industry growth rates make the industries of the past seem obsolete, there is one modern machine industry whose growth rate over the past two decades have been comparable to that of the IT sector: wind power plants.
Robert Gasch, Jochen Twele
2. Historical development of windmills
Abstract
According to historians, the first machines utilising wind energy were operated in the orient. As early as 1,700 B.C., it is mentioned that Hammurabi used windmills for irrigation in the plains of Mesopotamia [1]. There is written evidence of the quite early utilisation of wind power in Afghanistan: Documents from 700 AD confirm that the profession of a millwright was one of high social esteem there [1]. Even today, ruins of these windmills that were running for centuries can be found in Iran and Afghanistan (cf. Fig. 2-1).
Robert Gasch, Jochen Twele
3. Wind turbines - design and components
Abstract
Wind turbines are energy converters. Independent of their application, type or detailed design all wind turbines have in common that they convert the kinetic energy of the flowing air mass into mechanical energy of rotation. As already discussed in chapter 2, two aerodynamic principles are suitable for this purpose, the lift and the drag, see Fig. 3-1. Drag driven rotors reach only, as mentioned, moderate power coefficients and are of no major importance to the technical applications, apart from the anemometers.
Robert Gasch, Jochen Twele
4. The wind
Abstract
The global atmosphere can be considered as a thermal engine in which the air masses are transported due to different thermal potentials. This thermal engine is powered by the sun. Water is the most important energy carrier in the atmosphere since it exists in the atmosphere in all the three states: vapour, droplets and ice. So, its latent heat when changing the state of aggregate from one phase to another is the dominant influence on the weather. The earth is a sphere, so getting from the equator closer to the poles the total irradiation by the sun declines more and more. Consequently, there is excess energy in the atmosphere in the equatorial zones and a deficit in the area of the poles. To equalize this imbalance, heat is transported by the air flow from the equator to the southern and northern hemisphere. This is done by the air mass exchange of the global wind systems.
Robert Gasch, Jochen Twele
5. Blade geometry according to Betz and Schmitz
Abstract
With the help of the Betz or the Schmitz (Glauert) theory [1, 2, 7], designing a wind turbine is relatively straightforward. These theories provide the blade chord and the blade twist relative to the radius, after the design tip speed ratio, the aerodynamic profile and the angle of attack or the lift coefficient have been specified.
Robert Gasch, Jochen Twele
6. Calculation of performance characteristics and partial load behaviour
Abstract
Calculating the forces and the relative velocities at the rotor blades for tip speed ratios other than the design tip speed ratio requires a substantial effort. In the following a method is described which is comparatively simple to understand: the blade element momentum method.
Robert Gasch, Jochen Twele
7. Scaling wind turbines and rules of similarity
Abstract
Wind turbines are used in a variety of applications with very different performance requirements. In terms of power supply, a small holiday cottage requires electrical energy of approx.1.5 to 2 kW, a medium-sized restaurant approx. 75 kW with a base load of approx. 15 to 25 kW, and a large farm approx. 50 to 100 kW. In the first case, given a rated wind speed of v = 9 m/s, a turbine with a rotor diameter of 3.5 m would be sufficient. For the base load of the restaurant, a rotor diameter of 7 to 8 m would be required, whereas for the 50 to 100 kW, a turbine rotor with a diameter of 15 to 20 m is needed. Large turbines with a diameter of 80 to 100 m, can supply power of up to 3 MW.
Robert Gasch, Jochen Twele
8. Structural dynamics
Abstract
Wind turbines are structures which have the tendency to vibrate easily due to the nacelle mass placed on top of the slender, elastic mast. They are heavily excited by the varying loads caused by wind, waves, earthquake, rotation of the rotor, switching and control procedures. The vibration behaviour has a big influence on the deformations, the inner stresses and the resulting ultimate limit state, fatigue and operating life of the wind turbine.
Robert Gasch, Jochen Twele
9. Guidelines and analysis procedures
Abstract
In general, certification is understood as the verification of entire companies, operating procedures or products for their compliance with certain criteria. Today, the certification of products and manufacturers is a standard in the sector of wind energy. The certification (of conformity) is a measure carried out by independent institutions (or persons) which document that a certain product, procedure or service is in accordance with a certain standard or some other specific normative document (EN 45011, EN 45012, EN 45013).
Robert Gasch, Jochen Twele
10. Wind pump systems
Abstract
The application of wind mills for water pumping is of lesser importance today than in the past centuries. However, for several reasons, it is useful to discuss this type of wind energy application in a wind energy book targeted at development and planning engineers as well as students.
Robert Gasch, Jochen Twele
11. Wind turbines for electricity generation - basics
Abstract
Presently wind turbines are used primarily for electrical power generation. Threephase alternators (AC generators) are used almost exclusively. Even for applications that require DC the lower-cost alternator/rectifier configuration has superceded the DC-generator. When a three-phase generator feeds directly into a grid, that operates at a fixed frequency (e.g. 50 Hz in Europe, 60 Hz in the U.S.A.) the angular velocity of the generator is fixed - or almost fixed. In this situation the power generation capability of the wind turbine will be fully utilized for just one value of wind speed (approximately 8 m/s in Fig. 11-1a). Thanks to the highly developed converter technology of today it is now possible to operate with variable generator speeds even for grid-connected generators (see Fig. 6-18). This yields better utilization of the wind turbine; during gusty winds it also substantially decreases the mechanical stresses in the blades and the shaft between turbine and generator.
Robert Gasch, Jochen Twele
12. Supervisory and control systems for wind turbines
Abstract
The Western mill was the first wind turbine which operated completely automatic, “without a human supervisor”. But the tasks of the control system and the supervisory system were strongly interwoven. The main vane which adjusts the rotor to the wind direction is in fact a simple “all-in-one” control system: it is sensor to register the deviation between the wind direction and the rotor axis, and at the same time it is the actuator producing the forces for the correction of the deviation from the demand value, Fig. 12-1. Together with the transverse vane it controls the turbine in the entire operating range from standstill to storm protection: For very strong winds the spring extends and the rotor is turned to increase the angle between rotor axis and wind direction. Rotational speed, power extraction and thrust are reduced, see also Fig. 12-7 (yaw angle β), and annex I of this chapter. In this annex additional examples of simple mechanical control systems for small wind turbines are presented.
Robert Gasch, Jochen Twele
13. Concepts of electricity generation by wind turbines
Abstract
Wind turbines for power generation may be characterized according to their type of application - Grid-connected wind turbines - Wind turbines for stand-alone operation and - Wind turbines for hybrid systems, e.g. wind-diesel or wind-photovoltaic systems. Grid-connected wind turbines, section 13.1, have the advantage that their produced power can be fed into the grid at all times. The storage problem for excess electrical energy, e.g. at night, is transferred to the grid and is solved there often by using hydro power plants with pump storage facilities. These have in Germany an installed capacity of approx.
Robert Gasch, Jochen Twele
14. Wind turbine operation at the interconnected grid
Abstract
On the one hand, the grid-connected operation of wind turbines places demands on the wind turbines’ operational behaviour and its technical equipment for grid connection. On the other hand, the operation of the interconnected grid is increasingly influenced by wind power production. Some years ago, the effects were negligible because the installed wind power was small compared to the grid capacity. But nowadays, at least in Germany, Denmark and Spain, the grid integration of wind energy has become a technical and economical challenge.
Robert Gasch, Jochen Twele
15. Planning, operation and economics of wind farm projects
Abstract
This chapter is structured according to the chronology of the individual working phases of a wind farm project: preliminary and project planning, erection and operation. Each phase may be differentiated according to the following aspects: Technical aspects - Aspects of the permission regulation and - Economic aspects.
Robert Gasch, Jochen Twele
16. Offshore wind farms
Abstract
In the future, wind energy will be playing a dominant role in raising the share of renewables in electricity generation. This will significantly reduce the emission of carbon dioxide and the use of fossil fuels. Land use limitations in areas with high population density are hindering the installation of new large wind farms. Offshore, however, there is an enormous wind resource that has the advantages of both abundant space and dense winds. In 1995, a study found that the exploitable offshore wind resource theoretically exceeds the total consumption of electricity in Europe (Fig. 16-1).
Robert Gasch, Jochen Twele
Backmatter
Metadaten
Titel
Wind Power Plants
herausgegeben von
Robert Gasch
Jochen Twele
Copyright-Jahr
2012
Verlag
Springer Berlin Heidelberg
Electronic ISBN
978-3-642-22938-1
Print ISBN
978-3-642-22937-4
DOI
https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-642-22938-1