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2022 | Buch

[ ] With Design: Reinventing Design Modes

Proceedings of the 9th Congress of the International Association of Societies of Design Research (IASDR 2021)

herausgegeben von: Gerhard Bruyns, Huaxin Wei

Verlag: Springer Nature Singapore

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Über dieses Buch

This collection stems from the International Association of Societies of Design Research (IASDR) congress in 2021, promoting the research of design in its many fields of application. Today's design finds itself at a critical moment where the conventional ‘modes’ of doing, thinking and application are increasingly challenged by the troubled ideology of globalisation, climate change, migration patterns and the rapid restructuring of locally driven manufacturing sectors. The volume presents a selection of papers on state-of-the-art design research work. As rapid technological development has been pushing and breaking new ground in society, the broad field of design is facing many unprecedented changes. In combination with the environmental, cultural, technological, and, crucially, pandemic transitions, design at large is called to fundamentally alter its modes of practice. Beyond the conventional models of conducting research, or developing solutions to ‘wicked’ problems, the recoupling of design with different modes should be seen as an expression to embrace other capacities of thinking, criticisms and productions. This selection of proceedings papers delivers the latest insights into design from a multitude of perspectives, as reflected in the eight thematic modes of the congress ; i.e., [social] , [making] , [business] , [critical], [historical/projective], [impact], [pandemic], and [alternative] with design modes. The book benefits design researchers from both academia and industry who are interested in the latest design research results, as well as in innovative design research methods. In presenting an interesting corpus of design case studies as well as studies of design impact, this comprehensive collection is of relevance to design theorists and students, as well as scholars in related fields seeking to understand how design plays a critical role in their respective domains.

Inhaltsverzeichnis

Frontmatter

[Fabrication] + Design

Frontmatter
Making in/with Nature: Lessons from an Eco-village for Sustainable Making

In this pictorial, we present findings from a field study in an eco-village. Eco-villages are communities where residents share environmental values and have developed long-term making practices around housing, food production and other methods of living self-reliant. We investigate sustainable making practices to study how and why makers design, build, and retrofit their settings to make their communities more sustainable. This qualitative study brings our learnings from the eco-village to the field of Human-Computer Interaction and discusses three aspects of sustainable making: non-humans as stakeholder, non-specialist solutions, and human ingenuity and sustainable identity. Perspectives of sustainable making encourage researchers to look beyond human-centered design to enable making as the catalyst that prospers sustainable and resilient future.

Hongyi Tao, Dhaval Vyas
Re-Thinking the Social to Survive the Ruins Human Has Made - About Designing Encounters and Web Making Moves as Matters of Care

Confronted with the challenges of our time, i.e. globalization and its consequences, ecological crises, social inequality, etc., the need arises for designers to recalibrate the modes of design as we know them. In this paper, the concept of the social entails the interconnectedness of social, environmental and self. From there, I elaborate on two micro-design modes that sprouted from my bodymind work, Designing Encounters and Web Making Moves, linking them to Maria Puig de la Bellacasa’s book ‘Matters of Care’. By doing so I elaborate on the potential of carefully designing Encounters and Web makings as a design proposal to debunk the value of (human) independency, and the corresponding tendency of objectifying all other than human.

Sofie Coose
Non-designers in Interdisciplinary Design: Facilitating Communication and Ideation Using Boundary Objects

Professionals from different disciplinary contexts increasingly collaborate combing design approaches and scientific knowledge for innovative solutions to address complex problems. The processes, methods, and tools are important for interdisciplinary design, especially in situations where participants are from non-design backgrounds in the team. Based on the existing literature on the role of boundary objects for ideation and communication in interdisciplinary or collaborative teams. We construct a research framework for non-designers’ interdisciplinary design with boundary objects and introduce material and verbal boundary objects to facilitate the ideation and communication in the design process. This paper gets insight into a)the effect of boundary objects on the communication of non-designers interdisciplinary team; b) the significance of boundary objects for ideation; c) the performance and experience of non-designers in interdisciplinary design using boundary objects. The data was collected in an interdisciplinary collaborative design workshop in two sessions, in which, 40 non-designer participants in 8 teams were asked to ideate for a future transportation conceptual design project based on their expertise and collaboration. By analyzing the utilization of boundary objects, findings suggest that boundary objects support non-designers to ideate in the design process, however, discover the deficiency. According to the findings, an iteration of the theoretic framework and boundary objects will be carried out to support interdisciplinary collaborative design for non-designers further.

Ruifo Zhang, Zhengyu Tan, Yating Su
Urban Nature Fabrication: A Framework for a Practice-Based Teaching Methodology of Design for the Pluriverse

In this paper, we present and discuss a teaching experience whose brief is to reflect and act for human-nature reconnection. It represents a novel direction within an established design curriculum and aims to introduce a consistent practice of a decolonised, anti-consumerist approach to design in the learning environment. The paper will expose the rationale of using Nature as a subject of study and highlight some research directions for a design that may contribute to new forms and methodology of practice that can offer a fresh outlook to the sustainability challenges by aiming for ecological awareness.

Valsecchi Francesca, Silli Saverio

[Systems and Users] + Design

Frontmatter
Discovering UX Designer’s Boundary Spanning Capabilities in the Design Innovation Process

This research investigates what user experience (UX) designer’s boundary spanning capabilities enable multiple stakeholders to create knowledge collaboration in identifying better design performances during an innovation process. To address this, it invites the concept of boundary spanner as a theoretical foundation and proposed a research model with six hypotheses. As an empirical evidence, this study conducted a preliminary study, and it concludes three findings. Based on this, the implications, contributions, and future studies are discussed.

Seungho Chung, Jaehyun Park, Luke Younghoon Chang
Collaborative Framing in Professional Design Practice

Designers collaborate extensively with other stakeholders in professional settings. These actors frame the design situation in varying perspectives and go through a long negotiation process to create collectively agreed upon frames. Understanding this socio-collaborative aspect of the design process requires an expanded view of framing that considers power hierarchies and communication barriers in authentic settings. This study sheds light on the dynamics and practices underpinning collaborative framing. Based on a 3-month field study in an industrial design consultancy, we conducted qualitative analysis on in-situ, real-time data captured from 48 product development meetings and conversations. While the prevailing literature tends to assume that individual-level frames are equally expressed and successively developed among actors to culminate in collective-level frames, our analysis instead highlights that individual and collective-level frames constantly shape one another’s evolvement, that power relations feature in collaborative framing practices and that collaborative framing appears to be dominated by the recurrent revisitations of previous framings. By reconceptualising collaborative framing as a cross-level, power-related and recurrent process, our findings extend insights to advance framing theory in real-world design practice.

Wenlin Zhang, Jin Ma
System Driven Design Industry: The Challenge Towards a Collective Vision for All Stakeholders in Design

The world is changing, so are the demands on the Design industry, from businesses, and society as a whole. Design fundamentally is about change as it responds to the external environment to identify opportunities to create new design activities and outcomes. Consequently, design (in theory and practice) tends to elevate its role as a catalyst for change, influencing strategic decisions, producing clear visions, shared beliefs, and values, and the models, methods, and tools to innovate with an emphasis on a systemic, whole-system interpretation of sustainable development. Why is it that Design professionals and Design academics don't exchange their knowledge for the common good? In this paper, therefore, a central objective is to build an argument for why the value of Design in business, and its economics thinking and approach in management, need a common purpose system view to tackle this century's technological, ethical, social, and ecological challenges. In the end, Design is seen as complex, while designers advocate for specific capabilities to innovate by making things simple and better. To achieve a common ground, we refer to Donella Meadows’ definition of a system and to the literature on the Design industry. We use her model to draw a simple form that brings together all parts of design activity, practice, or theory in order to develop a collective vision and help the understanding of the Design industry's purpose, ethics, and responsibility for a life-centred future.

Joern Buehring, Brigitte Borja de Mozota
Delight in the User Experience: Form and Place

The multiple formulations and discussions of delight in UX demonstrate its significance for the UX design community. However, it appears unclear what delight specifically is and how it particularly differs from pleasure, which designers use interchangeably with delight. This paper elaborates on delight in UX by drawing on existing knowledge and theory on emotion and experience. It argues that pleasure and delight are distinct, and posits delight as the combination of joy with surprise or captivation, which leads the user to experience a wow! or yay! moment, respectively. The paper also posits that a designer’s intended delight—how she envisions the product causing delight—may differ from the user’s experienced delight—the wow! and yay! moments—during the UX as such delight is assimilated by the user and affects her expectations concerning the delightfulness of using interactive products. Nevertheless, this same assimilated delight encourages continuous use of such products.

Omar Sosa-Tzec

[Digital Age] + Design

Frontmatter
Historical-Photo-Visual Practice: A Stroll Through Guatemala’s Sixth Avenue, Then and Now

We showcase the urban, social, and technological transformation of Sixth Avenue (La Sexta Avenida) in Guatemala City, by comparing two sets of past and present-day images of the same locations newly taken and from a local photographic archive respectively. We demonstrate the value of historical-pho- to-visual practice by drawing meaning from visual and historical themes and reflective questions. We illustrate an alternative form of knowledge-making in design by developing sets of design principles informed by the meanings drawn. By coupling historical events and knowledge of present-day con- texts, the photographic pairings add another reflective dimension on present and future perspectives of design and pictorial-based research. The photographic pairings diversify our temporal and cultural sensibilities. Historical-photo-visual practice invites designers and researchers to see photographs as social documents and to consider what is revealed when the conventions and practices of past and present are in conversation.

Oscar Lemus, Sergio Cruz, Eli Blevis
Is Feminist Branding Possible?

Intersectional feminist and decolonial scholars have laid the theoretical groundwork examining design’s complicity in structural oppression. Decades of literature contend that design must be profoundly reframed to recognise broader perspectives and plural traditions, destabilise hegemonic methods, and dismantle forces that threaten equitable futures. For these transformations to be lived as well as thought, designers must apply emancipatory principles to practice. This paper examines strategies for using an intersectional feminist framework, which advocates for equal rights with the understanding that people experience multiple and interlocking forms of oppression, to disrupt conventions in brand identity design. The author, a practicing communication designer, uses feminist theory to question historical and contemporary ideas about branding from modernist corporate identities to the recent “femvertising” trend. This analysis is followed by a case study, the brand identity for the Women’s Group on Race Relations, which presents a possible feminist approach to brand identity design practice.

Toppins Aggie
Development of a Scale to Measure Decision-Making Tendency in Human-Product Interactions

Design consideration for tailoring users’ decision-making experiences is viewed as an important factor towards more highly user-centred and personalised human-product interactions (HPIs). In this paper, we aim to establish a foundation for a new design approach by presenting the set-up of the development and validation of a new measurement scale on users’ decision-making tendency, maximising and satisfying. From behavioural science, we extend the recent discussion on these individual differences between maximisers who tend to expect the greatest amount of benefit from every daily opportunity and satisfiers who tend to feel happy with their choices as long as they think they are good enough. We developed an initial pool of the decision-making tendency measurements based on previous literature and a focus group interview. To modify the initial pool of measurements, we conducted (1) random probes with three researchers and (2) standard scaling procedures with eight external judges. Furthermore, we tested the reliability of the scale by calculating Cronbach alpha and test-retest reliability. We expect that these findings provide a grounding for future design research and practices in terms of implementing users’ decision-making tendency for personalised HPIs.

Youngsoo Shin, Chajoong Kim, JungKyoon Yoon
Shifting Ways of Knowing in the Digital Age: Contextualising the Found Image Through the Lens of Reverse Reification

With the digitalization of most areas of human life and the expansion of quantitative measurements, primacy is increasingly given to knowledge arising from “Big Data” processes. Both the mechanisms and the ideology supporting machine cognition rely on principles alien to Design’s tacit ways of knowing (human cognition), bringing a critical shift in how our worlds are designed. Reification, the process of turning abstractions into things, participates in the creation of knowledge and reveals a profound dichotomy. By turning abstract ideas into code, machines operate a process of reverse reification, making the world utterly inexplicable to humans. This paper critically examines the mechanisms behind machine cognition, how quantified knowledge impacts design’s qualitative understanding and practices and proposes a relational approach to ways of knowing in order to bridge this gap. To illustrate this argument, a three-angled exploration of found images, from the human, machine and the relational cognition is presented.

Hélène Liu, Marty Miller, Laurent Gutierrez

[Artistic Thinking] + Design

Frontmatter
Visualizing the Invisible: Applying an Arts-Based Methodology to Explore the Emotion Projection of College Student to the Student Counselling Centre

This study explores the subjective emotion projection of college students regarding the campus counselling centre. The face-to-face interview was conducted in this study to understand the college students’ positive and negative emotion which projected to the interior configuration and decoration of counselling rooms. Nowadays, there is no clear interior design regulation for the campus counselling centre, which almost depends on the personal preferences and professional experience of the counsellors. However, the inappropriate interior design may increase student’s psychological burden. Therefore, this study conducted two experiments. The first experiment was online questionnaire survey to evaluate the psychological status and interior preferences of college students and select the subject candidates for the second stage of experiment, the face-to-face interview. The simple statistics and expert group KJ method were used in this study to analyse the interview results. The result found that college student will project their emotion toward to the factors in the counselling room during the counselling process. The appropriate furniture configuration and interior decoration such as plants can effectively enhance college students’ positive emotion regarding to the counselling centre; on the contrary, too many factors, wrong colours such as dark walls, etc., would cause the negative emotion. The results of the study were expected to be a reference for the interior design and decoration of the counselling centre in university campus in the future, and creating a more secure, comfortable, and effective consulting space.

Min-yuan Ma, Ya-Lin Chen, Lifen Yeh, Hsin-Chun Wang, Yu-Tse Lee, Guan-Ting Shi
Envisioning Art and Design Education Through the Lens of Diversity, Equity, and Inclusion

As the U.S. witnesses, the guilty verdict of Derek Chauvin in the murder of George Floyd, communities nationwide are embracing the historical inequities spanning race, gender, religion, and disability benefits. Higher education is equally rife with these inequities. Widespread implementation of DEI (Diversity, Equity and Inclusion) can be a catalyst for peace, acceptance and equality. Despite the requirement for educators to provide aptitude on DEI efforts to adhere to growing student needs, resources allocated for such endeavours remain low. Of course, this further increases the barriers for faculty tasked with familiarizing themselves with a wide range of DEI’ topics.Articulation and commitment to DEI remain a challenge for educators. This is especially true in design education, and the People-Centered Design process is perfectly poised to address these underlying issues. Implementing a people-centred design approach that puts the needs of people first can be the change in our education system that addresses complex social inequalities.Design educators can lead this social paradigm shift within academia. However, before educators commit to diversity, they must first engage in foundational learning of DEI terms and definitions. This case study, conducted at Indiana University’s Herron School of Art and Design, provides a novel strategy for accomplishing this. Since educators have systematically transitioned into the digital world -- the outcome of this case study proposes a prototype that characterizes the need of identifying DEI strategies through a digital experience.

Datta Amrita, Ganci Aaron
Application of Vernacular Design for Emotional Communication: Focus on Visual Arts of Ancient Peruvian Inca

It is common knowledge that people from different cultural backgrounds tend to have different ideas and perceptions. However, in this era where globalization exposes everybody to the same content, it can be assumed these perceptions might become similar at some point. Global brands are consumed regardless of race, language or culture, attracting all types of consumers to purchase the same product. Nonetheless, in the case of products that utilize the local history and culture of a country as a source for the design, they tend to be considered old-fashioned and not necessarily attractive. This study undertook the challenge to create a vernacular design inspired by the ancient art of the Inca culture of Peru. The investigation followed a longitudinal research design: pre-test, design development and post-test. The pre-test involved asking the participants about their current views concerning Inca patterns. Then, based on the results, new designs were created to match their overall preferences. Finally, the new designs were tested in the post-test to compare an improvement in perception. The results showed that the current perception between Koreans and Peruvians is very similar, which means that their standards are in agreement despite cultural differences. The design development proceeded by modifying the original patterns based on the pre-test results. Lastly, the post-test revealed that Peruvians preferred the design that resembled the original image the most, while Koreans preferred a more modern-looking design. Nevertheless, the final results indicate that the overall perception of the designs improved significantly.

Estefania Alexandra Ami Ishisaka Yreijo, Byungkeun Oh
A Study on Craft Practice and Creativity Among Mysore Rosewood Inlay Artisans of India

In craft practice, artisans display creativity through design, material and aesthetic adaptation, during the pandemic. There are limited studies on craft practice and creativity aspects of Mysore Rosewood Inlay craft of India. The objective of this research is to study the same among Mysore Rosewood Inlay artisans. Research methodology for the study is ethnographic research and creativity studies was conducted using the Test of Creative Thinking- Drawing Production and Four C of Creativity. The ethnographic study of the craft showed that traditional designs of products revolve around flora, fauna and Indian mythology whereas, the contemporary designs are based on diverse cultural aspects with precision. During pandemic, changes in craft practices were observed between older and younger artisans. Due to traditional grounding, artisans scored high in predesigned patterns compared to ones on free thought, whereas current time demands improvement in free thought based design skills.

Shipra Roy, Nilanjana Bairagi

[Emotional Capacities] + Design

Frontmatter
Understanding the Relationship Between Humour and Context in Visual Information Design

As an effective element of design, humour can help users better perceive and understand visual information such as signage in a specific context. However, the application of humour in visual information design is purely dependent on the designer’s intuition. In addition, there has been little research on how humour can be used in visual information design and how the perception of humour is influenced by context. Therefore, the study explored how humour is dependent on the context in visual information design. From the literature study, three types of humour and four types of contexts were derived. A designer workshop and focus group interview were conducted in the study. In the workshop, signages representing three types of humour respectively were designed. The signages were evaluated in the focus group interview to figure out how they were perceived. The results indicate that humour is dependent on the characteristics of context in visual information design. If this finding is well considered in design practice, it could help the user better understand visual information and have positive experience.

Hyunwook Nam, Chajoong Kim
When is a Potato Too Ugly?: Understanding the Complexity of Aesthetics in Produce Towards the Reduction of Food Waste

Prior studies have found that acceptance of cosmetically imperfect produce can largely vary based on specific consumers’ internal values such as educational level and environmental awareness. On the other hand, studies have shown that changing external factors of foods such as colour and presentation of food can alter consumers’ preferences to a great extent. While these studies demonstrate the degree to which consumers are affected by visual stimuli in food, there is a disconnect between these two bodies of literature as one argues that there is a common aesthetic standard that we all are influenced by, whereas the other asserts that the standard varies significantly among people. The lack of understanding of what specific visual attributes influence consumer preference for fresh produce has made it difficult to fully utilise design thinking as a tool to reduce food waste due to aesthetic reasons.Findings of this research indicate that surface quality tends to be the most important criteria for determining aesthetic preference for potatoes - one of multiple produce items studied - as based on consumer and experts’ ratings. Consumers’ stated willingness-to-pay values were also exponentially proportionate to surface qualities. However, the window of tolerance can be expanded when different preparations are considered. This research helps bridge the precarious gap between consumers’ actual preferences and farmer/marketers’ knowledge about what is acceptable to consumers. It also has an important implication for designers and marketers in the food industry in that tolerance for a wider range of aesthetic diversity should be strongly advocated.

SunMin May Hwang, Barry Kudrowitz
Emotion from Creativity: Principles of Manipulating Emotional Management in Design Learning

In the 2000s, several design researchers began to investigate the links between emotional issues and design. For example, the designers’ responses to the external environment or stimulants are included in the design process. Despite this theoretical basis, not much research has examined how emotions alter the design process. Junior design students struggle to comprehend information from things that have many human interactions. These concepts should be introduced to junior design students’ design processes and influenced in their design processes. But no effective solutions to these issues have been discovered. Despite this theoretical basis, not much research has examined how emotions alter the design process. Junior design students struggle to comprehend information from things that have many human interactions. These ideas should be introduced to junior design students’ design processes and manipulated in their design processes. But no effective solutions to these issues have been discovered. So this research aims to explore ways to help junior design students control their emotions during the design process. Practical recommendations may aid them, but their components must be defined. So, realistic ways to get junior design students to learn these rules should be investigated. Empirical research was undertaken to gather quantitative and qualitative data for future analysis. To test the suggested design principles, 30 junior undergraduate participants were given a mobile app that tracked their emotions. Their creative skills and emotional management were tested. The research showed how junior design students may incorporate emotion into their work.

Amic G. Ho
Love for Inanimate Objects: A Model to Understand Relationships Between People and Products

In this paper, the concept of relationship-based product personalities was applied to develop a model which gives a better understanding of emotional relationships between people and products. This paper presents extant literature on models suggested for the design of emotional experiences. Emerging from the literature, the Ego State Product-Person Relationship model was developed. The model shows that when a person interacts with an object, the product evokes emotions and creates emotional experiences and the user attributes a particular personality to the product depending on the emotions evoked by it. To validate the usefulness of the model, 15 co-discovery sessions were conducted. Participants were prompted by a list of product categories and five lists of personality categories, and assigned personalities to products, explaining their experiences of those products. Applying this model to analyse five types of products, as examples, shows that the suggested model could assist designers to further understand and design towards preferred emotional experiences.

Ghazaleh Sepahpour, Alethea Blackler, Marianella Ivonne Chamorro-Koc

[Physical and the Virtual] + Design

Frontmatter
Physical Traces and Materialization of Songs for Individuals’ Music Participation in Cafés: The Design and Field Studies of Camue

Expressing and sharing an individual’s music in public spaces are part of making creative culture. We designed a frame-shaped song ticket shredding speaker, called Camue, to investigate how the materialization of songs and their physical traces can facilitate music playing and sharing experiences in public spaces. Camue was deployed in two cafés for three weeks, providing music playback experience to 41 customers and 10 recruited participants. The findings showed the materialization of songs and physical traces affected users to motivate and engage their participation. The exposure of users’ actions when playing songs by putting a tangible paper ticket into Camue helped users to mediate between their personal music taste while considering the public ambience of the café. Our findings imply new insights into how the co-creation of physical remnants can trigger meaningful interpretations, and what factors are needed for designing artefacts that enable better music expression of individuals in public.

Bomin Kim, Nari Kim, Gahui Yun, Sangsu Jang, Hyosun Kwon, Young-Woo Park
The Layman Got Ropes——Exploration of Content Enhancement and Interactive Design for Watching Online Ice Hockey Matches

At present, watching ice hockey matches online is facing the problem of insufficient presentation of match content; this requires further expand the user's perception channels and allows ordinary users to enjoy a more excellent and immersive viewing experience. This article is tested in an augmented reality environment, guided by flow theory, through theoretical research, user interviews, prototype testing, and other methods to analyse the differences in experience between professional users and ordinary users. Our research has found specific methods and forms to improve online viewing of ice hockey matches and combine flow theory to propose future content enhancement forms and interactive design strategies, which provide a powerful reference for the in-depth design later.

Zhiyong Fu, Songling Gao, Yidan Wu
First Impressions Matter (Maybe More Than Prior Design Experience): The Predictive Power of Soft-Skills on Student Performance in a Team-Based Design Course

The data in this study was collected over five sequential years in a team-based interdisciplinary product design course. Each year students participate in brief interviews and respond to a short questionnaire in the first week of class as part of the process of forming teams. Some of the data collected relates to prior experience with traditional physical design skills and some relates to soft skills. The major finding of this study is that these soft skills (e.g., interest in the discipline, timeliness, ability to work on a team, etc.), which were assessed via brief initial interactions with the students, can significantly and reliably predict later performance on four different individual course evaluations including an idea generation assignment, an elevator pitch, peer review scores, and the final class grade. Furthermore, a first-order analysis also indicates the number of self-identified traditional physical design skills that one possesses at the beginning of the class (e.g., wood shop experience, CAD software experience) has no significant relationship with those same course assessments. Mapping this academic study to an industry setting, a creative and enthusiastic team player may be a better fit for a team than someone with the ideal set of technical skills but lacking in the soft skills.

Barry Kudrowitz, Rachel Davel
Design to Divide Attention: An Exploration of Designing Virtual Reality Simulations of Accidents

This project explores whether and how accidents can be simulated in virtual reality (VR). The divided attention of workers in hazardous workplaces (e.g., construction sites) can lead to accidents. Meanwhile, simulating accidents is different from simulating injuries, because accidents involve human errors. The current project focuses on designing VR scenarios that divide users’ attention, cause them to make mistakes, and then lead to accidents. Specifically, the goal of the project is to simulate accidents caused by divided attention to enhance users’ attitudes toward relevant safety training and procedure. We also reviewed and discussed the challenges of designing VR scenarios that enable users to experience divided attention. Through a reflective exercise, we generated several patterns that could be generalizable to other simulation scenarios.

Jeffrey C. F. Ho, Daniel A. Muñoz, Jing Ding

[Intelligent Interfaces] + Design

Frontmatter
Sacred Texts

Since the start of the Covid-19 pandemic, there has been a shift in the vocabulary that we absorb, process, and speak back into the world. The term “social distancing” and the parting words “stay safe,” among countless other idioms, quickly became familiar additions to our communal vocabulary to convey our lived experience. Sacred Texts engages this dialogue as an installation pairing popular pandemic phrases with vinyl-cut illuminations from Persian and British manuscripts to explore the way in which repetition can participate in both the generation and destruction of meaning. As each phrase is repeated throughout the installation, the letterforms increasingly break apart into fields of illegible markings. These dissolving characters prompt viewers to consider repetition itself as a medium and how this medium navigates the complexities of semantic satiation, in which repeated words lose their meaning, and the illusory truth effect, in which repeated statements construct and reinforce meaning.

Ladan Bahmani, Brian Franklin
A Study on Experiencing Chinese Culture Through TikTok – Focusing on Cultural Exchange in the COVID-19 Era from the Perspective of a User with 500,000 Followers

Recently, unprecedented social (physical) distancing measures are being imposed around the world to curb the spread of COVID-19. Social media has become more important during the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic due to the increase of non-face-to-face activities. Considering that reactions to foreign culture are a part of cultural exchange, this study investigates why foreign reaction videos are popular from a cultural perspective and examines the positive effects of cultural exchange between Korea and China through TikTok video content. All of the most viewed and popular videos were about reactions to trending videos. This trend is presumed to be due to the curiosity and expectation of positive responses that videos popular in China will also be popular in Korea. Similar reactions can create cross-border consensus and relations, which increases familiarity. Many people were happy and proud to see positive comments about Chinese culture. Others wanted to learn the Korean language and said that their misunderstanding and prejudice against Koreans disappeared. Cultural exchanges through reaction videos show the positive effects of TikTok in increasing friendly emotions.

Nama Jung, HanSok Seo
Research on the Intelligent Design Countermeasures in the Post-COVID Era

The COVID-19 pandemic will still exist for a long time in the future, and there is the possibility of another outbreak of pandemic. Design for epidemic prevention will be the global design consensus in the post-COVID era. As the most important and powerful technical support for contemporary design upgrade and development, artificial intelligence can greatly empower epidemic prevention design. Based on the interpretation of new working methods, new demand concerns, and new functional forms of regular epidemic prevention and control design, centering on the “health+” design concept, sorting out the types and characteristics of smart technology applications, the multi-dimensional hierarchical structure and interrelationships among them are thoroughly studied. Combining with the case study of design practice, this paper comprehensively analyzes the function value and new characteristics of content, method, process, form and effect in intelligent epidemic prevention design. The intelligent technology application in epidemic prevention design focuses on the four-fold dimensions, cognition, thinking, expression, and action. They are internalized in the design process and externalized into a variety of product functions, which will endow the epidemic prevention design and its objects with multi-meaning values, and accelerate the positive development process of design itself.

Yun-Ting Gao
Interface, Pedagogical Agents and Chatbox in Virtual Learning Environments: An Eye Tracking Experiment

Scholars in education over the past few decades have discussed at length computer-based interactive learning through the conceptual framework of cognitive science. Yet, very few studies look at the design of visual content in technology-mediated learning and its effects on information dissemination. During the COVID-19 pandemic, the situation in online education revealed that the potential of visual and non-verbal design attributes in learning is underexplored. This study employed a 2 × 2 experimental design. An Eyelink 1000 plus eye-tracker was used to record student participants’ eye movements to determine how they looked at the interface layout, the chat box, and pedagogical agents with text cues. The participants’ learning performance were measured with retention and transfer tests. Results showed that the interface design, chat box and pedagogical agents interfere with students’ learning performance and visual attendance, which proves spatial contiguity effect, coherence effect and redundancy effect from the cognitive theory of multimedia learning. The present study results support the hypothesis that visual design is fundamental for effective virtual learning environments.

Lai Wei, Kenny K. N. Chow

[Behavioural and Interaction] + Design

Frontmatter
Design for Better Ambient Temperature Experiences

Nowadays, most people still rely on weather reports to access information about the temperature. However, the weather report is less useful when people care more about the temperature of the immediate surrounding areas. With people’s well-being in ambient temperatures in mind, we designed and developed ConnecT, a family-shared mobile application connecting with multiple temperature sensors. It could provide information in two parts: loved ones’ surrounding temperature and saved places’ environmental information. The target users of our design are homemakers, as they plan the clothing and meals for their families. We believe this design can contribute to smart cities in the future, as the application could provide a platform to share temperature information for public places.

Zaiqiao Ye, Ruiqi Fang, Sharanya Ravichandran, Shivali Jejurkar
Supporting Sustainability Through Minimalist Interaction Design Aesthetics

The frequent consumption and discarding of clothing are unsustainable. Some minimalist practices in fashion can reduce fashion waste and the cost of carbon, one of them is the practice of capsule wardrobes. To support the sustainable practice of capsule wardrobe, we designed Minnie, the Musical Clothes Hanger —Minnie for short. Minnie is designed to help people who want to build a capsule wardrobe or other form of minimalist practice in their wardrobes. Applying the method of Research through Design (RtD), we investigate how people perceive minimalist lifestyles and reflect on Marie Kondo’s minimalist wardrobe practices. Based on the design research, we formed the appearance design, system design, and sound interaction design of Minnie. We propose that our study provides insights for designing artefacts to support minimalism in fashion.

Zaiqiao Ye, Zitao Zhang, Tingyu Cheng, Eli Blevis
Behavioural Intervention Technology in UX Design: Conceptual Review, Synthesis, and Research Direction

The notion of Behavioural Intervention Technologies (BITs) has received increasing attention from researchers and practitioners creating design and technology to support users’ behavioural change processes. However, the value of consolidating previous findings to connect insightful research and practical design works and generating new knowledge on BITs has been under-recognized in the design community. To support researchers and practitioners who struggle with creating human-centred BITs to effectively induce changes in human behaviour, this paper investigates existing literature on BITs through a systematic literature review with 28 selected publications. From this literature review process, this paper proposes a structured synthesis of extant perspectives and approaches, offering an overarching perspective for effective applications of the BIT design approach. At the end of the paper, these findings are extended to discuss further research and implementations of design practices for changes in human behaviours.

Youngsoo Shin, Chajoong Kim, JungKyoon Yoon
Understanding the Patient Journey: Working Towards Integrated Medical Records

The lack of an integrated medical record can cause frustration for both patients and healthcare professionals. Due to the decentralised and compartmentalised nature of healthcare systems, records are fragmented and reside on multiple, unconnected information platforms. Currently, healthcare providers are responsible for maintaining records, giving patients limited control of their health information. This study demonstrates the value of visualisation to understand the patient experience and the current state of the healthcare system. The data from in-depth semi-structured interviews and a journey mapping exercise with six healthcare practitioners and six patients revealed pain points, positive aspects, and opportunities for improving the patient experience. We combined the data points to create a service blueprint, exposing five areas of concern: communication, care, control, repetition, and privacy. The results from this study can serve as the foundation for developing design interventions to improve how patient medical records can be securely controlled, accessed, and shared.

Christine O’Dell, Sandra Gabriele

[Questioning the Publics] + Design

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Design Issues for Parenting Support Services in Japanese Municipalities from the Users’ Perspective

This study aimed to clarify citizens’ issues with the current parenting support services provided by the public sector in Japan. The main objective of this study was to investigate the integration of service design methods into parenting support services. Citizen-participatory design workshops were conducted to identify and evaluate the parenting support services provided by the public sector. The design workshop results were analysed using naturalistic inquiry and classified on the basis of Stickdorn’s five principles of service design thinking. Psychological, financial, and functional issues were identified in relation to parenting support services currently provided by Japanese municipalities. First, the social structure of parenting in Japan currently causes isolation among mothers as a result of physical and psychological burdens. Mothers often do not know where or how to ask for help regarding childrearing. Thus, it is important that people are aware of the services that are available for parenting support. It is also necessary to design these services so that people can learn about, choose, and access them. Second, it is necessary to investigate how much financial support is needed in more detail, as well as elucidating when, or whether, the needs of users can be better met through means other than financial support. Third, a failure of digital transformation is a cause of difficulty in understanding available parenting support services for guardians. Finally, the results suggested that guardians often lack co-creative partners and holistic perspectives on parenting support services.

Moe Shimomura, Yasuyuki Hirai, Kari-Hans Kommonen
The Design Approach with Citizens’ Participation in Community Development Through the Pop-Up Children’s Playground in Public Spaces

In Japan, regarding citizen participation, it is expected that children’s activities in a public space would encourage adults to participate in community development. However, Japanese cities today are not open as playgrounds for children. To create a children’s playground more lightly and quickly, we organize a pop-up children’s playground in a public space and observe the participants. Through this experiment, we found that even pop-up and simple methods can elicit active play among children in today’s public space. Also, when the management and rules are clear, it has been found that even what might be considered a nuisance in a public space, adults take it as a good experience for children. Furthermore, it has the potential to encourage adults to participate in community development when the pop-up playground is suitable for the public space and has a sustainable and reproducible planning and management method. It may not immediately lead to specific activities or participation, if more adults accept children’s play in public spaces in a positive way through pop-up playgrounds, we may be able to soften the decisions and attitudes that push children out of cities.

Erika Otake, Kazuyoshi Watari, Toshimasa Yamanaka
Sustainable Design for Rural Communities of Ethnic Minorities in China: Product-Service System Promotes Social Innovation

Since China actively joined the globalization process, industrialization and urbanization have brought economic development to China’s traditional rural areas, but at the same time, many problems have also arisen. Among them, the problems faced by rural areas where ethnic minorities live in compact communities are more severe. Besides the common problems in rural areas, they also need to face the decline and disappearance of ethnic culture. The design and social innovation of rural areas and ethnic minority settlements have attracted scholars from many fields to study and practice. In 2013, we formed an interdisciplinary team to cooperate with Guangxi’s ethnic management agencies to carry out a series of social innovation practices in many places in Guangxi, China, this paper explores the development model of local social innovation and promotes the sustainable development of local society. Based on the Internet platform application service thinking design and product-service system design method, a new model is established to promote the local economic development and protect and inherit the national culture characteristic. The experiences, sustainability and discussed methods in this paper provide reference for the practice and research of different social innovation and social lessons.

Songfei He, Feng Ru, Binghong Zhan
Research on the Communication Management Model of Public Participation in Community Renewal

Public participation is an essential link in the process of community renewal. Careful consideration of the multiple stakeholders’ demands can reflect justice and influence social development. However, in the community renewal process in mainland China, due to the lack of universal participation mechanism and difference in communication skills, the discursive power of different subjects is unbalanced. Those multiple reasons cause public participation in the Chinese mainland at a very early level. Therefore, this research aims at: (1) find out the obstacles of public participation in mainland China; (2) study ways to improve the discursive power by promoting the fairness of communication; (3) build a mechanism to promote communication between multi-stakeholders and verify its strength.

Ming Xu, Duan Wu

[Group Experiences] + Design

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Group Experiences as Triggers for Personal Transformation: Investigating a Design Class, Collaborative Seminars, and Shamanic Ceremonies

This exploratory study is part of an on-going research on the transformative dimension of different kinds of group experiences. Our aim is to provide insights for interpreting such situations, and to support reflective practitioners in design facilitation, psychology and education facing the challenge of supporting transformational processes. This article specifically explores the impact of group experiences on personal transformation using the notions of flow state and self-narrative. Flow is understood as a balance between mastering and surrendering. It is assumed that a dynamic process of meaning-making is key in the transformative path. This research studies the cases of nine participants involved in three different kinds of experiences: a design class, collaborative seminars, and shamanic ceremonies. Qualitative interviews were used to understand the relations between the collective momentum experienced in these specific contexts, and the personal transformation triggered. Firstly, the results highlight a fruitful tension between individual and collective motivations, with the sense of belonging playing a key role in experience. Also, experiencing discomfort during the group situations appears as a trigger for personal transformation. Finally, we identified some differences between the three contexts in terms of experience, self-narration and personal transformation. The results are integrated in an experiential diagram, which allows to map the dynamics and psychological states associated with different contexts and stages of transformation.

Estelle Berger, Marine Catel, Laurie Viala Barat
Design Research Need in Helping to Address International Conflict Intersections in Southeast Asia

Design-led research on conflicts arising from anthropogenic and environmental factors, such as that from forest management in Indonesia, are largely under-represented in the design research community. In this position paper we discuss the need for more design research in this area. We present the complex intersecting challenges in health, education, local communities and environment, surrounding conflicts arising from forest management in Indonesia and their spillovers into other countries in Southeast Asia, such as Malaysia. We propose a design-led community-based approach to conflict resolution that anticipates the human-drivers and threats behind potential emerging conflicts in such contexts; by applying participatory design principles and methods, informing preventive measures to those conflicts. We envisage that this will generate debate on the strategic need to embed more design research practices in international conflict intersections research.

Emmanuel Tsekleves, Helena Varkkey, Elisabeth Rianawati, Clarissa Ai Ling Lee, Mariana Fonseca Braga, Mohd Talib Latif, Saut Sagala, Chun Sheng Goh
Design Listening: What Designers Hear and How They Respond

This paper develops understanding about the practices of design facilitators during rapid design-led interventions and proposes Design Listening as a new phenomenon in design-led innovation practice. Analysis of evidence from an on-going doctoral study exploring value creation in rapid design-led interventions leads to a contribution to knowledge about Design Listening as a facilitatory and collaborative action. This study draws on data generated over a one-year period and uses constructivist grounded theory. The findings suggest that design facilitators simultaneously absorb and construct knowledge. The paper presents the Design Listening phenomenon and discusses this in the context of reflective practice. Data suggests that Design Listening allows design facilitators to respond to what they hear in three different ways; they challenge; they probe; they shape. The action of listening and the response it generates form the basis of the phenomenon presented in this paper. The paper concludes that a distinctive characteristic of this practice is that, in discursive workshop settings, reflective practices between participants are interconnected and that skillful practice is demonstrated by the depth of this connection evidenced by a mutual grasp of the design situation and its future possibilities.

Justine Carrion-Weiss, Mark Bailey, Nicholas Spencer
Embrace the Change: Framing Demonstrators as an Alternative to the Mass Production Norm in Industrial Design Education

It is believed that industrial design was born in a big industrial bang as a tool sharpened for mass production. As an alternative to craft, industrial design practices were aimed at utter generalization and efficiency to minimize the price of a single piece. But over time, technological progress and changes in mindset made this approach obsolete. Despite the growing awareness that there is a need for a new design mode, only alternatives can be found in bespoke professional equipment and prototyping areas. Meanwhile, an emerging topic called ‘demonstrators’ appears in the field of design. This paper explores this area through several examples and argues that demonstrators can be framed as a design mode that design education should refer to, due to their advantages over mass production. Demonstrators grasp the current technological state and represent it as a single-piece object, not only enhancing the manifestation of new ideas and bringing stakeholders together but also enhancing portfolio for industry. Four inherent characteristics of demonstrators are presented, namely: 1) they convey a message; 2) they are designed for exposure; 3) they snapshot the present, and 4) they are finished products. Together they establish a fluid definition of the notion of demonstrator and set directions for further research. The first steps towards an analysis of the possible solution space of demonstrators highlight three defining axes: form, context, and time.

Aleksandra Sviridova, Drim Stokhuijzen, Jouke Verlinden

[Cocreation] + Design

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Dark Side of Cuteness: Effect of Whimsical Cuteness on New Product Adoption

A wide range of businesses actively use cute characters such as the globally popular LINE FRIENDS characters for product design to increase consumers’ product adoption. Prior research has found that whimsical cuteness—which elicits fun and playful mental representations—can lead to higher product adoption. The effectiveness, however, has been investigated mostly in indulgent contexts. This article aims to uncover the opposite phenomenon, that is, whimsical cuteness could be detrimental for product adoption, in particular, in a non-indulgent context. In a pre-test, we measured the different types of cuteness of nine LINE FRIENDS characters, selecting one pair of characters differed only in terms of whimsical cuteness. Additionally considering product newness, the main study tested whether product adoption differed depending on the level of whimsical cuteness and product newness. The results demonstrate that participants were less likely to adopt a non-indulgent product when it was highly whimsically cute compared to less whimsically cute because the indulgence provoked by fun and playful mental representations conflicted against the restraint reinforced by a product for self-control. The adverse effect increases when the product has lower product newness whereas high product newness dampens the effect. The findings suggest that practitioners should carefully consider product nature and newness when applying whimsically cute features to product design and marketing promotions. This study has originality in that it is the first to demonstrate the adverse effect of whimsical cuteness on new product adoption and verify the moderating effect of product newness.

Nayoung Yoon, Woo Park, Jaewoo Joo
Co-creation Behavior in Shared Service System: Influencing Factors

Due to the development of sharing economy and the progress of information technology, the co-creation behaviour has become increasingly easy to achieve in the shared service system, and the collaboration between consumers and enterprises has become a new development trend to create value. Consumer demand and sharing behaviour are constantly changing, which affects the realization of co-creation value if shared service providers do not know the factors to accelerate the generation of consumer value co-creation behaviour. Based on the theory of service-dominant logic, this paper constructs a theoretical model for the experience value co-creation behaviour and its influencing factors in a shared service system. According to the 450 valid questionnaires collected, it was found that perceived benefits, perceived trust, and social sustainability affect customer experience value in shared service system through Interaction collaboration, and customer experience value can affect customer intention of co-creation behaviour. The results show that the benefit motivation and trust motivation of customer participation in co-creation motivation significantly and positively affect Interaction collaboration, then Interaction collaboration significantly and positively affects their experience value and co-creation behaviour intention. Further, experience value plays a significant intermediary role between interaction and co-creation behaviour intention. Shared service providers and product manufacturers should pursue their benefit needs and trust needs from customers’ perspective, locate customer needs and preferences, and provide more attractive and convincing goods and services so that customers can perceive more benefits and form a higher degree of trust.

Jun Hu, Fei Hu
Designing Metaverse Platforms for Participatory Culture: What We Can Learn from BTS in Metaverse and K-pop Fandom

Metaverse services are being extensively used in the K-pop entertainment industry. The four types of Metaverse technologies (augmented reality, lifelogging, mirror worlds, and virtual worlds) help K-pop fandom be actively involved in participatory activities such as affiliations, expressions, collaborative problem-solving, and circulations. This paper reports on Metaverse usage practices, success factors, and most effective affordances by drawing from a case study conducted on BTS, currently the most popular K-pop band. We investigate four examples of BTS practices – Weverse, BTS World, Twitter, and Fortnite – as Metaverse platforms. From these practices, we identify a set of key success factors in increasing and deepening BTS fan culture, which are affordances for alliance, users’ expressions, spreadability, and reflection of the real world. We conclude by proposing design strategies to optimize the satisfaction of Metaverse fandom.

Kate Sangwon Lee, Huaxin Wei
Co-designing Boundary Objects in Social Entrepreneurship: The Generation of Negotiating Artefacts in Social Entrepreneurship Ecosystems

The use of design, specifically collaborative design in social entrepreneurial initiatives, is still ill-defined. Social entrepreneurship ecosystems comprise multiple actors that negotiate resources and information to generate social impact. The negotiation of these resources and information is supported by utilising boundary objects that act as mediators of further collaboration among different social worlds or communities of practices. This paper aims to unveil the collaborative design practices that social entrepreneurs utilise to negotiate resources and information with other ecosystem actors. This paper describes the early stages of a Chilean social enterprise participating in an incubation programme through a longitudinal qualitative study. The empirical data collected through semi-structured interviews shows how this organisation negotiate their business idea and their proposals with the business incubator and their beneficiary communities. The findings show that the organisation’s business model and collaborative workshops acted as negotiating boundary artefacts that enabled collaboration with the business incubator and communities. This analysis allows eliciting the role that collaborative design practices play in creating these artefacts to align different interests of the ecosystem actors and generate social impact.

David Pérez

[Critical Positions] + Design

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Title: Gentle Protest – Contemplations on an Interactive Tableau

Gentle Protest Is an Environmentally Sensitive Interactive Textile Design Created With the Rationales of Critical Design Practice. Addressing the Conference Theme [CRITICAL] DESIGN MODES, It Attempts to Explore the Co-Creatorship Between the Designer and Audiences Afforded By Interactive Textiles With the Hybridised Mode of Designing and Creating. Through the Encouraged Human-Artefact Engagement and Collective Meaning Signification, Gentle Protest Is Expected to Stimulate Introspection and Unfold Discussion On the Context Behind the Created Piece.The design practice intersects the ideas of interactivity, metaphoric connotation expression, aesthetics of use, engagement uncertainty, potential ambiguity, and textile craftsmanship to create a dynamic interactive tableau. Embedded with thermochromism and photoluminescence, the designed object responses to external stimuli and performs temporary visual transformation. Equipped with the corresponding engagement aids, audiences are offered the role of co-creator with autonomous control of the tableau surface appearance to respond to the meaning perceived from the work and the interaction.

Haze Ng
Group Focus Demystified: Learnings from Comparing Offline & Online Co-design Workshops

Background: In the last 30 years, co-design has seen exponential diffusion, especially in research applied to complex socio-technical transitions that require the participation of many actors heterogeneous regarding the level of creativity, power, and background. Previous studies usually focus on the tools and methods for inclusive participation, whereas the influence of the micro-dynamics and inner changes of the participants tend to be overlooked. Yet spontaneous and apparently innocuous attitudes, if not promptly detected and addressed, can have a snowball effect that compromises the workshop’s outcome. Aim: The study aims to define the challenges of coordinating the group focus in a co-design workshop and define potential ways to assess its level, making a comparison between online and offline versions of the same activities. Methods: Interpretive concepts and theories describing individual transformation processes in the context of small groups are taken from relevant literature in management development and applied psychology. Group focus challenges and enablers, both online and offline, are identified through first-hand observation and qualitative note-coding. Results: A conceptual framework suggests valuable strategies and tactics prepare the group focus before starting the activities, kindle it from the outset, and keep it under control, re-focusing every time it tends to diverge.

Zixuan Wang, Paola Maria Trapani
HOLD THE DOOR: Examining a Two-Year Cross-Cohort Prototyping Project

The useful life of a prototype created in an education project typically ends when the project ends. The longitudinal use of these educational outcomes, prototypes, has seen little attention in design education. This pictorial examines the practical design activities on a student-built entrance that was handed over from the first-year students to the new first-year students in the following cohort. By turning this often bypassed area into an environment for exploration, we ask, how did the students’ design activities evolve when building such an environment versus using it for further learning?Between the years, the role of the prototype changed from a focus of interaction to Means of Inquiry. The materiality of the entrance was radically different between the years, suggesting a way to achieve long-term benefit with less budget. We conclude by discussing four perspectives that emerged from the cross-cohort prototyping.

Ani Tolumska, Jussi Mikkonen
Making-Do: An Assemblage Theory Exploration of Design Practices

At the core of design practices is action, to ‘make-do’. As a contribution to the discussion on post-anthropocentric design, this short essay draws on assemblage theory to question how to ‘make-do’. Methodologically, the inquiry opens six cases of service and system design contexts where agential capacities emerge from non-linear system interactions, skilling platforms, tactical resistances, mattering materialities, struggles in organisation cultures or even non-action. Assemblage theory proves resourceful to delineate how these agencies form and develop. In conclusion, this essay proposes research avenues brought by assemblage theory to design practices about the distinction of designers and users, the building of strategies and the creation of value.

Marc Chataigner

[Culture and Tradition] + Design

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Comparative Analysis of Body Language of Female Characters in Cartoons from Feminist Point of View-Centering on the Modern Animation of China and Disney-

Feminism has become an important social topic in the world today,there are differences in the understanding of feminism between Western Europe and Asia. Animation has great influence,the concepts reflected in the works also affect the society. In this study, the Analysis of Gender Role Behaviors in Accordance with Visual Expression of Disney Animation, written by Yi Seul Jung, Eun Jeung Kim is used as an analytical framework to analyze the times of male and female body movements in female roles and to compare and analyze the independence of female roles. US Disney and Chinese commercial animation with female protagonists released in the same period from 2016–2019 were selected for analysis. They are Disney-produced.Moana (2016), Frozen II (2019) and China-produced Big Fish and Begonia (2016) and White Snake (2019), respectively.The analysis results show that the female characters in Disney cartoons show almost the same number of female and male movements.On the contrary, the female characters in Chinese cartoons show more female body movements than men, showing greater deviation. Contrary to Disney’s independent and brave female characters, the female characters in Chinese cartoons are weak and the typical female characteristics that should be protected are very strong. Therefore, from the feminist point of view, there are cultural differences in women’s independence. It is hoped that the research results of this thesis can become the basic materials for Chinese animators to build female characters.

Yingdi Cai, Hae-yoon Kim
Adopting Mobile Augmented Reality as Cultural Heritage Souvenir: A Design Framework Exploration

In recent years, Augmented Reality (AR) technology has been widely used in creating cultural heritage souvenirs. However, these designs of mobile AR cultural heritage souvenirs are subjected to various limitations. For an instant, there are limited guidelines for designers on how to create cultural heritage souvenirs. This paper proposes a new framework for the implementation of mobile AR. The Vision in Design framework and the Creative intelligence method are applied to the new framework. To demonstrate the design framework, we utilized Yunnan cultural heritage souvenirs as an example. Finally, we reflected on the design framework and process. This framework will serve as a guide for designers to create cultural heritage souvenirs.

Jing Ding, Jeffrey C. F. Ho
Re-designing Chinese Traditional Board Game, ‘Dou Shou Qi’

This research analyses the characteristics of the traditional Chinese board game, Dou Shou Qi, to examine its cultural connotation and the limitations of its development in the modern market. It cultural connotations, which are"natural society" and "live together harmoniously". It has developed a wealth of game forms during many dynasties but has been lost due to improper inheritance. Dou Shou Qi mainly has two game forms on the market at present, board games and video games. However, the traditional Dou Shou Qi is facing the crisis of being eliminated by the market since the modern game market is fiercely competitive and the speed of updates are fast. In order to enable Dou Shou Qi to be inherited by future generations, this research was designed to develop a deep understanding of modern children's needs for Dou Shou Qi through interviews and observation focused on early childhood children. On this basis, through the analysis and discussion of the research results, a directional proposal for the redesign of Dou Shou Qi is suggested. It includes the following three aspects. The first aspect is to redesign the game in order to enhance the game’s function of assisting in early childhood education. The second aspect is to integrate the functional characteristics of the traditional game mode of Dou Shou Qi with existing game methods, to cultivate children's creative ability through traditional culture. The third aspect is to diversify the game form of Dou Shou Qi by adding more elements of transformable and mobility.

Zile Huang, Juyoung Chang
Historical Character Design for a Mobile Game

We present the design process for historical characters in a video game based on the local cultural history of the town Kemijärvi, Finland. The characters represented real people living in the town during the time period. Through an expert evaluation with 4 history experts, challenges in, e.g. authenticity, ethics, and narrative creation, were identified. The work provides insights to researchers and practitioners working on the development of games based around the topic of local history.

Sanni Mustonen, Paananen Siiri, Colley Ashley, Häkkilä Jonna

[Interaction and Emotions] + Design

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Self-reflection Doll: A Generative Tool for Participatory Design Research on Student Burnout

Design and HCI researchers are increasingly exploring sensitive topics. Despite attempts to involve participants to better understanding their needs, it remains challenging for researchers to elicit information from vulnerable participants. To involve marginalized voices in participatory design, we need to search beyond traditional research tools. We propose a Self-Reflection Doll, a generative tool that aims at helping participants overcome psychological barriers to share emotionally sensitive experiences during participatory design research. To examine the feasibility and benefits of the new method, a comparative case study on the topic of burnout syndrome was conducted using the Self-Reflection Doll in comparison with Focus Group and Cultural Probe. The paper discusses the strengths of the new generative tool in making participants feel more at ease to disclose personal stories and eliciting both implicit and explicit information for design research regarding Burnout Syndrome and other sensitive topics.

Punyotai Thamjamrassri, Hye-Ryeong Jun, Jae-Yeon Ju, Youn-kyung Lim, Yong-Ki Lee
Exploring Design Opportunities for Mitigating Anxious Attachment

Due to the widespread presence of social media, social interaction has been more emotionally influencing people than ever before. This phenomenon has induced an increasing interest in emotional well-being in interpersonal relationships. According to literature, it is a contributor to emotional well-being to stabilize our interpersonal attachment. Mitigating negative emotions is also found out to lead to positive contributions toward our emotional well-being. Therefore, this study aims to explore design opportunities for mitigating negative emotions in specific attachment types. The focus is on those who have an anxious attachment which tends to be negatively associated with emotional well-being. For the study, in-depth interviews with a diary study and designer workshop were conducted. As the results, three situations (Underachievement, Self-depreciation, and Future worries) were identified in which anxious attachment people had experienced negative emotions. Furthermore, possible coping methods for the situations were derived as well. Various solutions were suggested for coping with situations where people with anxious attachment undergo. The findings provide design opportunities for mitigating negative emotions of people with anxious attachment and contributing to their emotional well-being.

Heimin Kang, KyungHo Lee, Dooyoung Jung, Chajoong Kim, JungKyoon Yoon
Three Emotional Design Strategies to Deal with FOMO

Fear of Missing Out (FOMO) is a phenomenon that is often related to the use of social media. It significantly influences on negative affectivity and lower levels of perceived quality of life (Elhai et al. 2021). Human-Computer Interaction (HCI) research and individual User Experience (UX) professionals have proposed conceptual solutions to avoid FOMO, which drives social media use (type one). Yet, there has not been a proposed experience-driven solution for other types of FOMO caused by passively browsing social media and upward social comparisons (type two). It explicitly happens to a more image-centric social media platform such as Instagram. This paper introduces a new approach to deal with type two FOMO through emotional design, designing with the intention to evoke or to prevent a particular emotion (Desmet, Demir and Hekkert, 2009) and proposes related emotional design strategies. Firstly, the paper reviews the relationship between type two FOMO and negative emotion as one of its components. Secondly, it explores type two FOMO stages and other related negative emotions. The result of the main study contributes to creating a framework, and it helps to identify design opportunities for applying a new approach. A new approach focuses on positively exploiting type two FOMO for the benefits it may potentially bring and aims to remove negative emotions. Lastly, it proposes three emotional design strategies to deal with type two FOMO by evaluating three design cases.

Jangbae Lee
Interaction for Crisis: A Review of HCI and Design Projects on Climate Change and How They Engage with the General Public

Climate change is arguably the most urgent crisis of our lifetimes, and the Design community has been continuously exploring how to respond to this complex challenge. However, the past few years have demonstrated just how difficult climate change communication and engagement can be. As a response to the Anthropocene challenges, HCI and Design researchers have been debating the need for a shift from user-centered design to more inclusive, multispecies perspectives that also focus on systemic change. This is, therefore, an opportune moment to question how Design researchers have been approaching climate change and its interaction challenges, supporting the discussion on where the field should go. We present a literature review of HCI and Design research projects on climate change that target the general public. The result is the analysis and discussion of a corpus of 74 projects through the grounded theory review method. From our findings, we propose implications for design that take advantage of diverse interaction strategies and hope to inform future applied research on this pressing topic.

Marta Ferreira, Valentina Nisi, Nuno Nunes

[Analog and Digital] + Design

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MLTK01: A Prototyping Toolkit for Tangible Learning Things

This work illustrates and reflects on the design process of MLTK01, an open-source toolkit for fast prototyping tangible learning things, built on top of Arduino and ml5js. The toolkit was developed as a response to the current lack of fast and easy to use tools for tangible experiments with machine learning. Learning from insights gained through previous projects, we defined a set of basic building blocks necessary to enable such experiments and engaged in an iterative process of sketching, prototyping and preliminary testing of the toolkit. MLTK01 includes a custom PCB, a software library and accessories. Together with a descriptive account of the design process we also discuss possible applications of the toolkit and its implications for a design process of tangible learning things.

Maria Luce Lupetti, Lorenzo Romagnoli
Comparing Analog and Digital Tools for Collaborative Design Ideation

This paper examines how digital or analog tools influences the creative design process and outcome in collaborative design ideation. In this study, the particular digital tool is a prototype developed in collaboration with a global design firm, and is intended to be the digital counterpart to pen, paper, sticky-notes, and whiteboards, which are commonly used for collaborative creative activities. We conducted a pre-registered study with 24 designers in eight teams, analyzing the creative outcome in terms of four dependent variables and subsequently the process that lead to the outcome. The findings do not indicate differences between the two setups in relation to the outcome, however changes to the process in terms of collaboration and creativity were observed. Most significantly, the digital tool resulted in fewer initial ideas, but a higher degree of elaboration on ideas. We discuss the implications of these findings for the use and development of tools to support collaborative design creativity.

Jonas Frich, Kim Halskov, Peter Dalsgaard
Drawing Labs – From the Copy of the Master to the Critical Inquiry into the Design Process

In the first section, this contribution starts out by briefly summarizing the historical development of the institutional and socio-cultural settings in which drawing classes were developed in Europe since the Renaissance. The recapitulation of the historical development contextualizes the second section, in which the analytical drawing course, taught since the 1920s in the foundation year of the Basel Trade School, is presented and discussed. While the drawing of a cube in the context of analytical drawing teaches students to observe and represent angles and planes, it is transferring as well a defined aesthetic preconception of our world, as representable in a combination of basic spheres. In contrast, the third section is proposing contemporary drawing experiments which focus on the observation of sensuous experiences in the very act of drawing. These experimental exercises aim to teach learning from the inside and develop an approach of inquiring into the design processes through an involvement in the very materiality and physicality of drawing. The ability to observe and analyse the act of drawing as well as the comparative evaluation of the results, allows the students to recognize and verbalize a variety of influences, which guide our intuitive decision making in the act of drawing from socio-cultural traits to individual preconceptions. This approach can be seen as a contribution towards a multivocal practice of visual communication.

Michael Renner
People-Place Interactions: From Pictures and Stories to Places and Sense of Place

The emergence of a networked society generates transformations in the dynamic interactions of people impacting cultural and service systems. A location can provide different individual and collective meanings, perceptions, and experiences to different people. However, it is unclear how urban actors can collect, measure, and operationalise such place-based knowledge. Thus, this work addresses the Social-Design Modes theme from the IASDR community, rethinking how urban actors can interpret place-based knowledge from a given community. This research evaluates the potential of an exploratory method involving photo-based storytelling to unpack key factors associated with a place. Geographic Information Systems support the approach in order to transfer complex subjective experiences into simple and unique geographical representations. We provide empirical evidence of how this method operationalises individual and collective place-based knowledge through two study cases. This method merges design with the ‘social’ to respond to pressing social questions by urban actors. The methodological implications encountered through this process may act as guidelines to inform practitioners in related fields and other areas of knowledge.

Vanessa Cesário, Albert Acedo, Nuno Nunes, Valentina Nisi

[Crowd Sourcing] + Design

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Crowdsensing-Enabled Service Design for Floating Students During the COVID-19 Pandemic

This pictorial presents the concept and preliminary design of “Tecnico Go!”, an application conceived to support college students during the COVID-19 pandemic. The project applied HCI and user-centred design methods to understand students’ needs, pains, and desires during the pandemic period. The authors collected, unpacked, and reflected on user-centred data, synthesised personas and scenarios via the research through design approach. Synthesis of results points to the concept of “floating students” as a model embracing flexibility in visiting the campus safely and using the facilities when needed. Problem-oriented student journeys were identified and then used to ideate solution-oriented scenarios and a service blueprint to illuminate the continued development of the “Tecnico Go!” mobile application. This pictorial illustrates this process from data collection through customer journeys, user-centred blueprint and wireframes.

Shuhao Ma, Valentina Nisi, Augusto Esteves, Catia Prandi, Hugo Nicolau, Gianni Tumedei, João Nogueira, Francesco Boschi, Nuno Nunes
A Design Response for Sustainability: In the Time of Covid19

This is a time of design experimentation with new approaches, methods and tools for transformations towards more sustainable ways of being and doing to improve the wellbeing of society and natural environments. Covid19 pandemic exposed the vulnerability of our global supply chains, and the food and agriculture eco-system, a fundamental source for the wellbeing of people was significantly disrupted. This event has strengthened and focused the need for bold design responses. To address this issue, this study investigates the mango eco-system from farm to trade. It does this by asking three questions: RQ1: what is the current (recent past) situation: process from farm to trade and who are the actors? RQ2: What and how did COVID 19 impact this process? RQ3: How might the process be improved for transformation towards sustainability and in the context of a CE? This study argues for a novel design approach for transformation towards sustainability in the context of a circular economy and proposes an innovative and alternative circular eco-system with new vision, new values and new set of relational stakeholders. The data include 17 interviews; 6 farm visits; 3 factory visits; 3 trading location visits. The key dimensions of sustainability are, a) economic (i.e., the flow of produce, decision making, its economic exchange value and value distribution); b) society (i.e., the type of jobs, engagement, community and relationships between people and tools); c) natural environment (i.e. the restorative and regenerative practices).

Susan Evans
Co-design with Cultural for Creative Design Industry

This paper is about co-design and the cultural and creative industry. It explains co-design and cultural and creative industries and discusses the current situation of global tourism under the Covid-19 pandemic. The research is conducted to find out and evaluate the current situation of integrating co-design with cultural and creative design, indicating some of the current drawbacks and discussing new opportunities and suggestions for it. This research is aiming for the young generation but also for the mass public to engage better interaction with cultural heritage, eventually can promote cultural influence.

Zihan Li, Yi-Teng Shih
The Study of Contactless Service Design on Customer Experience Acceptance in Self Check-in Process at Luxury Hotel After Post-pandemic COVID-19 Era

The COVID-19 pandemic has severely damaged the recreational travel industry due to uncertainty and restrictions imposed on travel and tourist destinations. Recent research has shown that COVID-19 has sped up the application of new technologies and contactless service innovations within tourism and hospitality operations. For example, implementing an automation interface through robotics or digital technology can simplify stay operations while complying with social distancing. Ideally, it can be one of the solutions to run safer, faster operations in the service process that will help recover the hotel business. Notably, “unmanned” devices and robots are commonly built to interact with customers and are adopted to provide contactless services. Therefore, this research was aimed at investigating how customers will be influenced by experiencing the contactless services at luxury hotel, particularly during the check-in process, by using qualitative research methods including interviewing target customers of Generation X, building the Persona, and constructing a Customer Journey Map (CJM). This research shed light on the hospitality businesses and recreation industry that will provide a better understanding of the customer experience related to the self-check-in process and contactless digital services caused by COVID-19.

Chi-Fei Shih, Tseng-Ping Chiu

[Commons and Infrastructure] + Design

Frontmatter
Kampos, a Village Community on the Greek Island of Tinos

The village of Kampos, a place of vernacular architecture on the Cycladic island of Tinos in Greece, is of a great importance to me. This importance stems from the fact that today architects, planners and designers are focused on new contemporary sustainable ways of living, which remain outside the human way of living and the complexity of architecture, or with things connected with social life, spatial qualities and the environment. Meanwhile, private ownership, along with the way the state handles ownership in general, make boundaries appear stiff and as elements of division and autonomy. Do we actually know what it is to live together with a broader understanding of the role of architecture and the environment? Despite our contemporary and highly technological way of living, this way of living and spatial understanding in the village, the continuing habits and patterns of the past, still contributes to a physiologically and psychologically balanced lifestyle in both the private and the public realms. How people live in Kampos could be ‘a response to some of the prejudices and difficulties that affect many other cultures in our globalised world’ (Vidali 2020a, p. 22).

Maria Vidali
Think Outside the Box: A Case Study for Citizen Participation as Exploration

Citizen participation helps to involve local knowledge in the urban planning process and prevent unsatisfied citizens. This research investigates how design can give concrete substance to affording citizen participation as the exploration of needs and wishes with citizens, rather than extracting information from them. We showcase a design project in which we joined with the municipality of Eindhoven, the Netherlands, in facilitating such participation in the process of redesigning the town hall square of Eindhoven. In this project, we designed and tested an interactive, situated installation with which citizens could explore their view on the future of the square through bodily movements. We present narratives and observations from this test and contribute by highlighting three design qualities of the installation that facilitated exploration: continuous reshaping, unfamiliarity and ambiguity, and situatedness. With this research, we hope to inspire designers to continue investigating explorative modes of citizen participation.

Iris Bekkers, Tjeu van Bussel, Charlotte Sluijs, Remke Timmermans, Sander van der Zwan, Roy van den Heuvel, Caroline Hummels
A Framework for Infrastructuring Commons Creation

In this paper, we present a framework that combines design principles and approaches from the co-design and commons fields to support a community to create commons. Commons are both a shared resource and the governance strategies used by a collective of people to manage that shared resource. The commons literature offers robust frameworks for analysing an existing commons but lacks approaches to support communities to create commons. To address this gap, we turn to co-design to develop approaches that support communities in commons creation. We draw on co-design’s use of frames, tools, and infrastructuring to develop a ‘commons creation framework’. Infrastructuring approaches seek to design structures that outlast designer involvement for use and adaptation by communities. The proposed framework is a design support to guide communities in their ongoing exploration of the critical components of a functional commons. The commons creation framework is composed of a commons creation matrix that assists people in selecting tools to address critical factors of a functional commons and a tool improvement matrix that assists people to tailor selected tools for localised use. To test this framework, we applied it to a previous co-design project in which a community co-designed tools to transition public libraries into community-based neighbourhood centres. This application provided insights into how the framework guided the categorisation of tools and framed the improvement of tools explicitly for commons creation. Future research involves sharing the framework with communities to gather insights on its evolution.

Justin Sacks, Rosendy Galabo
Rituals as Design Objects: A Relational Approach for Infrastructuring Urban Commons

A growing interest in new commons and commoning practices emerged among the participatory design community. By mainly focusing on culture-driven urban commons, this paper aims to explore how design could support the flourishing of the commons within an infrastrcuturing process. In particular, by employing the notions of “formation of publics” the paper attempt to investigate such a process's relational and socio-affective nature. In this respect, the analysis of an Italy-based case study - regarding the outputs produced during a community-based participatory design workshop - serves as an empirical basis for articulating discussion. Insights from this case allow drawing some consideration on the concept of ‘ritual’ as a potential design object, fostering new relational configurations and, more at large, sustainable and transformative changes through its performative and symbolical dimensions.

Daniela Vaccaro, EunJi Cho

[Sharing Values] + Design

Frontmatter
Distributed Design Thinking: Towards an Understanding of Design Thinking Through Embodied Cognition

Design thinking is a term now used by various fields to describe different activities and practices. However, there remains something of a gap in understanding the role of design representation in design thinking. In this article I position distributed design thinking as theoretical foundation for enhancing our understanding of design thinking through design representation. To achieve this, I first present the limitations of our current understanding of how and why design representation is used in design thinking. I then introduce work from cognitive science and cognitive psychology as means to better understand design thinking, the role and use of design representation in design cognition. Namely, distributed cognition as concept related to the embodied theory of an extended mind is introduced. Relations between design process, distributed design thinking and reflective practice are also briefly discussed. Adopting distributed design thinking as an interesting foundation for a comprehensive understanding of thinking through design representation, I conclude by providing ideas and departure points for future work.

James Andrew Self
How Might We Realistically Use Design Tools in Government Organizations? A Case Study of a Local Government in Japan

This paper examines how design tools can be realistically used by local governments in Japan. First, we provide an overview of policymaking in Japanese local governments with particular attention paid to citizen collaboration. Next, we visualize the annual policymaking and budgeting process of Nagahama City, a medium-sized local government, using publicly accessible information and interviews with city officials. From this, we identify the following three challenges to citizen collaboration in real policymaking: 1) the limited opportunity, time, and budget for citizen participation, 2) the difficulty in reflecting policy evaluations, and 3) the difficulty in prioritizing or discarding policies. Finally, this paper examines and evaluates the relationship between policymaking and citizen participation from the perspective of the range of citizen participation in policy generation. For future discussions about more effective applications of design tools in policymaking, we argue for the following: 1) discussions among citizens using visualizations during policymaking, and 2) policymaking from a citizen-centered perspective by enhancing the capacities of civil servants.

Ikuei Nakayama, Daijiro Mizuno
How to Minimize ESG Risks?: Design Experts’ Advice for Reaching Ideal Shared Value

Because growing numbers of consumers are keen to be environmentally and socially responsible, for-profit corporations have become increasingly conscious of related issues. Inadequate corporate social responsibility (CSR) activities are easily criticized and yield undesirable reputations such as greenwashing. Therefore, poor environmental and social performance is considered a serious business risk. Especially when a business decides to incorporate social factors into its core business strategy, it is important to understand how to fully integrate social and business value into one strategy, that is to say, an ideal shared value creation. Seven design scholars were invited for expert interviews to share their wisdom as to how to ideally align social and business values. This yielded numerous pieces of design advice on how to attain an ideal shared value. In all, three pieces of advice were mentioned most frequently: 1. Perform user-driven need identification; 2. Understand shared value as an alignment; and 3. Employ an iterative process.

Kyulee Kim
Identifying Dimensions of Design Leadership in the Public Sector Organisations

Leaders play a critical role in shaping the application and adoption of design in public sector organisations. The extent to which leaders need to understand design or be trained in design is unclear. As more and more governments use human-centred design approaches to tackle complex and gridlocked problems within the public sector, what kinds of design-inspired leadership behaviours are required? This short paper aims to answer that by exploring a ‘Public Sector Design Leadership’ (PSDL) framework as a working model to measure the desired design leadership behaviours and traits in four dimensions 1) Networked Governance Leadership; 2) Empathetic Leadership; 3) Creative Leadership, and 4) Adaptive Leadership.

Li Teng Debbie Ng

[Customization and Systems] + Design

Frontmatter
Designing for Diverse Bodies: Toward a Constructionist Perspective

The concept of embodiment and the human body have been important subjects in various fields including human-computer interaction (HCI). The quality of embodied experiences shapes the ways how we live and act and is closely linked to well-being. While bodily experiences and interactions have been widely explored in HCI, the differences among bodies have not been a focus in the field. We argue that how we perceive and manage the differences of bodies affect the quality of embodied experiences of both ourselves and others. Therefore, we feel the urge to conduct a systematic study to establish a framework of designing for the diversity of bodies. We take the social constructionist perspective which asserts that bodies are shaped in the context of culture, society, and history. To understand the influences of the socio-cultural forces, an identity-based approach is adopted to analyse the differences among bodies. Subsequently, we explore how multimodal technologies could contribute to deconstructing and reconstructing bodies. In particular, we investigate the possibilities of three types of technological bodies which are classified based on the ways how the physical human bodies are involved and interacted with. These technological bodies (cyborg bodies, hybrid bodies, cyber bodies) are examined and illustrated with existing design cases.

Xin Shen, K. N. Kenny Chow
Building a Cross-Cultural UX Design Dual Degree

User Experience (UX) design has expanded rapidly across a range of industry and educational contexts in the last decade. While the core knowledge and “centre” of UX is still emergent and contested, new educational programs to train the next generation of UX designers have begun to outline pedagogical practices and concepts that have relevance to the present and future of UX as a discipline. In this paper, we take a broad view of UX preparation, building on a case study of a global dual degree partnership between programs in the United States and China. We recount our individual experiences of building new programs in UX at the undergraduate and graduate levels, and the process of mapping our curricula to offer a bidirectional dual degree program that launched in 2019.

Di Zhu, Colin M. Gray, Austin L. Toombs, Chunrong Liu, Wei Liu
Understanding AI-Generated Personal Narratives as Design Material for Socially Engaging Things

Requirements of interaction design are becoming increasingly sophisticated and complex. Interaction designers should consider not only usability, intuitiveness, and aesthetics but also the quality of the social experience of interactive things. However, traditional design approaches for social experiences have limitations in terms of sustainability, diversity of outcomes, and adaptability. In this paper, we propose utilizing AI-generated personal narratives as new material for socially engaging things and share our understanding of it from a user study. We first generated and qualitatively analyzed 100 different personal narratives to understand the diversity of AI-generated personal narratives and derived 20 types as a result. We developed a software prototype generating personal narratives. We then conducted a user study using the prototype of sharing platform and the representative cases of each type and investigated user experiences through in-depth interviews. Our findings show that an AI-generated personal narrative reframes the relationship between people and things as if there were social relationships between people and people. People perceived the thing as a social entity. Depending on the contents of the narrative, they felt intimate or distant. Finally, we discuss the requirements and make suggestions for AI-generated personal narratives to provide a satisfactory social experience.

Hyungjun Cho, Gyeongwon Yun, JiYeon Lee, Tek-Jin Nam
Understanding the Roles of Intelligent Product-Customization Systems Through Expert Interviews

Design tools for personal fabrication or mass customization enable users to design personalized products that fit their needs and desires. Advanced technologies such as Artificial Intelligence (AI) or simulation have opened up new possibilities for digital design systems to support non-professionals. Still, most of the existing works have been focused on translating the users’ needs into a form of product, and how to provide expert support within the design system throughout the product customization process is still missing. In this paper, we look into how digital design systems could take the role of expert designers. We conducted a group interview with four expert product designers, each having over ten-year experience in designing and realizing personalized product solutions for individual users. By collecting and analyzing how they collaborate with and assist users throughout the product customization process, we identify four types of expert roles: conflict negotiation, knowledge support, solution suggestion, and real-time feedback. Based on the findings, we discuss design opportunities for expert support for interactive design systems.

Bokyung Lee, Daniel Saakes

[Management] + Design

Frontmatter
Two Perspectives on Design Management Capability and Design Awareness: Design Leaders and Top Managers

Since it emerged in the 1950s, the concept of design management has evolved from managing design projects or organisations to the core element of strategy. With design management capability, a corporation can deploy design resources adequately and flexibly. Although models of assessing design management capability and the possible relationship between it and design awareness have been studied sufficiently in previous research, the exact relationship has never been explicitly clarified and verified. Furthermore, design awareness is always associated with top managers or other non-design managers, while in most cases, design management capability is related to design leaders. Few studies have extended design awareness to design leaders or design management capability to top managers. To fill in this gap, a survey of design leaders and top managers in 200 established firms was conducted. This research contributes to design management theory in the four following respects: 1) identifying design awareness as an independent factor apart from design management capability, 2) confirming the moderator role of design awareness between design management capability and product innovation, 3) defining two independent systems of design awareness and design management capability of design leaders and top managers and 4) reporting no cross-valued awareness between design leaders and top managers in the current frame of design management capability.

Sylvia Xihui Liu, Wu Liu, Yin Xia
The Role of Designers in the Transition from a Linear to a Circular Economy

Research shows that a significant portion of the environmental impact from products is determined already in the design phase. Implementation of principles of Circular Economy (CE) in design practice has the potential to reduce waste and to encourage reuse of resources. Since designers are responsible for the design process, it is therefore relevant to investigate whether designers are properly equipped to take responsibility for the shift toward CE and to implement circular practices in their work process. In order to discover and understand impediments to the implementation of CE principles within the complexity of real-world design practice, 20 professional retail and hospitality designers were interviewed. The study presents a snapshot of designers' knowledge of CE, and identifies barriers and drivers seen from the designer's perspective.

Mia B. Münster, Sönnich D. Sönnichsen, Jesper Clement
Debunking Silent Design Practices in the Banking Industry: A Case in Singapore

The banking industry is facing unprecedented changes. From the assault launched by various Financial Technology (FinTech) companies to the shifting customer needs and expectations, banks need to out-innovate its disruptors to remain relevant. Banks started to adopt human-centered design (HCD) as an innovation approach and trained non-designers with the HCD methods. While this created a tribe of silent designers in organisations with the potential to innovate, their practice and contributions have been sporadic, ephemeral and limited, rather than systematic and sustainable. This paper presents a literature review on how the notion of silent design has evolved over the past four decades and a case study involving semi-structured interviews and a review of public and internal documents of one Bank in Singapore. The case study revealed a training process of silent designers, their roles and competence along with the HCD process, as well as individual challenges and organisational barriers. Based on the findings, this paper discusses future implications on how to manage silent design in the banking industry to build the bank’s design capacity.

Alvin Jia Hao Chia, Jung-Joo Lee
A Study of Practice-Based Design Research Modes from Knowledge Production Perspective

The expansion of the design field and the complication of design issues require new design knowledge, and design research in practice is the main way of new design knowledge production. This study conducts multi-level research on the knowledge production phenomenon in practice-based design research, establishes new design research modes from the perspective of knowledge production, and explores the corresponding design research project management strategy. The research purposes of this study are: discovering the mechanism for new knowledge production in practice-based design research; defining the classification of practice-based design research modes based on knowledge production characteristics; and offering design research strategy recommendations from a knowledge production perspective. Aiming at the above research issues, from the perspective of knowledge production, this research applied the new production of knowledge theory and the Legitimation Code Theory. Three theoretical models are proposed, which are knowledge production cross-border model, knowledge production heterogeneity model, and knowledge production process model. Then, the three theoretical models are applied to analyse six design research cases. The conclusion discovered the knowledge production mechanism in practice-based design research, that is, the purpose of research determines the cross-border mode of knowledge production; the quality of design research conclusions is related to the heterogeneity of knowledge production; the knowledge production process contains multiple iterations of semantic waves, and produces powerful knowledge and contextual knowledge. Based on this discovery, four practice-based design research modes are proposed.

Honghai Li, Jun Cai

[Heritage] + Design

Frontmatter
Historical Trajectories of Japanese Traditional Craft Industries from Meiji Era Until Today

This article is a preliminary study of how a new design mode can contribute to the promotion of traditional craft industries. It outlines the historical trajectories of Japanese traditional craft industries from the Meiji era until today and discusses how their development is directly and indirectly influenced by political ideology and national policies. As a result, the development can be divided into the following five periods: the first period runs throughout the Meiji era, when the household handicraft industry took the first step in modernisation reform. The second period spans the years from the Taishō era to the early Showa period, during which artistic handicrafts were independent of craft industries. The third period is from World War II to the post-war years of reconstruction, when industrial design parted ways with craft industries. The high economic growth period is considered the fourth due to the promulgation of relevant laws. The last period is from the collapse of the bubble economy until today, reflecting changes in Japan’s diplomatic strategies. In approximately 150 years, Japanese traditional craft industries have developed through a transformation towards mechanisation and industrialisation to finally return to traditional handmade crafts. Regarding to the fact that current design modes for the promotion of traditional craft industries are mostly shaped by the perspective of industrial design, it is necessary to find a new design mode to form a new living culture that integrates production with practical use, rather than stressing its high value on account of being handmade.

Zhuya Wu, Hironobu Aoki, Akira Ueda
Redefining Heritage and Cultural Preservation Through Design: A Framework for Experience Design

The recent attention towards cultural preservation and heritage studies has positioned design to redefine cultural experiences in the contemporary context. Against this backdrop, design is marked by an ability to transform and revitalise cultural practices to change and alter perceptions, generate and disseminate knowledge, and create new value through the curation of experience. A case-study on temple architecture in Tamil Nadu, India presents the tensions posed by globalisation to discuss and explore the development of design tools, evaluation of the design process, and the creation of a design-based framework for intangible culture and heritage. This paper introduces a future mode for designing cultural experiences through community engagement by identifying four key design principles guiding the preservation and sustainability of endangered cultural traditions, practices, and spaces.

Ramya Chandran, Harah Chon
Interactive Application Design for Heritage Site Navigation: A Practice Study of an AR Navigation Application for Han Yu-Related Sites in Chaozhou

In the context of the rapid development of digital technology and the current status of cultural heritage conservation and cultural tourism promotion initiatives in China, this design project was aimed toward exploring and experimenting with the role of digital technologies in the revitalization and innovative use of cultural heritage sites, as well as the new interaction between visitors and cultural heritage sites in physical contexts through a practice study design and prototype development of an AR mobile navigation application- Han Yu in Chaozhou (韩愈在潮州)- for Han Yu-related heritage sites in Chaozhou. Starting from an analysis of existing digital heritage practices, a review of literary and historical materials, and a field investigation at each site, an interactive AR navigation system that makes use of AR, QR-Code, and multimodal content, was designed and tested under actual field conditions by representative target users. The practice process and results provide theoretical and technical practical support and references for the digital revitalization of cultural heritage sites in the new media context.

Ying Liu
Intangible Cultural Heritage and We-Media: The Strategic Design of Chinese Shadow Puppetry Dissemination via Tik Tok

Shadow puppetry (Piyingxi), the artistic form of “shadow” and “light”, has more than two thousand years of history in China. However, due to the influence of popular culture and western art forms, shadow puppetry cannot meet modern audiences’ aesthetic and entertainment needs anymore. The carving and performance skills of shadow puppetry are time-consuming and laborious, fewer young apprentices are willing to learn it. The loss of audiences and inheritors makes this ancient art fall into a problematic inheritance and development situation. As the most downloaded short video mobile application (APP) in China, Tik Tok provides traditional culture an opportunity to re-express in a young and fashionable way. Motivated by the potential of Tik Tok as an effective media for the dissemination of shadow puppetry, this research used the data mining method to collect the 47 shadow puppetry creators’ public data on Tik Tok and selected highly ranked 60 videos tagged with “shadow puppetry” as research samples. Through data analysis, this research gains a better understanding of user behaviour and engagement about shadow puppetry. This research analysed: 1) the features of shadow puppetry short video creators; 2) the characteristics of popular shadow puppetry short videos; 3) the plight of shadow puppetry dissemination via Tik Tok. The findings from this research offer optimization strategies for disseminating shadow puppetry via Tik Tok, which fills up the existing research gaps. In the hope that this research could contribute to the revitalizing and sustaining the continuity of this ancient Chinese folk art.

Xue Wang, Gino Yu

[Behaviour and Empathy] + Design

Frontmatter
Recognizability of Pictograms for Building Fire Evacuation

Each year, major building fires occur in every corner of the world and cause severe casualties, forcing governments worldwide to reflect on and inspect fire evacuation plans. Although numerous products have been created to facilitate fire evacuation procedures, the situation varies in each fire disaster. Therefore, it is imperative to provide information tailored to the immediate conditions to rapidly and appropriately guide evacuees in making decisions. On the basis of experts’ suggestions and users’ evacuation needs, this study summarized 13 fire evacuation decision-making points. The information that people require the most during a fire evacuation is “the exit locations” and “the standard evacuation procedure”. Through a survey on the recognizability of pictograms, we found the following visual features with highly evaluation: (1) large and simple images; (2) with a sense of space and situational scenes; (3) indicator arrow can express the sense of speed; (4) the escape action of the humanoid symbol has a higher evaluation than the simple arrow indication; (5) white images on a black background. Results of this study, an effective pictogram design system was developed to provide users with efficient fire evacuation guidance. In the future, the on-site experiments and design of dynamic pictogram signage with color will be developed with this research results.

Chia-Hua Lin
User Expectations of Serendipitous Recommender Systems

Personalized recommender systems have been criticized for limiting opportunities to consume diverse content and reinforcing self-bias leading to negative side effects on society. To address these issues, serendipity has emerged as a design goal of recommender systems increasing the long-term satisfaction of the users. However, research on serendipity in recommender systems has focused on improving the performance of algorithms to predict surprising and diverse items without considering the user’s desired experience. To investigate user expectations of serendipitous recommender systems, we conducted an eight-day diary study with eight participants, using the YouTube recommender system. We found that users expect serendipitous recommender systems not only to provide surprising and diverse items based on existing definitions of serendipity but also to guide the desired impact in the long-term perspectives and help them discover unrealized needs which do not rely on their past behaviours. Users also expect serendipitous recommender systems to provide items that could relieve their burden posed by the novelty of serendipitous recommendations. Based on these findings, we discuss design implications for designing user-centred serendipitous recommender systems that can support users to experience fundamental values of serendipity.

Sehee Son, Hyeji Kim, Hoyeon Nam, Youn-kyung Lim
Does the Robot Show Empathy with Me? Talking vs. Musical Robot

A loneliness pandemic pervades our youth, especially in Hong Kong. A growing body of research suggests that robots with empathic capabilities are important for negative emotion release. However, few studies explained how sad youth perceive and feel the empathy expressed by a robot. This study extends a formalized model of Interactively Perceiving and Experiencing Fictional Characters (I-PEFiC) plus the additions from Theory of Affective Bonding (TAB) into a new framework that explains the effects of a robot acting empathically so to become friends, thus reducing loneliness. In the current study, we explore how musical robots may be an alternative to talking robots, given that current NLP is limited and (popular) music is appealing to youth. We present an experiment in which empathy is measured in youth being exposed to a musical or a talkative robot. In our discussion, insights for designing an empathetic robot and the limitations of the study are reflected upon.

Shiming Huang, Johannes Ferdinand Hoorn
A Behavioural Strategy to Nudge Young People to Adopt In-Person Counselling: Gamification

This research is based on the master thesis of Shengen Piao, directed by Jaewoo Joo.Purpose- The purposes of this research are to investigate whether: (1) gamification increases the adoption of in-person counselling, (2) gamification increases usability of in-person counselling, (3) usability of in-person counselling increases adoption of in-person counselling, and (4) vividness of presentation increases the effect of gamification on the usability of in-person counselling.Methods- Eight young people participated in our experiment. In the experiment, a 2 (Gamification: no vs. yes) x 2 (Vividness: low vs. high) between-subjects design was employed to test hypotheses. We were systematically varying the condition in gamification on the different conditions of presentation of vividness.Results- The results of the study showed that (1) gamification increased adoption of in-person counselling, (2) gamification increased usability of in-person counselling, (3) subjective usability increased adoption of in-person counselling.Conclusions- This research firstly examines gamification's effect on the adoption of in-person counselling using carefully designed experiments. Our study demonstrated that gamification nudges young people to adopt in-person counselling, verified usability mediates the relationship, and vividness moderates the relationship. Our findings provide fresh insights into counsellors and the basis for future research.

Shengen Piao, Jaewoo Joo

[Context] + Design

Frontmatter
An Exploratory Study of Co-design Skills in the U.S. Job Postings

With the increasingly complex challenges and issues in the real-world, designers are changing their roles in design practices and influencing organization hierarchy. Co-design becomes crucial to implement more successful design practices and has caught attention in academia. However, there are few studies about the demands or application of co-design in the real-world job market. This exploratory study analyzes 638 job postings across design practices (graphic/product /experience/service design, design research, design management) in the U.S. job market, and identifies five relevant and important co-design skill categories including research, knowledge transformation, collaboration, synthesis, visualization that employers expect from designers. Furthermore, this study presents and elaborates significant different frequencies and requirements of specific co-design skills across design practices, and also suggests that design employers are requiring more skills related to co-design. This paper can provide insights and recommendations of co-design skills to researchers and designers in this field.

Yumeng Xie, G. Mauricio Mejía, Wenqi Zheng
Un-learning/Re-learning: Towards Pluriversal Co-design

China’s hyper-speed modernisation process generates complex problems demanding new approaches to designing equitable, integrated, liveable, urban and rural places. The Chinese hinterland city of Chongqing’s vast urban and rural area provides rich opportunities for investigating how art and design can help address related liveability and place-making challenges. This research aims to use Sino-Australian co-design to test how participatory urban media (large and small interactive screens, installations, façades, and devices) can act as a dialogic interface between diverse community, industry, and government stakeholders to increase our capacity to manage regional urban place-making problems. Our paper presents three empirical perspectives critically reflecting on a two-day co-design workshop conducted in Chongqing during December 2019 prior to the COVID19 pandemic. Informed by our own observations, and insights contributed by participating urban planners, architects, artists, designers, local government, academics, and students, we take a multi-vocal approach to evaluating the workshop methods, outcomes, and interactions. The unfolding narrative illustrates how transcultural and interdisciplinary co-design processes are entangled in language, local knowledge and traditions, socio-cultural hierarchies, different disciplinary fields and levels of professional status, as well as assumed Western design histories and local understandings of the role of art and design in relation to society. We argue these factors also influence the presentation of knowledge in academic writing about design. This highlights the urgent need for pluriversal modes of co-design, research through design, and scholarship about design which can inclusively impact and respond to the diverse needs of the new international situation and our shared urban futures.

Ian McArthur, Luona Zhang, Fang Xu
A Study of STEAM Education and Related Learning Environments in Elementary Schools: A Case Study of Elementary Schools of Fukuoka City

STEAM education is an educational approach that intentionally integrates and fuses the five disciplines of Science, Technology, Engineering, Arts, and Mathematics to achieve a specific goal through a given task, which has been attracting attention. STEAM education is being promoted widely in countries such as the United State and South Korea. On the other hand, Japan is still less advanced than in other countries, and there is little research on STEAM education and the design of its learning environment. This study focused on STEAM education in elementary schools in Fukuoka city because it is considered one of the areas in Japan where STEAM education is not advanced. The authors conducted a questionnaire to understand the implementation status of STEAM education in public elementary schools in Fukuoka City and interviewed a school who implemented STEAM education to understand the implementation details. Then clarified the kind of STEAM education currently being provided to identify the necessary educational environment for implementing STEAM education.

Hiroko Baba, Leon Loh
Understanding the Design Effects of Progress Indicators on Online Surveys

A progress indicator (PI) is often used to inform respondents of the task completion status of online surveys. When researchers conduct online surveys, reducing the dropout rate and the participants’ cognitive loads is important for improving the surveys’ efficiency. Although many studies have investigated the effect of using PIs with online surveys, it is unclear which PI design should be used to reduce the dropout rate and the participants’ perceived task load. Moreover, even in the Web content accessibility guidelines (WCAG), which should be followed in the building of websites to improve accessibility, the design guidelines for PIs are vague compared to those for other graphic elements. We noted that PIs have various designs and then created 25 types of PIs by combining design factors, labels, and bar graphs. We conducted an online survey through mTurk and collected 1,948 participants’ data. The online survey study results showed that the PI’s label design had a significant effect on the number of items the participants answered. In addition, we found that the respondents’ mental load changed significantly according to the combination of bar graph and label designs of the PI. This study provides strong support for designing the way a PI communicates the task process without reducing the speed of progress, which encourages respondents to answer more items and decreases their mental loads in online survey environments.

Wonyoung Park, Jaemyung Lee, Sangsu Lee

[Mobility and Interfaces] + Design

Frontmatter
Hand-in-O: Exploring Possibilities of Sensing and Constraining the Gestures with its Frame to Provide Light and Sound Feedback

The invisibility of a physical outline to constrain users within an area for conducting their gesture commands frequently results in making errors, which may further affect the less use of the gesture inputs. In this, despite the advantages of gestural user interface (UI), those were rarely used in our home electronics. This paper explores the possibilities of sensing and constraining the gesture interaction through the design, development, and user study of a research prototype called Hand-in-O. It is a device that constrains users in performing gestures by moving the hands inside of the frame to provide light and sound feedback. Using this, we conducted use experience exploration and a design workshop upon twenty-one participants. From the study, we could obtain categories for suggested usages of Hand-in-O in household contexts. Furthermore, using the frame form’s affordance, we found it may attract users’ curiosity about performing gesture interactions to control various media in homes.

Hanbyeol Lee, Beom Kim, Seungkyu Gim, Young-Woo Park
Handcrafted Mobility: The Field Study into DIY Vehicles and Practices in the Russian Northern Periphery

This pictorial presents designerly immersion into DIY activities on catering to local mobility needs in the periphery areas of the Russian North. In two case studies, we observe and document different manifestations of user creativity by necessity, namely rethinking available materials, tools and competencies. We combine photos and drawings to grasp the vivid dynamic relationship between humans and technologies within the ever-changing and challenging environment. Finally, we frame the value of field trips for designers in the context of design education as understanding DIY/making as a form of autonomous life support in an extreme environment.

Alexandra Raeva, Svetlana Usenyuk-Kravchuk
Effects of Gender and Semantics on Auditory Displays: An Exploratory Study on User Interface Design

Applying speech-based sounds in User Interfaces presents several advantages compared to other stimuli. Regarding the auditory displays, most part of previous research analyses Pleasure, Commandingness and Urgency in a single situation with high level of designed urgency. Considering this gap, the present study aimed to analyse the aforementioned factors in multiple situations with different levels of designed urgency, focusing also on the effects of gender and Semantics. Through a survey, 28 participants rated each factor on eight messages, spoken by a male and female Agent, using declarative and imperative wording. Results revealed that the participants’ and Agent’s gender influence the perceptions according to the situation’s level of designed urgency. The female Agent had a higher Pleasure rating, what replicates previous findings, but also a higher score for Urgency rating, contradicting the literature. Regarding the Semantics, results showed that despite the level of designed urgency of the situation the imperative wording led to a higher score for Commandingness and Urgency.

Matheus Tymburiba Elian, Oscar E. R. Sakay, Toshimasa Yamanaka
Merging Motorcycle and Smart Phone Controls for Ride-share Electric Motorcycles

In an era of rising urban density, innovative solutions are needed to facilitate short-distance “last mile” personal transportation. One new solution for last mile transportation is ride-share electric motorcycles (REMs) A preliminary review of the operation of REMs identified a problem with the dual control systems, which use both mechanical and digital interfaces. Currently, riders wishing to employ digital features like GPS navigation must release their hold on the handlebar to tap or swipe an associated smart phone. To overcome that problem, this design study explored a new mechanical control unit to provide control over a smart phone during riding.

Roger Ball, Xiaoyu Chen, Wei Wang, Heidi Overhill

[Educational Futures] + Design

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The Impact of Distance Learning Necessitated by Pandemic: An Exploration of Distance Vocational Education for Students with Intellectual Disabilities and New Opportunities in Design Domains

The relationship between emerging technologies and users has been raised as a notable area in design domains. The rapid changes in the educational environment triggered by COVID-19 have shown the importance of distance vocational education for students with intellectual disabilities (ID). In this context, this paper aims to propose design opportunities to improve the relationship between emerging technologies for distance learning and students with ID. This paper, firstly, identified emerging technologies for distance learning. Secondly, it discovered educational situations after COVID-19 through observations and questionnaires. Lastly, it explored opportunities for a relationship between emerging technologies and students with ID through workshops, one of the participatory design methods. As a result, this paper suggests three opportunities in design domains. The results of this paper can be used as fundamental data for research in design to improve the relationship between technologies and users and increase distance learning efficiency for students with disabilities.

Hoyoung Youn, Joon Sang Baek
Teaching Designers to Anticipate Future Challenges with Causal Layered Analysis

Low-probability disasters like global pandemics, nuclear war, earthquakes, solar flares and so forth require anticipatory imagination and strategic preparations. The COVID-19 global pandemic amply illustrated how being unprepared results in tragic outcomes for human lives, families, organizations, and economies. Preparing for different kinds of possible futures requires new thinking, imagining, and acting. Globally, design educators are challenged to prepare the next generation of designers for a rapidly changing world. How might designers learn to meaningfully engage with the challenges of our time (e.g., climate emergency, sustainable development) and emerging opportunities (e.g., AI, fourth industrial revolution, and so forth)? In this paper, I describe two futures thinking methods taught in a design centred futures course taught in the School of Design at Carnegie Mellon University in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania (USA). First, an Alternative Futures exercise with a 2 × 2 matrix that yields four possible futures. Second, students explored one possible future in-depth with Causal Layered Analysis (CLA). The design futures course was taught with the flipped-classroom active learning pedagogy through five activities: online learning, mini-lecture, demonstration, small group in-class workshop activities, and weekly reflection/discussion. I report on text analysis of student weekly reflections parsed with five codes related to CLA (i.e., personal insights, thinking structures, design insights, CLA details, other). Step-by-step scaffolding and multiple integrated learning activities helped students to engage with futures studies methods. CLA provided students with new thinking structures for sensemaking, new insights into futures thinking, and design methods and process insights on how to design for future challenges.

Peter Scupelli
Remaining Cyber-Active: Teaching UX Design with Online User-Research Tools During the COVID-19 Pandemic

Teaching user experience (UX) design has increasingly become a virtual process. This is particularly true for instructors running online synchronic courses due to the impact of the recent pandemic. A large portion of user research study, which is the backbone of UX design, is now undertaken using non-contact modes and conducted through online tools and methods to facilitate students learning this critical piece of UX design.User research study is essential to UX design. It leads to creativity and inspires design thinking. To fulfil their coursework on user research study, students explored online resources and utilised remote user research tools, such as online card sorting for user-centred information architecture and a web-based eye tracking machine learning tool for information hierarchy.Even though it lacked physical human interaction, using online user research tools in our experience was found to be accessible and effective and produced satisfactory learning results. This paper shares the experience of the online synchronic teaching of a UX design course at a state university and calls for an open discussion for utilising online tools in UX design education, which holds potential for becoming a new normal in academia in the post-pandemic era.

Nan Hu, Wujun Wang
Readjusting Design Education for Japanese High School Students During the Covid-19 Pandemic: A Case Study to Investigate Students’ Attitude in Using Online Whiteboard for Group Discussions During Design Activities

The purpose of this study is to understand and describe Japanese high school students’ perspectives in using online whiteboards during face-to-face group discussions for design activities in the Covid-19 pandemic. Using the SDGs Challenge Project in Fukusho High School in Fukuoka City, a qualitative research approach where the case study which included quantitative and qualitative inputs was adopted. Based on the findings, the following main points can be concluded. Firstly, even though students may feel that they are not competent users of digital devices, they may still think that effective group discussions can be achieved using an online whiteboard during face-to-face group discussions. This may be because real-time social interactions can still be achieved as lessons are conducted face-to-face. Secondly, students’ perceptions of achieving effective group discussions and the ease of use of the online whiteboard may influence their motivations in using the online whiteboard in future lessons. This may be due to the perception that as long as the online whiteboard is easy to use and it enhances performance, students may generally feel motivated in using the online whiteboard in future discussions. The findings from this study will provide insights for academics and high school teachers when conducting face-to-face lessons and attempting to use of online tools to mitigate challenges offered by the pandemic.

Leon Loh, Miki Ogo, YanFang Zhang, Noriko Takano, Moe Shimomura

[Technology and Autonomy] + Design

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Only Tablet with Dark Hair (Pictorial)

This pictorial takes the form of an original poem and photographs. Each illustrates the other. The theme concerns how contemporary ontological conditions may be induced by preoccupation with digital devices and online media. There is an element of dark humour. There is also a sense in which the design of our photographic narrative is an appeal to return to a healthy balance between virtual and physical. We also describe how this pictorial situates in the historical context of pictorials. We reflect on how the pictorial relates to selected conference themed design modes, technical considerations, and the photographic narrative as a form of design fiction.

Shunying An Blevis, Eli Blevis
Identity Collage: A Workshop Method for Exploring Intersectional Identities

Identities are often overlooked—from their absence in the persona to the specifics of user interview, leaving the most vulnerable unseen and underserved. Exploring intersectionality of identities is necessary to reframe biases strategically in creative processes. This pictorial documents a collage workshop method using identity wheels to explore hard-to-visualise personal, social, and intersectional identities. It proposes an avenue for critical integration of diversity and inclusion within the human-centered design space.

Linh Dao
Technology, Autonomy, and Participation: Designing Community Games and Services to Enhance Older Adults’ Technology Literacy

Broadly speaking, adults aged 65 and older are not as technologically literate as younger populations. They do not seek digital services, such as online banking and ridesharing services, as readily as younger people and are therefore isolated from these services benefits. In this project, we adopted personal autonomy and communal participation as principles for designing services to improve older adults’ technology learning experiences. We began the research by conducting surveys and interviews to better understand how older adults use digital technologies and how their interactions with these technologies are interrelated with their sense of autonomy and participation. Factor and cluster analyses were used to determine the correlation between older adults’ self-autonomous behaviours and the digital technologies they use daily. Employing quantitative and qualitative analyses, we developed three types of personas based on older adults’ technology-literacy levels, motivations, and barriers. In partnership with a local senior living community, we proposed an educational service to improve older adults’ technology literacy and prototyped three community games to address the specific problems that older adults experience while learning digital technologies. Due to the outbreak of the COVID-19 pandemic, we remotely tested these games with coordinators and educators from local senior centres. This research’s findings also influenced the design of a service to support isolated older adults during the COVID-19 pandemic.

Houjiang Liu, Miso Kim, Mingzhu Li, Shruthi Lakshmi Narayan
Public Bicycle Service Contents for ‘Seoul Bike Life+’ – Focused on Middle-Aged Users

Domestic public bicycles in Korea were started by launching Changwon City’s “Nubija” service in 2008, and Seoul City’s “Ttareungyi” service, which began in 2015, contributed to popularising public bicycles. However, the number of users is not increasing due to the inconvenience of the public bicycle use environment and service method. In the case of Ttareungyi, this would be why primary users’ age group weighted in their 20s and 30s. In this study, the design of service contents that can help expected users in their 40s or older and the users in the existing age group use Seoul public bicycle Ttareungyi proposed. The service content was planned to increase the frequency of public bicycle use for middle-aged and older people to exercise and leisure in everyday life by conducting question surveys and observation surveys to derive their needs and problems in existing services. This study tried to improve the usefulness of public bicycles such as rental methods, Ttareungyi Life bike station, course guide sign system, navigation, and personal health information provision. Significantly, the concept of a public bicycle use campaign named “Seoul Bike Life+” was introduced and tried to enhance the availability of public bicycles by suggesting service content for it.

Minji Kim, Byungkeun Oh

[Sensory Perceptions] + Design

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DRIZZLE: A Comic for Covert Climate Action Influence

Misinformation and rhetoric in current public discourse make climate change denial a difficult viewpoint to argue against by policy and scientific arguments alone. The public is more persuaded by personal stories of influence rather than sound logic. Instead of traditional arguments, we created covert visual narratives that communicate the values espoused by climate action without framing it as an argument for climate action. Such implicit influences are designed for particular goals of climate action, such as individual responsibility, long-term vision, and collective conservation strategies, utilizing design fiction to narratively engage even antagonistic viewpoints like climate change denial. The comic tabloid Drizzle seeks to engage audiences visually with personal virtues that align with climate action without policy-based, overt arguments. In audience evaluations, we found that stories designed for particular psychological influence in climate action can activate the goals espoused without declaring factual knowledge about climate change. The climate comics can also lead to self-reported pro-climate actions to some extent. This espouses the use of objects designed for psychological purposes in pro-climate actions as opposed to explicit argumentative declarations.

Zijing Song, Yating Sun, Ray Lc
Patch Atlas

The Patch Atlas is a unique conceptual tool to analyse cities as complex systems, using a new, hybrid concept of urban land cover. As an impetus to bring ecologists and urban designers together, it builds on over a decade of shared knowledge from the Baltimore Ecosystem Study to inspire ecologically motivated design practice. Rather than separating human-constructed environments from predominantly biological and geological ones, this book integrates built and ecological structures and shows how this integration can contribute to the scholarship of ecology and the practice of design. The Atlas displays maps and tables depicting these hybrid land cover classes and the relationships between them; information on how the specific patch arrangements evolved over time; and speculations on how cover might change through design, disturbance, or succession. Interdisciplinary and strikingly illustrated, the Atlas is a new way to study, measure, and view cities with a more effective interaction of scientific understanding and design practice.

Victoria J. Marshall, Mary L. Cadenasso, Brian P. McGrath, Steward T. A. Pickett
Unpacking Cultural Perceptions of Future Elder Care Through Design Fiction

We present a case using Design Fiction to unpack cultural perceptions of future elder care rooted in the Asian context of Singapore. We created two design fictions, addressing the tensions between filial piety and automated care and the controversy of integrating elder care facilities into residential communities. The design fictions took the visual forms of a shopping web page and a petition site and the public were invited to make fictional decisions. Received in total 109 responses, we identify the key tensions and value conflicts and illustrate them through visual narratives. Further, implied by the Asian perspective of familial relations in care, we propose the positioning of social relationships as the protagonist in creating elder care design fiction.

Tse Pei Ng, Jung-Joo Lee, Yiying Wu
Incorporating Sensory Reflection to Understand the Past, Current and Future Experience of the Emotional Mobility

Designers are using the human senses as part of the form and experience of engaging in emotional mobility. There is a distinction between long-term and short-term emotional goals in mobility experience. However, the current emotional design theory lacks attention to the collateral effects. We developed a framework for sensory reflection, a designer’s approach to creating unique experiences. It aims to understand how designers abstract sensory information, disconnect deep personal emotions from the senses and encapsulate them in an emotional mobility design. Based on the Sensory Experience Design project of GAC R&D Center, this study further reports on the process and results of a workshop based on this framework, exploring the variability in designers’ understanding of emotional mobility in different temporal contexts. Through a sensory narrative approach, 36 designers used Sensory Reflection Inspired (SRI) cards to envision emotional mobility in four temporal contexts: ‘no theme’, ‘past’, ‘current’, and ‘future’. Designers commented on the SRI cards as useful. They agree that the cards can promote thinking in the early stages of design. And then, their narrative texts and the proportion of cards selected were counted. The results showed that the designers could clearly distinguish between different temporal contexts when doing their sensory reflective practices. No theme and ‘current’ themes led to a pattern of long-term emotional purpose. The ‘past’ and ‘future’ themes, on the other hand, led to designers’ sensory reflections that emphasized long-term emotional goals and incorporated thoughtful, emotional connotations.

Ningyi Dai, Zhengyu Tan, Yutian Lei, Xiang Gao

[Biosciences] + Design

Frontmatter
Life Centered Design: Unpacking a Post-humanistic Biodesign Process

The current ecological crisis highlights a need for an alternative design approach to counteract the mainstream human-centered design methodologies. This pictorial aims to bridge this gap by introducing a novel design approach, Life Centered Design, and its design process. The findings from a biodesign project on bioluminescent microalgae are presented and further reflected through a panel of experts. The autoethnographical notes taken throughout the design process surfaced five design considerations, concerned with; combining perspectives, collaboration with the non-human, communication (challenges), the benefit ratio and ethical debate of human-non-human relations. These design considerations were iterated with a panel of experts to explore their applicability and generalizability across other biodesign projects. The case, the design considerations, and further discussions are organized as the body of Life Centered Design, providing both a practical guide and a reflection tool for post-human centred biodesign processes.

Daniëlle Ooms, Bahareh Barati, Amy Winters, Miguel Bruns
Towards a Designerly Way of Thinking for Bioengineers with ‘Design and Science’ Cards

This paper reports a series of idea generation workshops in which bioengineers took part. The workshops were facilitated with ‘Design and Science’ (DxS) ideation cards created by the authors. The analysis of post-workshop interviews with 5 bioengineers shows that the use of DxS cards enabled the contextualisation of scientific research. In particular, the combination of ‘Context cards’ (developed around the United Nations Sustainable Development Goals) and ‘Science cards’ (developed around novel scientific advancements) enabled bioengineers to build new narratives, speculate and imagine possible futures. ‘Design and Science’ ideation cards make designerly approaches available for bioengineers and have the potential to support interdisciplinary creativity in the emerging field of biodesign.

Sander Välk, Yuning Chen, Celine Mougenot
Designing Conditions for Disruptive Innovation Ecosystems

The concept of disruptive innovation ecosystems relates to a type of ecosystem capable of delivering disruption in underserved markets. This idea can create serendipity for disruption through new ways of thinking and leveraging resources across businesses. However, scant research exists on what and how to design conditions for disruption utilising resources and capabilities at the boundaries of businesses. Based on network theory and characterisation, we evoke an alternative design mode using visuals and speech to generate rich data with participants in makerspaces. The qualitative and visualisation data is analysed using thematic and visual network analysis techniques, respectively. Our findings suggest three main conditions that may be satisfied to create serendipity for disruptive innovation ecosystems to emerge: Navigating high risks, creating new markets, and generating new roles. Our findings also highlight factors under these three conditions that may be promoted to create disruption. Combining the thinking “through design” approach using visuals and speech with network theory and characterisation, we demonstrate the significance of coupling conversations with drawings, thus moving past abstractions and helping participants to see and better understand the inner workings of their ecosystem attributes. Using theoretical constructs embedded in visualisations can help design researchers and ecosystem practitioners design conditions for disruptive innovation ecosystems. The originality of this work is in linking network theory and characterisation with speech and visual data capture and analysis, thus presenting a strategic asset and alternative way of thinking and acting on boundary spanning resources and capabilities in local ecosystems.

Badziili Nthubu, Daniel Richards, Leon Cruickshank
Ecological Model Inspired Thinking Process; The Alternative Design Mode for Nature and Human’s Coexistence in the New Era

Design thinking has developed for several decades, and we are an expert at applying human needs to innovation. However, the challenges that are currently rising with the acceleration to the Anthropocene, are beyond the scope of human-centered design thinking. Nature is losing its restoration capability, but the alternative solutions from the perspective of humans are inadequate to adapt to and protect the fluctuating environment. Thus, to solve the challenge, this study suggests an alternative design mode extracted from nature’s thinking process, Ecological model inspired thinking by transferring the underlying assumption of design thinking to biomimicry and multiple species-centered philosophy. A new ecological model for coexistent evolution has been developed and was used to design the steps and toolkits of the process. The effectiveness of the design mode was examined through comparative analysis with design thinking, exploring the potential for practical application of the new design scenario to present-day innovations.

Seohyeon Chung, Hari Kim

[Organizations and Values] + Design

Frontmatter
From Matter to Mind – From Individual Values to Organisational Purpose: A Design Approach with a Focus on Sensory Sensemaking

This pictorial is intended to show the potential of a sensory sensemaking approach in the process of forming and reforming visions for a mutual purpose in organisations. Building on existing theories in various relevant areas such as embodied cognition, organisational sensemaking, tacit and aesthetic knowledge, material engagement and knowledge transfer, the author has developed a set of objects and an associated method that brings mindfulness and learning into a sensemaking process through distinct material-immanent qualities and aesthetic experiences. The conceived Sensory Sensemaking Set consists of a series of objects designed with the aim of stimulating associative thinking with and through the physical experience of material objects to promote individual and collective knowledge construction and transfer. The Sensory Sensemaking Set and its associated method were tested with participants in a purpose and strategy workshop. Considering that the enthnographic study was solely exploratory and limited in scope, the research conducted cannot be expected to provide sufficient and valid data to derive robust conclusions and theories. However, the results are promising and show that the majority of participants felt inspired, motivated and enabled by thinking about and thinking through materiality as part of the Sensory Sensemaking approach in an organisational purpose context.

Oliver Szasz
Design Sprint Task Ladder: Scaling Design Tasks for New Modes of Designing

New condensed modes of designing require new ways of differentiating design tasks. This paper presents a conceptual framework, the Task Ladder, which proposes such differentiation. It is based on a study of Small and Medium sized Enterprises and the tasks they work within ‘design sprints’ as part of a Danish design-driven business development programme. The real-time study of a number of case companies’ sprint processes indicated that the companies’ experiences with the sprint format, and the needs and obstacles that arose in the process, related to the scope and scale of the design sprint task in question. This gave rise to the investigation of the scope differences between design sprint tasks, which resulted in the conceptualisation of a task scale represented by the Task Ladder. The Task Ladder features four task scale levels that vary on several aspects, but overall, on degree of ‘openness’ of the task. This paper accounts for the development of the framework and discusses the usefulness of it, including interviews with design professionals who have used the Task Ladder in their work. The interviews demonstrate the usefulness of the Task Ladder in practice, stating that it provides an understanding and language to talk about development stages in design processes and hence serves as a tool for alignment of expectations, tracking of process progress, and planning future design processes. Finally, the Task Ladder lays the ground for further research on how design sprints can be adapted to meet different needs at the different task levels.

Sidse Ansbjerg Bordal
Cultivating Service Design at a Managerial Level: Towards a Process Model for Building Service Design Leadership in SMEs

Service Design (SD) is a maturing design discipline that is used to support service innovation in organisations. However, organisations still struggle to embed SD capabilities in sustainable ways. This paper examines how small and medium-sized organisations (SMEs) can embed SD by cultivating SD skills and knowledge at management level. We report on a 3-year action research study situated in a medium sized non-design intensive organisation. The study demonstrates it is essential to focus on management in order to cultivate a SD culture in this context. We find that SMEs must enable managers to ‘lead through design’ as an organisational condition for the development of a sustainable SD culture. Based on our findings, we propose a process model for building a SD leadership in SMEs and discuss three central tensions related to this process. Together, these provide both theoretical and practical insights for future work.

Cathrine Seidelin, Stine Moeslund Sivertsen
A Review of Research on Design Management and Dynamic Capabilities

Design management and dynamic capabilities are not entirely new fields, and the existing literature also mentions the connection between these concepts. The relationship between these two concepts is apparent and lacks in-depth research. However, studying the relationship between design management and dynamic capabilities helps us understand the nature of design management, discovering and responding to changes. Through literature review, we can clarify the relationship between them. Design management is a dynamic capability, and it can also generate new dynamic capabilities. Design management can be a dynamic capability because it has precise characteristics of dynamic capabilities, namely sensing, seizing, and transforming resources. Simultaneously, it can contribute new dynamic capabilities because it has the conditions for generating dynamic capabilities while the organisation and management process, specific positions, paths, and complete routines. Exploring the composition of design management through dynamic capability theory is of great significance to constructing the theoretical framework and operational prototype of design management.

Bing Zheng, Sylvia Xihui Liu

[Urban and the Rural] + Design

Frontmatter
The Miswak Toothbrush: Incorporating Traditional Knowledge into Contemporary Product Design

Dominant approaches to developing more sustainable ways of living are often underpinned by the modern values and knowledge that have been instrumental in creating our unsustainable world. Such approaches tend to emphasise reducing unsustainability via technological fixes rather than addressing sustainability more holistically. This paper argues that more traditional forms of knowledge (associated with deeper ecological, spiritual and ethical values) are important for addressing sustainability more holistically. To demonstrate this, we present and discuss a conceptual design for a contemporary toothbrush that incorporates traditional knowledge about tooth cleaning in rural India. This design demonstrates an interpretive, imaginative process that combines practical needs with enduring human values to modern sensibility.

Changede Sejal, Thomas Lisa, Walker Stuart
Communities of Making - A Visual Exploration of Rural Makerspaces in India

This pictorial seeks to capture both the tangible and intangible aspects of site visits to Makerspaces situated in rural India. While over twenty-five Makerspaces across four regions were documented through conversational interviews, photography, sketching and reflective writing for the project, only a small selection of this wealth of visual and factual information, with a particular focus on rural locations, has been compiled in this pictorial. It provides a rich tapestry of Indian maker cultures, their contribution to local communities, and how these spaces interpret their role as facilitators of creation within the complex global narratives of sustainability.

Katharina Vones
Decolonizing Design with Technology in Cultural Heritage Contexts - Systematic Literature Review

In this paper we present the results of a systematic literature review investigating the cross-sections of decolonizing design, cultural heritage, and technology. In total, 26 relevant publications were found and examined systematically. Decolonizing design is a growing trend and the most publications were published since 2017. By examining the results, we will introduce the current debates and discourses on using technology in the context of cultural heritage field by using decolonizing design approach. We report that whereas technology itself appears as neutral, it is applied through a lens of values which can be intertwined with politics and power. In order to improve this, the design processes should be integrated with the local and cultural context. This is accomplished through participatory and co-creation approaches. Altogether, whereas the theme of decolonizing design is gaining growing interest, there is still a relatively small number of studies which report applying the approach into the design practice.

Siiri Paananen, Mari Suoheimo, Jonna Häkkilä
Making Praça Nelson Mandela: Morphological Change and Graphic Interventions to Define a New Square in the Botafogo District of Rio de Janeiro

Through briefly tracing the making of a new square in the Botafogo district of Rio de Janeiro we evidence how Nelson Mandela’s heritage is conveyed through the introduction of urban graphic objects. In doing so, we highlight how an otherwise indistinct parcel of land is further transformed into Praça Nelson Mandela and subsequently differentiated and enhanced through the imposition of graphic heritage associated with him. Therefore, we aim to raise awareness of the role of the graphic object in the larger scaled urban object. The specific intent of the research is three-fold: i) identify a disciplinary perspective to analyse the early collection of visual data; ii) acknowledge the significance of the iconography associated with visual representations of Nelson Mandela; and iii) identify possibilities for further analysing the collected assets and the potential for future graphic heritage interventions. The research provides a cross-disciplinary view integrating the morphological and visual dimensions of urban design.

Mirella De Menezes Migliari, Robert Harland

[Enabling Practices] + Design

Frontmatter
Re-balance, a Perception-Enabled Chair for Multi-species Domestic Agency

The paper presents the theoretical, conceptual, and technical framework of ‘Re-Balance: the chair that doesn’t know it is a chair’, an automated kneeling chair able to construct interactions in various domains of action. This pet furniture is designed to extend our daily life ecologies and to enrich their interactive experiences both on the physical and emotional levels. A unique acoustic and motion language expresses different personalities willing to create special relationships with human and nonhuman actors (living beings or algorithmic intelligence). The project resides at the intersection of posthuman design and human-robot interaction, studying contemporary multi-species cohabitation and social design modes. This chairbot is thought to be an actual commercial product, as a platform for collective research.At the time of writing this paper, the project is at the initial stages of the development of mock-ups and prototypes for the ergonomic studies and the communication skills of the chairbot via movement and sounds.

Mirko Daneluzzo, Michele Daneluzzo
Side-Stepping Future Transport Exclusion via an Expanded Inclusive Design Approach

Access to transport is essential for an individual’s effective participation in social, economic and political activities. However, individuals are excluded from participating in many of these activities due to transport-related social exclusion. Inclusive design is commonly used to address issues of exclusion in the development of products and services for older and disabled people. However, little has been done to explore the specific application of inclusive design in addressing transport-related social exclusion. Through a review of literature comparing the key approaches and concepts of inclusive design and transport-related social exclusion, and evaluating the suitability of inclusive design for addressing issues of transport-related social exclusion, this paper presents an expanded approach to inclusive design for use in the design and development of vehicles and transport services. This expanded approach encourages transport designers and researchers to consider a range of excluded people groups outside of the age-ability construct and to also address issues of availability and user experience beyond the initial focus of usability. By exploring the current transport experiences of a range of excluded people groups, a number of common areas of transport exclusion were identified including physical exclusion, digital & information exclusion, cost & payment exclusion, service exclusion, and psychological exclusion. Through the use of the expanded approach of inclusive design for transport and these common areas of transport exclusion, transport designers and researchers can better ensure that all issues of transport exclusion are being addressed in the development of new and future vehicles and transport services from the outset of their development.

Robin Severs, Jiayu Wu, Cyriel Diels, Dale Harrow, Martin Uhlarik
UX Needs Cards – A Pragmatic Tool to Support Experience Design Through Psychological Needs

The psychological needs-driven UX approach is a well-explored area in UX research and a powerful framework for the design of optimal experiences with systems and products. However, the transfer from research to practice is slow and this approach is not yet widely used by practitioners. As card-based methods have been shown to support designers in both the generation of ideas and the evaluation of their designs, we created the UX needs cards as a pragmatic tool able to support a needs-driven UX process. We present the iterative development of the card-set and its associated techniques and report on three use cases, demonstrating the effectiveness of this tool for user research, idea generation and UX evaluation. Our empirical findings suggest that the UX needs cards are a valuable tool able to support design practice, being easily understood by lay users and a source of inspiration for designers. Acting as a tangible translation of a research framework, the UX needs cards promote theory-driven design strategies and provide researchers, designers, and educators with a tool to clearly communicate the framework of psychological needs.

Carine Lallemand
Reconciling the Gap Between Seamless and Seamful Design Approach

This paper explores conceptually and empirically the complex and multi-layered networks of interaction where personal data is shared across different platforms. This is explored through the vocabulary and tensions established by ‘seamful’ and ‘seamless’ design approaches and their limitations in allowing people to track the flow of personal data across complex assemblages of digital services. These ideas are explored using a participatory method to support the design of Inclusive Digital Services where a prototype of seamless service related to data reuse and sharing is co-designed to address friction, effort, risk and cost (FERC) inherent to third sector services. The conclusion suggests that we need to foster a new attitude towards the development of trust in human-computer interaction, this can be achieved by promoting the turn to privacy by design and addressing the gap between ‘seamless’ and ‘seamful’ design through participatory methods.

Luis Soares, James Stewart, David Alexander, Chris Speed

[Perceptions and Performance] + Design

Frontmatter
Unravelling Complexity

This pictorial illustrates how sustainability in textiles depends on a complex set of design decisions, as well as different sustainable values. By literally and figuratively unravelling and analysing an unsustainable textile product, these decisions and values were made visible and tangible. Through a first simulated and then actual development process of textile products, participants came to experience the effects of their own assumptions on sustainability and gained a better understanding of the complexity and challenges of textile production. This method allowed designers and producers to explore and discuss the opportunities for sustainability in production processes and the impact of design decisions at an early stage of product development. A similar strategy was used to interactively teach a general public about the impact of design decisions on the sustainability of textiles.

Michelle Baggerman
Profound Experience Design in Community Service Interaction

Many researchers and scholars have focused on designs of products, services and social systems that increase comfort, happiness and satisfaction. Profound experiences are those that produce feelings of extreme intensity. Emotions such as joy, cognition, pride and connection are commonly elicited in various social service interactions. In community service, profound experiences are increasingly evident, as users pursue harmonious relationships and value integration in service interactions. In this study we aim to explore and illustrate why profound experiences are so important in community service interactions, and to analyse the impact and attributes of community service design. We identify four elements of profound experience in community service, and suggest that they improve social relationships, enhance user participation and reflect personal values, which can have a positive impact on social experience.

Ming Lou, Kin Wai Michael Siu, Linghao Zhang, Qing Zhang, Jianbin Wu
Improving Consumer Adoption of Refurbished Products by Reducing Contamination

Refurbishment is an impactful strategy to extend product lifetimes. However, consumers believe that refurbished products are contaminated with traces of prior use. These traces can be of aesthetic (e.g., scratches) or functional nature (e.g., lower battery capacity). This research explores design strategies to improve consumer adoption of refurbished products by reducing contamination. In a choice-based conjoint-experiment, 785 participants were exposed to refurbished headphones varying in features related to contamination, warranty and price. Results showed that most consumers value no wear-and-tear, and if parts touching the skin (ear-cushions) are renewed during the refurbishment process; this is more important than the reduced price or warranty. Depending on the consumer group, other contamination-reducing strategies were of great influence: While some consumer groups highly valued that signs-of-prior-use are eliminated through an as-new appearance, others preferred refurbished products without functional wear-and-tear. Design strategies how to deal with contamination issues during multiple life cycles are discussed.

Theresa Stephanie Wallner, Lise Magnier, Ruth Mugge
The Connection Between Perceived Product Performance and Evoked Emotions

To enhance emotional experiences of everyday objects, this study investigated how perceived product performance influences creating emotions. Fifteen pairs of participants were asked to share their experiences of everyday objects while they were looking at a list of products and personalities and attributing those personalities to products. Analysing the data from these co-discovery sessions showed that perceived poor performance of products causes negative emotions while satisfactory performance can lead to both positive and negative emotions. In creating both positive and negative emotions, functional aspects were more influential than symbolic and aesthetic ones. Results of this study can help designers to get a better understanding of interaction between people and products in order to design products which evoke positive emotions.

Ghazaleh Sepahpour, Alethea Blackler, Marianella Chamorro-Koc

[Visualizations and Memory] + Design

Frontmatter
Dear Design Journal: A Visual Journey and a Reflective Account of a Practice-Led Doctoral Research

A pictorial about design journaling as a critical documentation method for doctoral practice-led re- search. It presents various tools and methods that support the researcher’s reflexivity, illustrated in the author’s analysis of his journaling work. It concludes on the importance of journaling to identify new insights and generate theory based on capturing the researcher’s reflection.

Daniel Echevrri
Reflecting Through the Photo’s Un-making

This pictorial investigates how overlooked personal habits and machine-learning biases in photo-imaging practices can be identified through the image-generative capabilities of a GAN algorithm. Incorporating a designerly way of reflecting is key to noticing such habits and biases. These are therefore revealed both by noticing what the algorithm is capable of, yet also the relationship between humans and the world which this technology mediates. Practices of photo-taking and photo-looking facilitate this process of reflection. Simultaneously, the technology provides a window into its functioning and its potential integration into on-site image-taking practices.

Marty Miller, Giovanni Lion
“Hey Alexa, Where Are You?” A Drawing Study to Understand Users’ Mental Models of the Environments Surrounding Conversational Agents

Although conversational agents (CA) have increased in the control of smart devices, recent research has revealed that the frequency of interaction with agents decreases over time due to a gap between the user’s expectations and the actual experience. To reduce the gap, previous studies explored the mental model related to the user’s expectation for designing a CA through a verbal approach such as an interview, but this was insufficient because the mental model can contain abstract images that are difficult to express in words. Therefore, in this paper, we aim to understand user perceptions through a drawing approach. We asked 34 smart speaker users to draw what the CA looks like. We found that the participants drew not only the CA but also the environment surrounding the CA, and the perception of the environment influences the expectation and intimacy with the CA. Based on these findings, we suggest that environmental factors be considered significant in designing CA persona.

Sunok Lee, Sangsu Lee
Memory Container: A Co-creation Model of Olympic Memories from Individuals to Groups

To discover the value of Olympic memory as the cultural heritage of the Olympics, we have studied the transformation and utilization of personal memory to group memory. Based on the theory of interactive memory, we have constructed a “memory container” scenario co-creation model, and then formed a memory transformation and the paradigm of delivery. As a kind of intangible Olympic cultural heritage, Olympic memory not only has the inheritance effect on the past Olympic culture, but also has an important enlightening effect on the future Olympic Games. The intangible nature of Olympic memory and its dependence on individual memory also make It becomes a legacy that is easy to lose. As the Winter Olympics is approaching, more Olympic memory legacy will emerge. How to store and transform it efficiently, and further realize its inheritance and development, has become an urgent problem to be solved. To break the limitations of personal memory and meet the public’s demand for Olympic cultural heritage, we have studied the transformation model from personal memory to group memory. Based on the theory of interactive memory system, this paper constructs a set of memory-based structured scenario co-creation design tools-memory container, to gather and refine the content of Olympic cultural heritage that everyone expects with group wisdom, promote the transformation of personal memory to group memory, and then Form a paradigm, and provide some theoretical basis for building a virtual interactive platform to construct a common memory.

Zhiyong Fu, Jingwen Xu

[Other Ergonomics] + Design

Frontmatter
Embracing the Role of Fashion Value in the Design of Wearable Products: A Case Study of 3D Face Mask Bracket

Wearable products require additional considerations in design for utilitarian and aesthetic requirements. The wearable designs which are exposed to others while wearing need a fashion value for being trendy, therefore, widely appreciated by the audience. During the pandemic (Covid-19), face masks are considered to be mandatory for outdoors and indoor gatherings. Traditional surgical masks are quite useful; however, the design requires significant improvements for ergonomics and aesthetics. Users also demand a redesign of a face mask with improved ergonomics while performing sports and cardio activities along with the enhanced fashion value. A 3d sports face mask bracket has been designed with improved ergonomics during sports activities. Special considerations have been given to incorporate significant fashion and aesthetic values for a wider range of customizations and user appreciation. The design of the bracket has been developed to fit perfectly on the face without ear loops and neck supports for enhanced user experience and comfort.

Hassan Iftikhar, Yan Luximon, Scott Chin
Research on the Design and Evaluation of Healing Product Under the Background of COVID-19

In addition to work, study and social pressure, the spread of COVID-19 worldwide has become a new factor leading to anxiety. Therefore, how to relieve people’s increasing anxiety is an important issue. In this research, from the perspective of healing products, we put forward a series of design guides and evaluation criteria for healing products to serve as a reference for designers and psychological counsellors. First, we collected 100 healing products as research samples through market research and professional recommendations and constructed a sample information table. Meanwhile, 20 people with high anxiety were selected as the subjects using the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI) questionnaire. Secondly, we required subjects to evaluate 100 samples with vision, hearing, touch, smell, and taste as healing factors and used Fuzzy C-means (FCM) for cluster analysis. Then, after the subjects experienced several representative samples in each category for some time, we used the Evaluation Grid Method (EGM) to obtain a three-layer evaluation chart for healing products, namely upper, middle, and lower. Lastly, after quantitative analysis, the concrete lower layer is used as the design guide, and the relatively abstract middle layer is used as the evaluation criteria. This research could help designers and psychological counsellors develop new healing products and recommend suitable healing products to alleviate better people’s anxiety caused by COVID-19.

Fan Wu, Yang-Cheng Lin, Peng Lu
The Ergonomics of Couch Potatoes: A Study into Postures for Non-desk Working Scenarios

In this study, we investigated how users work with a tablet in a non-desk setting. While portable computing devices have enabled ‘work anywhere’, few furniture and user interface has been designed for working in non-desk settings. In a co-exploration study, participants (n = 20) performed three tablet activities (video watching, typing, and drawing) on a configurable sofa. Using multiple cushions, the participants iteratively explored comfortable sitting as well as lying postures in diverse body orientations. The result showed a variety of postures and support configurations for the comfort of working in a non-desk setting. Unlike working at a conventional desk setting, the body parts supported each other as well as a tablet, and preferred postures were unique to each activity. By systematically analyzing and categorizing postures, we uncovered new design opportunities for furniture and interactive systems that do not deal with a traditional desk setting.

Joongi Shin, Daniel Saakes
Immersions in Materials for Packaging. The Case Study of a Digital Festival on Analogic Materials

Over the last twelve months, the effects of the COVID 19 pandemic have changed both the approach and praxis of design. However, some unforeseen outcomes have come to light when the pandemic is enforced into the variety of design domains as both challenges. In this context, MATto, Politecnico di Torino’s material library, proposed within Terra Madre - Salone del Gusto 2020, online support to companies and designers interested in the new material and technological challenges of food packaging: solutions, today, are linked to disciplines from chemistry to technological culture, from semiotics to perception, to design. MATto investigated these issues, with attention to sustainability, aesthetics, and inclusion, developing a new accessible learning model for an extended audience. The challenge of digitalising a deeply analogic issue such as the materials experience was faced, unveiling new promising opportunities.

Doriana Dal Palù, Beatrice Lerma

[Multimodal Challenges] + Design

Frontmatter
Leveraging on Fabrication and Making Methodologies to Support the Development of Ecological Empathy

In this pictorial, the authors describe how fabrication and making methodologies have been used within the scope of a design studio to support concept development in a more embodied and sensory oriented way. We also describe how such a way is very relevant for the studio brief: reconnecting citizens and Nature. The images included in the pictorial offer details of the methodology and the fabrication techniques proposed to the students, and reflect on their impact on the relevance and maturity of the final projects. Finally, we argue that hands-on techniques may offer better support in addressing not-anthropocentric design projects, thus opening the reflection for how research and teaching of design may look like in a post-human design era.

Saverio Silli, Francesca Valsecchi
Framing Multimodal Discourses About Place as Graphic Landscaping

This paper reports on preliminary research that formulates an emergent theoretical framework through the consideration of graphic design research in conjunction with the concept of semiotic landscape in place. The purpose of this research is to extend our understanding of the current discursive modalities in typographic landscape/landscaping and semiotic landscape using the notion of graphic knowledge. It positions graphic design elements as possessing the semiotic potential to contribute to the interdisciplinary research of multimodal discourses about places. This research began with a review of the literature in relation to the development of linguistics, semiotics and, latterly, typographic landscaping. This development links graphic knowledge from social semiotics, providing the fundamental connection between semiotic landscape and graphic design. A new theoretical framework was established by combining urban graphic design and semiotic landscape, and a new theoretical hypothesis of ‘graphic landscaping’ is proposed to refer to the discursive ability of graphic design elements in social places.

Hang Pan, Robert G. Harland, Alison Barnes
Social Challenges and Design. Exploiting Digital Technologies to Trigger a Behavioural Transition Towards a Sustainable Food Life Cycle

Today digital technologies offer an unprecedented opportunity to facilitate dynamic and engaging interactions among people, promote conversations around crucial issues - such as climate change - guide joint action, and trigger innovation. In this paper, we aim to discuss how design can act as a lever towards adopting a more sustainable behaviour in food consumption, exploiting the potential of digital technologies. The paper first outlines the scope of interest: climate change is a global concern, and sustainability is a key topic on the European agenda. To ensure systematic changes towards a circular economy and achieve a low emission pathway, active public participation and trust in transition are essential. We reflect on this challenge by drawing on a research initiative called FOODIE, “FOOD Impact for Earth,” envisioned by an international, multidisciplinary, and heterogeneous consortium. Under such an initiative, through an active confrontation among all the involved expertise, a digital system was designed aimed to activate a virtuous model to change young citizens’ food consumption behaviour actively. Besides such a system, the methods applied to test its validity with citizens are described. The paper emphasizes the value of design as a transformative tool to respond to contemporary social challenges. In addition to natural sciences and engineering, design should indeed be considered a fundamental lever to address the environmental crisis of our time.

Carmen Bruno, Venere Ferraro, Lucia Rampino, Susanna Testa
A Making Mode is Missing Code: Research Through Design Lacks Discourse Around Programming

Making programmable things, such as prototypes and other interactive physical artefacts, has inherent value for Research through Design inquiries. However, the intersection between programming and Research through Design appears to have received little attention. To investigate this issue, we conducted a literature review examining 51 papers. In nearly every case, the artefact’s program and the act of programming appear to be severely under-documented. It does not seem to matter where the code came from, what kind of responsiveness the behaviour has, how responsive the interaction is, or how the code maps to the perceived behaviour. Analysis of our corpus revealed six themes and three leverage points for supporting designerly research’s engagement with programming. We use these to offer recommendations to deepen and broaden the range of insights that may be articulated by Research through Design that involves interactive artefacts.

Jussi Mikkonen, Robb Mitchell

[Interconnected Products] + Design

Frontmatter
Would You Like a Cup of Meaning: Discovering Different Roles of Coffee Cups Through Narratives

We are surrounded with thousands of artifacts. We use them, we live with them, and we interact with them. Coffee cups are just one type of these artifacts, which are in every part of our lives. Asking whether their meanings can be more than we think, this paper tries to explore various meanings and roles of coffee cups in our lives. Methodologically positioned in the theory of product semantics and the context of discursively informed design, this study is completely based on the narratives of 6 participants, who take place in this study. According to these narratives, 7 different roles of the coffee cup are determined: ambiance setter, memory embodier, motivator, personality indicator, timer, social situation indicator and object of one’s place. While these roles are analysed and presented in the light of the theories and essential contexts of product semantics, as the concluding remark two inferences are made considering human interaction with the world in the context of discursively informed design: making sense of context(s) and connecting contexts.

Irem Genc
The Body and Textiles at the Intersection of the Physical and the Digital Through Movement: Investigating Alternative Body-Textile Expressions for Fashion Design

The prevalent body-dress paradigms in fashion education and industry primarily consider the physical interaction of the human body in relation to the textile material. This needs to be further investigated due to the ongoing digitalisation of the fashion system, which often results in a limited understanding of design methods with regard to how the body and dress influence each other. The research presented in this article aims to challenge the prevalent body-dress paradigms in fashion design by suggesting alternative methods for designing in the digital space using the human body and textiles. In this research, we investigated the artistic potential for fashion design by inverting the prevalent body-dress movement paradigm using motion-capture technology. A mixed-reality installation was developed as a design tool and used as a sketching method to translate textile movement in physical space into human-body movement in digital space. Alternative body-textile expressions were recorded and analysed based on sketching methods. The findings suggest that the resulting physical and digital bodily forms created possibilities for designing alternative types of dress, beyond jackets, shirts, and trouser. The findings contribute to the fashion design field in both academia and industry by suggesting alternative body-textile expressions as the starting points and criteria for designing dress from a different perspective than is commonly practiced. This could support designers in creating alternative types of dress that are not predominated by established characterisations of dress in the fashion field.

Jan Tepe, Faseeh Saleem
The ADI Game: Exploring Futures of Graphic Design and Artificial Intelligence in AI-Driven Autonomous Brands

Artificial Intelligence (AI) is poised to impact creative disciplines, such as graphic design, and this is prompting researchers to rethink the role of the designer and consider a plethora of questions regarding the ethical use of AI, algorithms and data. Recent research suggests that this rapid development and fusion of AI and graphic design could enable designers and researchers to anticipate future trends and explore new opportunities associated with data-driven innovation and AI-fuelled creativity. This paper explores the potential impact of AI on graphic designers, including how they may deploy AI as a graphic design automated system in branding rather than simply as another tool to make traditional designs. In order to address this subject, this paper presents the ADI card game, which has been tested with participants in a co-design workshop conducted in Saudi Arabia, a country undergoing a transformation in terms of technology and innovation under the government's Vision 2030. The findings illustrate the possibilities of developing self-governing brands through gameplay, which will pose new challenges and opportunities for future research.

Duha Engawi, Charlie Gere, Daniel Richards
User Perspectives on the Acceptability of Realtime Data Capture for Design Research by Connected Products

Connected products present new opportunities for conducting in-the-wild design research, where live data is transmitted by devices about their use and function. However, industry data gathering practices have raised public concerns around privacy and security. Thus, we need to account for users’ perspectives on how data is gathered and used. A technology provocation was used to spark discussion on the acceptability of physical devices collecting information for design research. Attitudes ranged from extreme unease to lack of concern, with varying beliefs about the trustworthiness and capability of researchers and companies. A range of real and speculative contexts prompted participants to examine value trade-offs between themselves and corporations, privacy and ethical issues, agency, and informed consent. Based on this we set out implications for carrying out data-driven design in order to unlock potential value while respecting user privacy and time.

Katerina Gorkovenko, Dave Murray-Rust

[Situating Cognition] + Design

Frontmatter
Fostering Growth Mindsets: Possibilities Within a Heterarchical Collaborative Team Learning Design Studio

Notions of relating academic achievement to non-cognitive characteristics such as Growth Mindset have gained traction in recent years. Growth Mindset, being a malleable construct, is advantageous for beginning design students in navigating through unforeseeable challenges in both academia and the ever-changing landscapes of professional practice. Capitalising on Design Studio’s ambiguous and iterative process, the experimental heterarchical ‘Collaborative Team Learning (CTL)’ studio pedagogy inducts first-year architecture students into the peer-to-peer supported Community of Practice as breeding grounds for inculcating Growth Mindsets. Against the Master-and-Apprentice one-on-one (OOO) teaching model, Inferential statistics are performed to seek out relationships between their academic performances with Growth Mindsets as measurements of change for both groups. Though Growth Mindset had decreased for both groups, CTL learners have statistically outperformed their OOO peers on both data points. This study is a timely investigation on developing an alternative pedagogical model in fostering students’ mindsets for an increasingly uncertain world.

Zhengping Liow
What is Your Team Personality Traits? The Role of Convergence Effect Between Team Personality Propensity and Team Performance in Design Thinking Processes

Design thinking is a powerful tool to boost team performance and it was viewed as a team-based creative process. In addition, past research has shown that individual characteristics of personality traits (i.e., the Big-Five Model) were the most key factor to determine successful team performance. However, there is a lack of research to probe the relationship between team personality propensity and team performance. This research aimed to investigate the team personality traits composition from the individual level to group level by applying experimental manipulation in the design thinking course practices. As a result, we found the convergence effect of team personality propensity occurred in order to facilitate team process-performance, and thus influenced the overall team performance.

Tseng-Ping Chiu, Rui Mao, Ya-Chun Yang
Visualising the Sensory Journey into ‘Mind Maps’: An Alternative Design Experience to Spatialise Sensations

Within the context of a visual-dominated world and regarding the conventional way of approaching spatial design, spatial designers predominate sight to generate and express ideas and concepts. This research aims to challenge the role of ‘visuals’ in spatial design processes and shift the focus to ‘senses’ and ‘sensation design’. The study [1] reverses the prioritisation of ‘visualisation’ in spatial design processes, and [2] focuses on an alternative spatial design experience that stresses the awareness of all senses except sight. Hence, [3] to question how sensations can be spatialised as ‘conceptual representations’ in the minds, and [4] how these ‘conceptual representations’ can be expressed into new forms of representation. Employing the findings from a design experiment that invited master architecture students to participate in a blind journey and to draw ‘mind maps’ that spatialise their sensory experience, the paper proposes a new perspective to understand and design spaces as [a] a space-time relation and [b] as a series of sensory-stimulating moments that establishes new assemblages of sensory experiences. This paper concludes how participants spatialised sensations and visualised their perception of spaces in three main approaches, arguing about the use of sensory cues other than ocular-centric ones in architectural practice. Suggestions are given on utilising and visualising sensory cues in the spatial design process, which emphasises the awareness and detailing of sensory experiences. Moreover, future research opportunities are discussed, including the potential for the visually impaired to actively engage in the spatial design processes.

Veronica Ching Lee, Billottet Camille Kétsia
Exploring Features of the Design on Futures Thinking

Nowadays, with products and services getting more intelligent and evolving faster, the human-centred design methods, such as Design Thinking, have presented some areas that they can’t cover. Design Thinking takes the rapid feedbacks of users as the substitute for subjective speculation and long-term consideration of designers, which makes the design suitable for solving current problems but relatively short-sighted. In this context, some researchers have begun to explore ways to map out a more permanent, constant values behind products and services, to plan a longer vision of design. In many explorations, we found the concept and method of Futures Thinking to inspire Design for farsighted. With it we can explore and enlarge the future possibilities of design, make design adapt to various futures. On this basis, we carried out researches on what kind of design can reflect the characteristics of Futures Thinking. And, this paper focuses on pointing out the features of this type of design. Through interviews and text deconstruction and reconstruction, this paper summarizes the keywords of the design features on Futures Thinking. It is hoped that the outline and overview of such type of design can contribute to the discussion of design on Futures thinking, so that more people can participate in the dialogue and discussion about the futures, to design the preferable futures.

Zhiyong Fu, Qing Xia

[Multidisciplinary] + Design

Frontmatter
Prototyping in Each Development Process to Improve Company and Team Performance

Previous Researches are being conducted on effective prototyping that uses various tactics to allow for strategic prototyping to be carried out. However, relatively few studies have analyzed prototyping conducted within companies. Recent studies have demonstrated the three roles of prototypes used within companies by examining the actual prototyping companies carry out. However, researchers have yet to uncover how prototyping that uses these three prototype roles affects performance. In other words, although it is understood that prototyping involving prototypes of the three roles is conducted in companies, it is not possible to select the prototyping that positively affects performance. The purpose of this paper is to indicate the prototyping that should be implemented in each development process to improve performance in companies conducting new business including new product development. We clarify it based on Lauff et al.’s three prototype roles. This study uses two-sample t-tests to analyze data obtained through internet-based quantitative research and analyzes data collected from specialist interviews using open coding. The results indicate the possibility for company performance and team performance to improve through prototype roles such as “enable communication.” The results also suggested that company performance and team performance may worsen when using roles that “inform decision making.” Additionally, we present seven categories that demonstrate prototyping to implement in each development process.

Keita Mitomi, Mayu Akaki, Nobuyuki Kobayashi
Integrative Design Thinking: A Multidisciplinary Approach to Design-Driven Entrepreneurship Education

Entrepreneurship education has embraced design-based frameworks in recent years. In it, multidisciplinary is a core characteristic both of design thinking and entrepreneurship. However, the multidisciplinary is not included into considered in existing DT models applied in entrepreneurship education. To fill the gap, we proposed an integrative design thinking (iDT) process, which was developed based on seven-year experiences on ID&BM programme. The iDT consists of five roots in line with the three categories of DT. To achieve the dynamic capability as part of entrepreneurship education purpose, multidisciplinary elements were reported in line with the three-phases iDT process with a structure from multi-, cross- and inter-disciplinary. The iDT model enriches our understanding of DT with a focus on multidisciplinary elements. It contributes to a multidisciplinary approach to design-driven entrepreneurship education.

Sylvia Xihui Liu, Benny Ding Leong
Impact of Design Management on Innovation

Design management is complementary to innovation-managing design processes as well as designing management processes. While innovation has been widely used in business and management, design management has been associated with product development and design process orientation. This paper questions the application, success rate, and calculation of the impact of design management on innovation, then deep-dives into their relationship. A meta-synthesis approach has been taken to identify relevant papers across six journals from business and design to conduct qualitative research from 1970–2021. As a result, four research gaps were identified for a pilot study in the future. An attempt to bridge innovation and design management in an organization with the help of a common framework is conducted. This paper would like to contribute to the fields of design and business, where the evaluation of their connection is sustainable and beneficial to the economy and society.

Bharati Das, Sylvia Xihui Liu
Exploration of the Evolution Direction of Design Patterns Under the Shift of Design Paradigms

The article first sorts out the literature research on design paradigm and design pattern, and distinguishes the two important concepts of design paradigm and design pattern. Under the framework of the four economic paradigms of value creation proposed by Philips Design, combined with the research of design paradigms by domestic and foreign scholars, the article sorts out “Form Follows Function”, “User-Centered”, “Collaboration-Empowerment Innovation”, “Ethical Value Exchange” four design paradigms with different value propositions, and described in detail from the five dimensions of social changes, abnormal phenomena, paradigm shift, design philosophy, and design methods. After the case analysis of domestic and foreign industrial design enterprises and organizations, five design patterns with different value dimensions and their evolution directions are summarized: “Design Manufacturing Pattern”, “Design Consulting Pattern”, “Design Research Pattern”, “Design Empowerment Pattern” and “Design Leading Pattern”. In the end, the article exploratively discusses the possible evolution direction of design patterns under the background of the four design paradigm shifts.

Jiahuan Qiu, Jun Zhang

[Life Values] + Design

Frontmatter
Design Development of Cricket Breeding System

Crickets (Acheta Domesticus) are expected to become a common source for animal protein. As a consequence, the demand for better quality and higher quantities of cricket meat will increase in the near future. Therefore, the optimization and industrialization of today’s conventional cricket farming methods is becoming an urgent need. In order to design mass-production cricket breeding systems for large-scale farming to fulfil the needs of this emerging industry, a series of design developments were made following the findings from several study-trips in existing cricket farms in Thailand. To improve the habitation and hygiene conditions of farmed crickets, a study about space oriented towards polyhedron scaffolding structures realized with 3D printing technologies has been conducted. The study observed that the behaviour of crickets in truncated octahedron scaffolding structures allowed comfortable movement among the different cells. This has resulted in a better density occupation by crickets. Furthermore, the truncated octahedron scaffolding structure proved itself as a convenient modular space that can be easily reduced or expanded in a vertical fashion. This modular structure addresses the issues concerning increased harvesting rates, lower environmental burden, better hygiene and safer produce, while minimizing footprint. The results of the study described in this paper have the potential of positively contributing to the emerging industry of cricket farming.

Onishi Takuya, Innella Giovanni
Culturally Localized DfA Driven Learning on Electronic Waste Management and Recycling Behaviour in China

Supported by UNEP-Tongji Partnership, the Institute of Environment for Sustainable Development (IESD), D&I Tongji University in Shanghai organized a course on e-waste among a sample of students in autumn 2020. The goal was to offer participants an overlook of e-waste through the combination of a seminar and a design-driven workshop, discuss the risks associated with inappropriate recycling, and guide them with a Design for All approach into co-designing strategies for sustainable development, appropriate to the local culture and modus operandi. The discussion also tackled behaviours improving health and environmental outcomes. Previous research has shown that consumer learning on how to recycle electronic devices and appliances is crucial for reducing pollution and health risks, but, in many countries, there is still a lack of understanding of proper recycling practices. Before and after the seminar, students completed identical questionnaires. The survey included closed and open questions about e-waste recycling intention, knowledge, awareness. The goal was to assess if, before and after the course, the understanding of e-waste recycling changed. Results showed that participation in the course increased awareness towards how to recycle e-waste, the knowledge, and the intention to use proper recycling facilities. The questionnaire also confirmed some logistic barriers and a possible gap between intention and actual behaviour. Using educational tools and informative seminars in collaboration with environmental agencies and Universities is a time and cost-efficient initiative to increase e-waste awareness. However, these initiatives should be paired with public and private interventions to give consumers the tools to make recycling easy and practicable.

Avril Accolla, Francesca Hansstein
Multiple Values of Service Design in Participating in Social Sustainability: Research on Food Design in Zhenze, Suzhou, China

With the rapid development of society and improvement of material conditions, people begin to focus on internal needs, claiming more complicatedly about the social value of food and the way it presents. The meaning of food not only stays at the material level, but is more of an internal symbol of a regional. Its symbolic meaning reflects the internal culture of the region and the complex social and relationship between the local region and other regions. This research involves service design thinking into the research process of sustainable development of food culture in Zhenze Region of Suzhou, China, focusing on how service design can meet the challenge of complex social development issues, and how to deal with the obstacles of food inheritance and innovation under the background of sustainable development. Specifically, the structural relationship of service design participating in the development of regional food has been combed, and the process model of discovery - exploration - opportunity point - proposal - experiment - execution is provided for the construction of regional food system in China, while playing the role of service design in this process. Furthermore, this paper explores the value of food service design from the perspective of social sustainability, promotes and expands a comprehensive and in-depth understanding of regional, explores the relationship between regional and food, deconstructs and reconstructs the various possibilities of regional food, social sustainability and people. We emphasize the ability and creativity of service design to solve the development issues of regional characteristic food, establish short chain communication between people and regional space, meanwhile, push forward the upgraded food innovation, convey more diversified value significance, and promote the sustainable development of society.

YueHui Liang, SongFei He, Binghong Zhan
Living Better Without Plastic: Identifying Design Consideration for Product Service Aimed at Reducing Plastic Waste

Plastic is one of the foremost common materials being employed in numerous products, from daily use items to transportation. Recent studies have shown that plastic waste is gradually increasing, due to continuously high demand, the inability to degrade quickly and the lack of recycling. Prior design research has addressed the main problems with plastic, including how most plastic products are not biodegradable, whilst any plastics that are considered degradable will become micro plastics in shorter periods. This short research paper will propose a system that could reduce the number of plastics plus identifying three design considerations, which can be implemented in future design concepts to reduce plastic waste.

Wai Dik Au, Yi-Teng Shih

[Rehabilitation] + Design

Frontmatter
The Design of Rehabilitation Device for Upper Limb After Stroke Using an Integrated Design Process

The design and development of most robotic rehabilitation devices are primarily led by engineers. This causes over-specification, high cost, poor usability, and thus medical professionals avoid operating these devices. This study is an attempt to solve the above problems and propose a user-friendly upper limb rehabilitation device by adopting human-centred and context-based design methods. An integrated design process was employed for the design of an upper-limb rehabilitation device for stroke survivors. The design process was initiated in collaboration with four stakeholders. These include two medical and rehabilitation experts from two different hospitals, an engineer from electronic equipment company, and an industrial design team from a well-known research institute in South Korea. The collaboration among these stakeholders guided the design process to determine the problem areas in utilizing robotic rehabilitation procedures for stroke survivors in the hospital context. These problems were categorized in four areas: medical environment, robotic rehabilitation practice, exercise and training procedures, and hospital systems. Based on these areas, the design process was furthered to develop a system-level design and partially the detailed design of the new device. The outcomes of the design process include a functional prototype of the robotic rehabilitation device and a patent application. These outcomes endorsed the integrated design process for smart rehabilitation methods. This study presents important insights for designers in the healthcare domain to employ design leadership to engage engineers and other medical experts to further explore design possibilities in post-product concept design development in the medical context.

Jaehan Park, Muhammad Tufail, HaeBin Lee, KwanMyung Kim
A Study of the Transjakarta Route Map as an Effort to Improve Jakarta’s Public Transport Information Design: Measuring Graphical Element Effectivity in Maps

A bus route map is considered the primary means to provide passengers with the information of the bus company’s operating network. Hence, it becomes an essential wayfinding tool for the passenger. However, bus route map design also largely depends on how easy the map is to understand, and a successful design delivers the intended purpose of aiding users in understanding and navigating the network. This paper aims to investigate a bus route map’s usability, focusing on the effectiveness of its design elements to gain knowledge for future design improvement of Transjakarta’s route map. A two-part study was conducted to understand the level of users’ ease of understanding regarding route design elements. First, a map-reading experiment was conducted comparing two maps designed strictly based on Transjakarta’s route map design. Participants were asked to search for specific bus stops and routes by reading the map while the search time was recorded. Second, an interview was conducted to gain insight into users’ preferences regarding easy-to-understand design elements. Results showed that attributes and information related to the route line (route number, colour, how the route line is drawn) directly affected passenger decisions in wayfinding, whereas route line colour has the most significant impact on how the participant read the map, impacting the success of wayfinding while using the map.

Ilma Yusrina, Hisayasu Ihara
Insights on Green Building Rating Systems for Housing in India and Their Assessment with Pillars of Sustainability

India has three primary methods established for assessing green buildings. These rating tools have different categories and credit criteria for evaluating green building performance. Existing methods can be applied to different types of buildings addressing multiple aspects and variations. This paper discusses LEED-India, GRIHA, and IGBC rating systems and assesses them with three pillars of sustainability developed by the united nations: social, economic, and environmental. However, the rating systems preferred here for assessment are only limited to the residential sector. This research evaluates the rating system based on an extensive literature study and assesses these criteria based on socio, economic, and environmental parameters. The paper summarises suggestions based on three parameters and proposes aspects that can further enhance and strengthen India’s green building rating system.

Kratika Piparsania, Pratul Kalita
A Study on Factors Affecting the Satisfaction of Rehabilitation Service Experience of Elderly Patients in Rehabilitation Nursing Homes

In recent years, the problem of aging in mainland China has become more and more serious. There are many elderly people who need rehabilitation services, and rehabilitation nursing homes are popular.This article establishes a theoretical framework based on the “Structure-Process-Result” (SPO) quality assessment model and the multi-level service quality model, discussing the factors that affect the satisfaction of mainland rehabilitation patients in rehabilitation nursing homes. According to the results of structural equation (SEM) analysis, we can get: (1) The main aspects of structural quality, process quality and outcome quality are positively correlated with the rehabilitation satisfaction of elderly patients. Among them, the process quality has the largest in-fluence factor, the structure quality is the second, the last but not the least is result quality. (2) In terms of process quality, professional competence, rehabilitation process, human-computer inter-action, information communication, and service attitude have a positive correlation with process quality. According to the influence of factors, they are ranked from high to low: professional ability, rehabilitation process, human-computer interaction, information communication, and service attitude. (3) In terms of structural quality, rehabilitation equipment, environmental structure, and human resource substructure are positively correlated with structural quality, and are ranked from high to low according to factors: rehabilitation equipment, environmental equipment, human resources. According to the results of structural equation analysis, the influencing factors that influence the satisfaction of mainland rehabilitation patients in rehabilitation nursing homes were determined, and related suggestions were made.

Xiang Wang, Chang-franw Lee, Dengchuan Cai

[3D Systems] + Design

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A Study on Colour Fidelity of Multi-colour 3D Printing for Fashion and Textile Design

Recently, 3D printing technology is widely applied in design fields, it was defined as one of the transformative technologies in history. Colour 3D printing would be a potential design tool in fashion and textile design. However, colour fidelity is a challenge in 3D colour printing. This study investigated colour fidelity problems in multi-coloured 3D printing technologies that can be applied in fashion and textile design. In this study, two 3D multi-colour printing methods with two materials (plaster and resin), which were suitable for creating 3D printed fashion and textile products, were selected to produce six physical prototypes for chromatic aberration assessment. The final results showed that both plaster and resin performed satisfactory colour performances, but colours of resin could appear more chromatic and vivid due to the material properties.

Hiu Sen Ivonbony Chan, Joe Au, Chu-po Ho, Jin Lam
Understanding Detail Design Phase Using 3D CAD: A Case Study on Anybaro

In today’s academia, there are a lot of existing research and education materials on the conceptual design phase, but almost none on the detail design phase. In this study, we explored the detail design phase by analyzing CAD data of an industry-based project, named Anybaro. Specifically, we investigated a series of archived 3D CAD data produced in this phase to gain a better understanding of it. We first started with a surface-level modification analysis and then proceeded to a deeper feature-level analysis to get insights into our detail design phase. As a result of this study, a few design strategies have been proposed. Moreover, the development of a new semi-parametric modelling tool is suggested to avoid inconvenient situations and tackle problems pertaining to the detail design phase with the aim of supporting designers, thus, enhancing the overall quality of professional design outcomes and positively influencing the design community as a whole.

Malika Gabbas, KwanMyung Kim
Make It for Fun or Sustainable? Maker and Maker-Entrepreneur on Open Source Product Development in Shenzhen

Maker movement has brought various new technologies which inspired open source hardware (OSH) development. Through the methodology of open design, a novel product development method called open source product development (OSPD) was developed. Our research explores the recent explicit practices of maker and maker-entrepreneur in conducting OSPD practice in Shenzhen to obtain status and transition of the OSPD process. We conducted qualitative research on the OSPD process of the local maker and maker-entrepreneur participants in Shenzhen. By conducting a semi-structured interview and coding analysis, we synthesized key codes and conceptualized them into a graph by mapping codes into a double diamond design process to illustrate maker and maker-entrepreneur in two OSPD routes separately. Our findings suggest that makers and maker-entrepreneur are coping with OSPD and extend it in several ways. Firstly, we found interest-driven is the main factor that encourages maker to perform OSPD, Secondly, co-creation process such as co-design and co-production was found between maker, maker-entrepreneur, and other stakeholders, Finally, we found marketing tools, as well as a UCD design method, was applied by maker entrepreneur during OSPD. Our finding could serve as a proof-of-concept that OSPD is adopted and extended by current makers and maker entrepreneurs.

Zhouyang Wang, Zhengyu Tan, Yujia Ma
Possible Design Principles for 3D Food Printing

This paper proposes “Possible Design Principles” for food experiences of the future using a 3D food printer (3DFP). In the last decade, design research has expanded into the food sector. However, an issue is that many of these studies are ephemeral experiments on food experience, even though food is something we consume every day. On the other hand, in terms of 3DFP as one of the emerging food technologies, most studies focus on improving the quality of the printed matters but not on users’ mental models for making sense of 3DFP. Hence, in this study, autoethnographic methods were applied to investigate “a life of eating 3D printed meals every day” for two months to document a user’s experiences and emotions. We conducted weekly interviews between the first author and the third author to reflect and analyse the data objectively. Several participants helped analyse the interviews and autoethnography to explore possible design principles for the daily use of 3DFP. Finally, this paper clarifies the “Three Possible Food Design Principles” required in the future of food using the emerging technology. In addition, this paper provides suggestive ideas for the future of food itself, interactions, and services with the insights and explanations derived from the research.

Kazuhiro Ogata, Daijiro Mizuno, Emma F. Huffman, Eizo Okada

[Nursing and Care] + Design

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Designing for Distance Nursing: Reconnecting Nursing Students with Senior Home Residents During COVID-19

During the COVID-19 pandemic, nursing students were compelled to receive remote geriatric education due to social distancing mandates. However, for older adults who lack technology literacy, there has been limited access to remote nursing assistance. Although the mandate has been effective in reducing virus transmission, it has imposed a double burden on older adults’ social isolation and has also restricted traditional geriatric nursing education for nursing students. To reconnect nursing students with older adults, we present research evaluating existing remote educational strategies in isolated care of older adults. We conducted surveys with nursing students and older adults to examine the extent of social deprivation during COVID-19 and their desires and needs in current remote care. These findings then informed our designs for interventions to connect more deeply with older adults, including thematic games, digital journals and information flyers for virtual and face-to-face assessments to support remote geriatric nursing interactions.

Houjiang Liu, Ray LC, Miso Kim, Concettina Cormio, Meixin Yu
Understanding Stakeholders’ Needs for an Emergency Mobile Hospital at an Infectious Disease Situation

Our society suffers from unpredictable global pandemics such as COVID-19. Thus, the demand for emergency mobile hospitals for infectious diseases has greatly increased. However, the existing mobile hospitals have been developed mainly focusing on functional requirements. There is a lack of understanding of the needs of different stakeholders in a pandemic situation. This paper presents the stakeholders’ needs for designing an emergency mobile negative pressure ward hospital to be used in an infectious disease situation. We conducted two studies with diverse stakeholders related to an infectious disease; 1) an interview study with 12 long-term patients in order to figure out the needs of patients, 2) a Co-design workshop study with 3 medical staff, 4 management staff, 3 engineers, and designers. The findings revealed three main needs for emotional support for patients in terms of reducing mental anxiety, improvement of the clinic environment, and increasing trust in the clinic. Also, there were findings related to managing mobile hospitals for reducing infection risk with delivering fast care of medical staff, effective operational support for manage staff, and designing to consider both medical staff and patient. We discuss the design insight and considerations for the design of emergency mobile hospitals for infectious diseases. Our work provides insights on how the user’s perspective can be reflected in designing emergency mobile hospitals for the pandemic crisis.

Kwangmin Cho, Sunok Lee, Wonyoung Park, Minha Lee, Wooseok Kim, Sangsu Lee, Tek-Jin Nam
mTag: A Visual Abstract of a Reported Clinical Trial for Self-medication Accident Prevention

Many South Korean news articles on COVID-19 treatment studies, such as dexamethasone clinical trials, only report a medicine’s effectiveness as claimed by the research organizations without mentioning the clinical study protocols, the drug’s mechanism of action, and its potential side effects. Such articles can give the reader an overly optimistic impression of the drug which may lead to fatal self-medication accidents. In response, we conducted an online survey to investigate lay readers’ informational needs, that is, what they need to know to assess the validity of the reported study’s findings and to prevent self-medication accidents. Based on the survey findings, we developed the mTag (medication Tag), a form of visual research abstract attached to incomplete clinical trial news to provide a more accurate picture of the study’s design, the benefits and harms of the drug based on its mechanism of action, along with strong alert messages against self-medication. Testing the mTag attached to a mock clinical trial news story confirmed its effectiveness in increasing the accuracy of the study participants’ knowledge and the perceived risk of self-medicating the reported drug when underlying adverse or side effects exist.

Ji-youn Lee, Jeong-jin Park, Young-ae Hahn
Service Design for the Nursing Home in Post-pandemic Era

The sudden COVID-19 in 2020 revealed that the nursing homes lack the serviceability to cope with the health crisis and the quick response to adapt flexibly to the new normal. In addition, the COVID-19 has more significant harm to the elderly, exposed problems in the nursing home, such as the shortage of workforce, medical material resources, and lack of various physical and psychological services for the elderly in nursing homes.This research is based on the field research conducted in four nursing homes during the 2020 epidemic period (from January to December 2020), two located in first-tier cities in China and two in second-tier cities in China. The method of service design has been adopted in this research. First, the research team summarized the similar needs of the different nursing homes by an in-depth understanding of the long-term service demands and expectations of the elderly and staff in the pre-crisis, crisis, and post-crisis. Then, the research team designed the personas, built up a framework of the intelligent service system and smart service scenarios of the three period times of health crisis in the nursing home. The research team tried to solve existing problems while dealing with the post-pandemic era flexibly. Finally, this paper discusses the findings and the future research direction.

Bo Gao, Huihua Zhang

[Community Life] + Design

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Flexible Co-design Practice in Accommodating “Making” as a Method to Express Creativity

This article discusses a case study of a bamboo church construction project in Malang, Indonesia. This project employed a co-design method involving all church congregation members and was facilitated by the ASF ID (Architecture San Frontieres Indonesia) team. The co-design process tried to accommodate participants to unleash their creativity to shape design decisions. One of the important findings from the ground is that the participant’s creative potential is better accommodated by “making” rather than “drawing.” Participants can better maximise their creativity when directly embodying their ideas into 3D prototypes on the field site rather than designing through drawings first in the studio. This tendency is supported by the “craftsmanship” culture owned by most of the participants. This article concludes that the flexibility of the co-design process in this case study shapes by the role of participants. The participants have other ways of being creative and accommodated in the co-design process.

Andi Setiawan
Community Life Project Platform (CLPP) for Collective Impact – Based on Community Design 3.0 Framework

Co-production and proximate consumption based on local resources can enable communities to be simultaneously creative and sustainable, thereby enhancing community resilience in the face of modern ‘wicked’ problems. This is an endogenous development model in the community. However, there is a lack of guidance on the modes and specific framework of endogenous community design in community development research. This paper proposes the concept of Community Design 3.0 based on endogenous development. At its core is the collaboration to co-create sustainable local solutions to enhance community capacity and collective impact (CI). We present an ‘endogenous’ framework for the collective impact that uses the Community Life Project Platform (CLPP) for specific design deployments, including a design process and design module. The research shows that Community Design 3.0 combines both short-term design interventions and long-term collective impact. The three stages of Community Design 3.0 demonstrated the fundamental role and value of CLPP research for CI. The construction of CLPP as a transformation design facilitates ongoing conversations and collaborative innovation and will trigger changes in lifestyles and cultures.

Tao Chen, Juyoung Chang
How “Life-Projects” and “Live-Projects” Ensure Sustainability and Autonomy of Co-design Community Development

The degree of involvement and roles of non-designers has grown in co-design research. Within this, the “transition” from being a supporter of designers and planners to being an active participant in the design process can be a focus for the field of community development from the perspective of achieving sustainability and autonomy in the design community. However, there are various practical barriers, such as a lack of leadership for projects, the fact that predetermined project timelines do not align with complex community challenges, and how the framework required for this transition has yet to be found in its entirety. This paper examines four years of community development in Inuyama City, Aichi Prefecture, Japan, which can be considered as having achieved autonomy and sustainability, focusing on the relationships between human, temporal, and physical environmental factors. The results show that for the multiple people involved in the project, activities have become known as “life projects,” where participants find purpose in their lives, and a “live-project” that develops in response to changes in the situation, generating autonomous and sustained involvement for participants. In so doing, we bring to light individual thoughts and objects that are subject to everyday change and thus form important starting points in this research. It displays the limitations of the design project concept, which is still dependent on planned problem-solving based on predicted causal laws. At the same time, it shows that a deeper sociological and anthropological analysis is needed to discuss the design process.

Mizuuchi Tomohide, Okada Eizo, Mizuno Daijiro
Community Documentary: A Collaborative Design Aiming at Recording, Reconfirmation, and Sharing Community Life

Towards Another Tomorrow, a community documentary project based on the concept of “Our community life should be recorded, created and shared by ourselves”, was produced by members of the community currency group, the Santo Club Mayu, students from Chiba University and the unit L&R Production. Through the analysis of the experience in each stage of the project, the survey conducted in the opening premiere and the real comments, we come to the following conclusions: (1) The co-creation method of community documentary production is effective for information dissemination within and outside the endogenous community, and is a model that can be promoted. (2) With local community members as the main body, the system of collaborative creation by various groups is the foundation. (3) In the editing stage, we tried to create the script in this method: participants converted the available video materials into text cards, and then classified and combined these cards through discussions. In the end, the script of the documentary was made by connecting all the cards together. This method effectively compiles and summarises the information in the production of community documentaries with a certain amount of participants. (4) At all stages of the project, the concept of creating opportunities to make full use of the abilities held or potentially held by each participant should be upheld. (5) After release, the sharing mode should be skillfully designed.

Han Meng, Tie Ji, Hironobu Aoki, Akira Ueda

[Prototypes and Tools] + Design

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Visualizing Stress – In-person and Virtual Co-designing with Chart-Based Tools

In this pictorial, we present four co-design tools that were created to help the students visualize their stress and then describe how they feel about and deal with stress. The workshops were conducted in- person before COVID-19 and later virtually during the pandemic. The same tools used in the in-person workshops were transferred to a digital format for the online sessions. The visual results demonstrate how students were able to communicate their thoughts, ideas and feelings by plotting data points, building connections, and explaining processes with graphical representations and annotations. The openness and the flexibility of the tools triggered many personalized modifications by the participants, especially when they were used in the non-digital freehand drawing format.

Yvette Shen, Elizabeth B.-N. Sanders
Understanding Designers’ Use of Prototypes in Smart Product Design

Various smart products with sensing and intelligent features have been emerging in the market, the design of which encounters new challenges from continuous technological advancement related to hardware, software, and the Internet. Among them, the communication barrier between designers and stakeholders from disparate backgrounds is a crucial one to overcome, considering that the information explained by the designers strongly depends on their professional experience. Previous literature clearly highlights the importance of prototyping in product development to support communication and development of ideas as they emerge in the team and beyond. The importance of communication and collaborative work/development of ideas is even more emphasised on smart product development because of its interdisciplinary nature; hence, appropriate prototyping is also vital. However, research related to prototyping in smart product design is scarce. This study aims to comprehensively understand the differences in the prototyping between smart products and traditional ones (non-smart features). A survey was conducted to capture prototyping practices in the early stage of smart product design (SPD) compared to traditional product design (TPD) group. It is found that there are differences in the frequency of use and satisfaction with different prototyping tools between the SPD and TPD groups. From the perspective of prototyping tools’ dimensions (of fidelity), SPD designers pay more attention to the interactivity and environment of the tools, especially at the front end of the design process. The findings contribute to better supporting practices, and potentially guide the development of future prototyping tools that are specific to SPD.

Jing Wang, Charlie Ranscombe, Boris Eisenbart
A Study on the Research Methods Used in Modern Chinese Architectural Decoration Design

Modern China is a period of rapid change and staggered development of social ideology. The blending and collision of Chinese and Western cultures has made Chinese architecture undergo diversified and complex changes in a short period. Among them, architectural decoration, as the most intuitive architectural language, records architecture history through the change of decorative style. Most of the existing studies on modern architectural decoration design in China focus on the aesthetic and humanistic values of decoration, ignoring that architectural decoration is a product of society and eras and lacking systematic perspectives to explore the social value and era significance of the change of modern Chinese architectural ornamentation. Therefore, this research initiated a tripartite approach, which includes the following: (1) establishing the theme research of architectural decoration and architects and bringing architects into the research category as social dynamic elements, (2) restoring the social environment of the change of modern Chinese architectural ornamentation from the perspective of social culture, and (3) exploring the era value and significance of the transformations in modern Chinese architectural decorative styles from the perspective of global history. Through the systematic research method, this study attempted to restore the historical context of the development and change of modern Chinese architectural decoration and comprehensively viewed the deep reasons for the change of modern Chinese architectural decoration style to enrich the theoretical system of modern Chinese architectural decoration research and to provide a new methodological reference for the future research mode of modern Chinese architectural decoration.

Xinyi Wang, Weimin Guo, Zhi Yang
Artistic Visualisation of Personal Data: A Case Study of Digital Scheduler

The rapid development of digital technology has made it possible to manage analogue information digitally. Various analogue information is currently digitalised, and people conveniently use the information with applications in their smartphone. Among many, digital scheduler is one of the popular applications. However, digital scheduler still maintains the traditional look of paper calendars although it has been radically developed in terms of function and usage. And previous studies indicate artistically-visualised data made users to be engaged in daily context. Therefore, our study explores how the look and feel of digital scheduler can be better designed to deliver integrated and engaged calendar experience with daily life. For the study, an online survey and a design workshop were conducted with ten designers who were familiar with digital scheduler. The result shows that various elements can be used for artistic visualisation of their schedules to converse digital schedule in a visually engaged form. As a case study, the findings could provide design practitioners with a useful source of information in the artistic visualisation of digitalised personal data.

Sangsu Jang, Young-Woo Park, Chajoong Kim

[Digital Imaginations] + Design

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Toward Designing Olfactory Digital Experiences: Efficient Scent Ejection Methods to Reduce Total Scent Amount Based on Bayesian Cross-Modal Model

Olfaction is an area of great interest as a new interface for digital experience. To provide rich multimodal experiences with limited amount of scent, we propose efficient olfactory ejection methods: pulse ejection and habituation ejection. These methods are based on Bayesian cross-modal model of olfaction. The pulse ejection gives off odour at regular intervals. Immediately after each ejection, the scent perception’s prior distribution changes, making it easier to perceive presence of scent. Habituation ejection gives off odour for a certain time at the beginning of a scene. As the nose gets accustomed to the scent, the confidence of the scent perception’s likelihood function becomes smaller, making it easier to create an illusion of scent by audio-visual information. An experiment in VR environment showed tendency that the methods, especially the pulse ejection, effectively reduced total ejection amount of the odour while maintaining the richness of multimodal experiences.

Takehiro Hasegawa, Shuji Fujita, Kazuko Yamagishi, Hideyoshi Yanagisawa
Kansei Evaluation of Costume Patterns for Co-creation Design

YOSAKOI is one of the traditional dance festivals in Japan, and dancers wear costumes with various patterns created by themselves using the co-creation design process. In the co-creation, each person has a different image of the design, and they need a lot of time for discussion. So, in this research, we focused on the costume patterns, and conducted an evaluation experiment using 21 patterns obtained by dividing every seven types of patterns into three density conditions. 118 participants evaluated these 21 patterns using the SD. Method with 12 evaluation items. From the Factor analysis, we found three common factors as impression of the 21 costume patterns: 1) Luxury feeling, 2) Casual feeling, and 3) Powerful feeling. We could visualize the three-factor scores of each pattern. Moreover, we found that the three factors are strongly connected with patterns’ density condition.

Yuka Takahashi, Namgyu Kang
Inattentive in Social, Active in Mind: VR-Based Design Intervention for Imagining Desirable Possibilities in the Public Space

The metro as a form of public transportation is an important urban infrastructure that takes a large population from place A to B every day. To achieve that, it is primarily designed for extreme functionality and efficiency. However, in terms of experiential aesthetics, the metro is seldom people’s favourite place. When this modern infrastructure succeeds in serving urban mobility with high performance and efficiency, passengers seem to want more than the guaranteed functional performance. Recently, with the emergence of Virtual Reality (VR) technologies, increasing efforts from design and HCI communities look at the value of VR technology in enhancing commuting experiences, bringing new possibilities of interaction and activities, and potentially transforming social public spaces. This study investigates how and why VR technology could be integrated with a metro ride. We experimented with ten passengers by showing them three 360° videos during their metro ride. The results show the narrative-driven scene is most desirable. Despite wearing a VR headset might cause anxiety, our findings indicate a high level of acceptance towards VR experiences based on the finding that it does not challenge the normative behaviours of being a passenger ‘inattentive in social, active in mind’ and further can enhance the experience. As the takeaway, we propose three strategies of VR content tailored for the metro context in which passengers would find a role participating in the virtual scene and turn the scene to one’s own story, and at the same time, maintain physically constrained.

Yiying Wu, Miikka J. Lehtonen

[AI and Speculative Futures] + Design

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Life on Mars: First Person Speculation in the (Imaginary) Everyday

Recent development in space exploration has focused on the possibility of human life on Mars. How can we design for such an unexplored environment, and in turn what might such designs tell us about designing for the everyday on Earth? We make use of a process of speculative 1st person perspective design to create a material playground for producing a set of printed textile structures to support the experience of Martian daily wear, while paying attention to Earthly concerns such as material scarcity and locality of resources. This pictorial describes the outcomes of this process with a focus on the notions personal safety, empowerment, and comfort. The contribution is a design exemplar of first- person design in an extreme context that suggests the use of the playful speculation of space travel to ultimately explore human experience and values on everyday Earth.

Iris Camps, Verindi Vekemans, Mirthe Visscher, Oscar Tomico, Kristina Andersen
Exploring Future Tools for Supporting Remote Collaborative Prototyping Process

This pictorial presents a qualitative study of designers’ visions of remote collaborative prototyping process in the future. Twelve sketches were generated by eight participants, which provided the basis for us to construct new supportive tools. We analyze their drawings and summarize the findings. 5 themes with 6 subthemes were identified related to the design ideas for the tools in the future remote collaboration. We conclude the pictorial by proposing our initial ideas to improve the prototyping process in the remote collaborative design teams.

Xinhui Ye, Joep Frens, Jun Hu
OSKARRR: Data-Driven Design Speculations for the Future of Domestic Waste

Waste infrastructure is largely non-digital and resists mapping and datafication. Waste itself can be seen as material information, revealing of its creators, which is lost along with the material resources that are thrown away. Design and HCI can unlock this information.Most people’s engagement with waste begins and ends at the domestic dustbin, with minimal consideration of what is wasted and where it goes. When aggregated waste practices have significant sustainability impacts. Digital technologies designed to raise awareness of environmental issues compete for our finite cognitive capacity with the demands of everyday life.To address this challenge, this paper uses speculative design of domestic waste devices. These speculative ‘data objects’ build on work in speculative design, sustainable HCI, and waste infrastructure mapping. The aim of this pictorial is to provoke debate on digital technology’s ability to engage us with consumption and waste, resulting in behavior change and reduced environmental degradation.

James Thorp, Daniel Richards, Nick Dunn, Katerina Gorkovenko, Michael Stead
AI-Enabled Design Tools: Current Trends and Future Possibilities

We are witnessing a growing trend in the development of AI-enabled design tools. Some of these are already focussing on improving and replacing design activities. This field is so recent and fermenting that it lacks a state of the art. Thus, we created a preliminary overview by searching and systematizing current AI-enabled design tools. To do so, we collected and mapped the distribution of existing/under-development design tools on the design process. It emerged that only a few AI applications have taken hold in design so far, and many others only exist as research or concepts. Our study highlights how current AI-enabled design tools cover mostly the ideation and development phases, uncovering areas where AI can be leveraged to augment the design process. Finally, it shows what types of AI applications are currently being adopted in design-related activities, paving the way for the investigation of unexplored opportunities.

Francesco Isgrò, Silvia D. Ferraris, Sara Colombo

[Behaviour and Cognition] + Design

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From Pictorial Statistics to Pictographic Animation: Philip Ragan’s Investigation of Pictographic Animation to Dramatize Facts (1934–1946)

In the 1930s, Isotype became popular as a unique method of using pictograms for pictorial statistics, prompting many similar efforts. Among the influences of Isotype before, during and after World War II, this study highlights the use of pictograms in animation, specifically the work of architect Philip Ragan, to elucidate a previously unknown aspect of pictogram animation history. In around 1934, Ragan, inspired by Isotype, began creating pictorial statistics but later endeavoured to animate pictographic diagrams. From 1941, he produced about 30 propaganda movies—mainly short films—for the National Film Board of Canada; nevertheless, he began to make longer ones as the war ended. For this purpose, he used not only pictograms but also live-action images, a style that would become the hallmark of his post-war work, which significantly differs from the Isotype animation, which was almost exclusively produced as a form inserted into documentary film. Ragan’s work was a unique development of the ‘dramatization of facts’, combining pictogram-based graphic techniques inspired by Isotype, a product of the European Modernism, with the North American culture of entertainment animation. Its historical position can also be that of a notable experiment in the possibilities and limitations of pictogram-based animation, which was developed amidst several socio-political events such as the New Deal, war propaganda, the scientists’ campaign to control the atomic bomb and the anti-communist propaganda of the Cold War.

Hisayasu Ihara
Novel Tactile Feedback Research for Situation Awareness in Autonomous Vehicles

During the period when a driver takes over driving in an autonomous vehicle, non-driving related tasks (NDRTs) occupy most of the driver’s attention. A large number of audio-visual channels for drivers are occupied, with their situation awareness of the traffic conditions decreases. The tactile channel is less occupied and highly intuitive. As a supplement to the audio-visual channel, it brings less perceptual and attentional load. Therefore, we studied the impact of tactile feedback on drivers’ situation awareness and verified that tactile feedback can enhance drivers’ situation awareness of traffic conditions in autonomous vehicles.

Jiawei Yang, Xinyue Yu, Mengge Wang, Zhenhao Chen, Hao Tan
Goal Based Bundling: A Behaviorally Informed Strategy to Combine Multiple Smart Products

Contemporary electronic manufacturers struggle with how to develop attractive bundles by combining their existing smart products. In the present work, we propose Goal Based Bundling (GBB) by drawing on the academic research of goal systems theory (Kruglanski et al. 2018) and shed light on two previously ignored aspects of bundling strategy: service and glue product. We applied our GBB to a collaborative project with Samsung Electronics, whose goal was to develop new product bundles for kids by combining multiple smart home products. We constructed a framework of Samsung Electronics’ smart products and then visualized it on its sales website. A UI design conveying the value of smart products bundle was developed based on GBB structure. We discuss the process and the result of our project to provide insights into the product managers who combine existing smart products to develop a bundle.

Sooa Hwang, Hyunah Park, Minjung Sohn, Daeun Yoo, Changmin Han, Jaewoo Joo

[Algorithms and Interfaces] + Design

Frontmatter
Developing Responsible Algorithmic Curation Features in Social Media Through Participatory Design

As social media services have adopted algorithmic curation in various features such as targeted advertisements and content and friend recommendations, the technology has also resulted in varied manipulations such as polarization and privacy invasion. In response, responsibility-based approaches emphasizing transparency and accountability have been advocated in previous studies for developing algorithmic curations. However, detailed guidelines for designing user interfaces that can enhance users' trust around algorithmic curation have yet to be specified. As a first step in developing the guidelines, we conducted participatory design sessions with 16 social media users where we invited them to discuss their experiences and needs around the manipulation issues, such as privacy protection and filter bubble, and to develop prototypes for the corresponding user interfaces based on their visions. We discuss in this paper how these prototypes and identified users’ needs can be incorporated into designing algorithmic curation features on social media, and offer design suggestions for future study.

Kate Sangwon Lee, Huaxin Wei
‘Try this Because’: The Effect of Positive Framing in Robo-Advisors

We compared the effectiveness of quantitatively providing the result (profit or loss) that users can achieve through investment advice provided by robo-advisor based on attribute framing theory. The main factors considered while evaluating them were the transparency of the system and the understandability and acceptance of investment advisory information. Researchers in related fields emphasise the importance of improving transparency in artificial intelligence decision-making algorithms and information asymmetry in financial advice to increase customers’ acceptance of robo-advisor. The financial information provided by robo-advisor can be difficult for customers to understand, which negatively impacts their willingness to use the system. Positive framing, which takes into account the user experience by providing clear meanings and concise sentence composition, contributes to effective message design. The results suggest that providing a positive expectation for advice acceptance (i.e. quantitative representation) has a positive impact on improving transparency and mitigating information asymmetry in decision-making systems.

Eunseong Kim, Jeongyun Heo, Jieun Lee
Understanding User Experience with Recommendations in Social Network Service Feed

Today, recommendations that suggest possibly interesting contents to users using recommender systems have become a prevalent feature in various services. In the social network service (SNS) feed, one of the most active services that use recommendations, users now face the posts from the accounts that they do not follow. However, although the expected user experience with recommendations in the SNS differs from other domains due to a unique aspect of social connections, many parts of interaction with recommendations still have not been explored in the social network context. The aim of our study is to understand user experience with recommendations in the SNS feed and to explore possible design opportunities of the recommendations in the context of social interplay. Under this research goal, we conducted a qualitative survey composed of open-ended questions with 70 SNS users. The results show how SNS users interact with recommendations along with their expectations and obstacles regarding recommendations in their feed. Furthermore, we discuss implications for designing the interaction with the recommendations in the SNS feed.

Daehyun Kwak, Keunwoo Kim, Youn-kyung Lim
aTag:Half_truth, a User Interface to Warn of the Fallacy in the Claims Reported in the News

The half-truth fallacy—for example, quoting only parts of the data that support a writer’s argument—in the news can be fact-checked by human experts, but fact-checking takes at least a few hours during which readers can be exposed to less-than-valid arguments. As an interim solution, this study proposes the aTag:half_truth to warn of the potential half-truth fallacy before expert fact-checking. It visualises the data–assumption–claim structure and provides rebuttal comments on the information currently missing but necessary for claim validity check. The aTag:half_truth was tested using an online questionnaire for effectiveness in enhancing readers’ understanding of the issue, revealing the insufficiency of data in the original news text, and questioning the validity of the claims in the news. The analysis of data confirmed that, in the experimental group who read four fallacious claims with the aTag:half_truth, comprehension scores were higher and the scores were inversely correlated to perceived information sufficiency of news text and perceived validity of the claims. The experimental group found the aTag:half_truth rebuttal comments useful, and the percentage of the participants’ responses grounded into the rebuttal comments was significantly higher. The perceived validity of claims, however, was not significantly lower in the experimental group than in the control group for three out of four claims. Such a result was attributed to the political nature of the topics where the effects of fact-checking are limited due to readers’ interests and biases.

Young-ae Hahn, Jeong-jin Park

[Interactive Experiences] + Design

Frontmatter
Exploring Elderly and Young Users’ Perceptions of Video Exercise on Mobile Fitness Applications

Researchers suggested that people have physical activity at home during COVID-19, and mobile applications as easily accessible devices replace face-to-face exercise programs. However, despite a growing number of research focusing on the user experience of mobile applications, we lack evaluating exercise experience with video on mobile fitness applications. This paper explores how different cognitive abilities of elderly and young users manifest during the video exercise on applications. We experimented with 30 participants (15 elderly participants and 15 young participants) from Beijing, China. In addition, we had semi-structured interviews to evaluate their perceptions, resulting in four themes: activity presentation, interface design challenges, sensory preferences, and integration into existing practices. From the findings, recommendations for the design of video exercise on mobile fitness applications were derived. We contribute a better understanding of elderly and young users' perceptions in the context of interactive multimedia exercise training.

Yuting Diao, Jinseo Kim, Cheng Xue, Jihong Jeung
The Absence of Graphic Representations of Madiba in Nelson Mandela Park, Mamelodi, South Africa

Nelson Mandela’s name endorses numerous places. Many have a direct link to the great man, others less so. Such variability raises interesting questions regarding the authenticity of naming acts, also known as toponymy. In this paper we explore how places reflect their designation by focusing on a scoping case study, Nelson Mandela Park, in Mamelodi, Pretoria, South Africa. We share a classifying hypothesis that seeks to frame an extended study into the increasing use of Mandela’s name in public places within and beyond South Africa. We outline the notion of toponymy, introduce the township of Mamelodi to situate the park, and define a methodological approach. Early findings explain how the park connects to Mandela and the extent to which he is represented in the park, through photo-documentation of the site. Finally, we propose opportunities for future design interventions that acknowledge both the verbal and visual potential to extend Mandela’s graphic heritage in the park.

Robert G. Harland, Alison Barnes, Yolandi Burger
DISCOV: Stimulating Physical Activity Through an Explorative Interactive Walking Experience

Aware of the consequences of their inactive lifestyles, many people still struggle to integrate enough physical activity into their busy lives. Interventions that nudge to reinforce existing active behaviour seem therefore more likely to be effective than those adding an activity to daily routines. To encourage people to increase their physical activity level, we designed Discov, a network of physical waypoints triggering people to lengthen their walks. Placed in a public park, Discov encourages people to explore their surroundings in a fun and challenging way by creating an interactive walking experience. Adopting a Research-through-Design approach, we explore the potential of the design of accessible infrastructures and human-environment interactions to impact public health by nudging citizens into being more physically active. We discuss insights gathered through this process and report on first user tests of this interactive walking experience.

Loes van Renswouw, Jasmijn Verhoef, Steven Vos, Carine Lallemand
A Document-Based Method to Study the Evolution of Design Practices in Public Organisations

Knowledge on how design practices evolve and become part of the daily practices of public organisations is still lacking. Prior to embarking on this research, we asked ourselves how this phenomenon should be studied in the context of public organisations. In the complex system of an organisation, practices are in constant flux, making it difficult to understand how a practice evolves based on certain factors such as leadership, legitimacy, or organisational culture. Adopting an alternative approach, including ‘time’ as an analytic element, we attempted to understand the evolution of design practices through a sequence of relevant past events. In a series of case studies of local government, we collected data through publicly available organisational documents related to design practices and visualised these data in a timeline. With the results, we constructed a narrative on how design practices have evolved over time in these organisations. This paper describes one case study at Kent County Council in the UK showing how this document-based, process-oriented research approach allowed us to capture the evolution of design practices in a public organisation over a 12-year period within a short research time and with greater objectivity. In conclusion, we argue that this longitudinal research method can be a new approach for researchers conducting studies on design practices within public organisations.

Ahmee Kim, Mieke van der Bijl Brouwer, Ingrid Mulder, Peter Lloyd

[Bespoke] + Design

Frontmatter
Procedural Knit: Exploring Underdetermined Fabrication via Knit, Procedural Generation and Posture Detection

Once a slow and reflective handcraft embodying a designer/maker’s skill, mood and imaginations, knitting has been automated through computer-aided design(CAD) and manufacturing technologies (CAM), reducing the role of the textile designer in the processes of textile production. In response, Procedural Knit presents a knit procedural generation machine, designed to enable collaboration between the designer/maker and a computational textile design and production technology. The design of the colorwork knitted pattern isn’t predetermined but created through generative design algorithms influenced in real-time by the designer’s posture during the knitting process. Using this system, we explore the design space of “underdetermined fabrication”, an approach where interactive making systems and procedural rules guide but do not determine the final outcome. Through this system, we raised the question of whether the laborious and repetitive nature of producing knit on semi-automated machines could instead be an integral part of the design-through-making process, similar to other handcrafts such as pottery wherein the potter makes active design choices during the pottery’s fabrication. Furthermore, we uncover how interactive underdetermined fabrication can create room for unpredictable emergent phenomena and aesthetics, and notions of imbuing a “maker’s signature” into the resultant knitted artefacts.

Dominic Lim Co, Amy Chen
Thinking Through Knitting: Hand Knit Making for Rapid Architectural Prototyping

This paper demonstrates the value of hand knit process in architectural prototyping. Knit is a highly specifiable, additive manufacturing process. Knit architectures rely on knit fabric properties to generate form which requires prototyping to assess material behaviour; this is developed in conjunction with computational design approaches. Hand knit can be a successful alternative in prototyping, combining simplicity of production with additional craft knowledge gained through the experience of manipulating materials directly. Four parameters were investigated at two scales of materials, resulting in a lexicon of knitted forms. The outcomes demonstrated self-supporting 3-D forms utilising the inherent curvature of knitted fabrics and integral shaping techniques. The importance of hand process in the investigation was key, allowing simultaneous evaluation of materials and production methods but more importantly extending the cognitive dimension of design development by restoring the intimate relationship between maker and materials experienced through craft process.

Elizabeth Gaston, Jane Scott
FitSleeve: Designing Wearable Display and Feedback to Improve the Fitness Experience and Motivation

In this article, we focus on fitness workout scenarios. To examine the current practices, we first conducted a substantial user research, through the content analysis procedure we summarized insights regarding fitness purpose, essential data, psychological state, emotional changes and social habits. Subsequently, we generalized related design opportunities of improving the fitness experience and motivation to enhance the fitness performance and communication. Feedback and data representation have great potential to address the challenges, therefore we first proposed a design process for the feedback mode design of fitness workout, including the contextual information, feedback strategy, and realization ways. The feedback designs are implemented on a wearable augmented feedback system ‘FitSleeve’, focusing on individual and group scenarios separately. In group sessions, FitSleeve can demonstrate participants’ experience level, real-time heart rate zone and feedback regarding the correct movement execution. In individual sessions, FitSleeve can display the training progress and provide continuous encouragement. Finally, we evaluated FitSleeve by adopting the System Usability Scale, User Experience Questionnaire, Intrinsic Motivation Inventory and user subjective interviews. The findings indicate the potential of FitSleeve to improve the user experience and motivation of fitness participants.

Qi Wang, Zhiyu Li, Weiwei Guo, Xiaohua Sun
Meaningful Control Loops in Tomorrow Human-Centred Automation

Human-machine interaction in the field of Advanced Manufacturing Technology (AMT) is tightly connected today to the different degrees through which human performance varies according to complex automated systems. Two factors are established in the Manufacturing, Services & User Experience literature: the design factors related to the interface, and the social characteristics of the system operation and organization. The role and impact of both the factors in several domains, including computer numerical control machines, industrial production lines and control room telemonitoring are discussed in this paper with the goal of exploring the challenges brought by production automation and to highlight on user interaction opportunities. Indeed the design of intelligent lines and machines are requiring that the human-machine interfaces are able to encompass human supervisory control over automation, and to accomplish close, safe and dependable interaction between human and machine processing in a shared workspace. The availability of feedback and feed-forward control systems in the three domains being considered, i.e. computer numerical control machines, industrial production lines and control room telemonitoring, can be considered the crucial precondition for the evaluation of a reliable industrial human-machine-integration. This paper describes the research on ergonomics and the design of novel processing logics for system control and of a self-explanatory HMI to enhance system usability and interpretability and fostering adequate intervention when automated systems fail.

Alessandro Pollini

[Community and Healing] + Design

Frontmatter
Research on Urban Furniture Intervention to Foster Community Emotional Healing

In the contemporary fast-paced urban construction and social development, more and more people suffer from social anxiety, loneliness, depression, and other mental sub-health conditions. At the same time, after experiencing the COVID-19 pandemic and social distancing, people have to overcome the psychological alienation and adapt to the “new normal” life, which clarifies the practical significance of community emotional healing intervention in urban planning. This paper explores how urban furniture could become the touchpoints of community emotional healing based on the mental sub-health situation. The first part analyses the conceptual difference between “healing” and “therapy” and considers different stakeholders, then identifies the four characteristics of urban furniture based on community emotional healing, which can be summarised as enhancing the aesthetic, easy-to-understand interaction, short time-consuming interaction, and inclusive consideration. Urban furniture not only has functional concerns but can easily integrate and interact with the social environment. Finally, this research introduces four design strategies for urban furniture based on community emotional healing. They can be concluded as exploring the renewal potential of the leftover space, using low-time-cost and easy-to-understand interaction methods, co-creation of urban furniture stakeholders, and narrative storytelling. With those design strategies, the urban furniture could have the potential to heal community emotion, improve social health and further promote social innovation.

Tanhao Gao, Jingwen Tian, Xiaotong Zhang, Hongtao Zhou
Opportunities to Improve the User Experience of Public Toilets During the COVID-19 Pandemic in Hong Kong

The global pandemic, known as COVID-19, has infected over 200 million people, and has led to over 4 million confirmed deaths as of September 2021. This is potentially due to cross infections, which occurs virtually anywhere at any time. As such, public areas, such as public toilets, are some of the major contributors to the high infection rates. This short paper studies the major pain points of 23 participants who use public toilet aging from 18 to 53 during the COVID-19 pandemic in Hong Kong, and state their concerns on the issue, such as physical contact and mental stability. Solutions for public toilet issues will be discussed in the new designed models, aiming to help cope with, and or resolute, the pain points.

Tse-Yen Yeh, Yi-Teng Shih
Evolution of the Systems Design for Vegetable Dispensing and Selling to Adapt to the Pandemic Practices

The vegetable vending in the Indian market has been influenced with the earlier barter system. This system stemmed from the concept of paying with goods for goods rather than cash. This system involved setting up market places for interaction within the people for a give and take of goods. The exchange involved human understanding and was a more organic process. The current pre-pandemic process of dispensing and selling of the vegetables involved the typical operational middle man system of the Mandi’s (huge marketplaces) selling it to small vegetable vendors. The small vegetable vendors then sold it to various areas. This paper aims at discussing the changes in the marketplace or selling of the vegetables through different ways during the pandemic and the current state of affairs. This paper discusses the visual journey along with the theoretical explanation of the system change.

Sanmitra Chitte, Manohar Desai
Transformation of Human-Public Spaces Relations in Pandemic Context: A User Experience Perspective

This paper focuses on the transformation of people’s perceptions in urban public spaces and the blurring boundaries between public spaces and private spaces during the COVID-19 pandemic. To investigate the gap among current public design strategy and people’s unmet new demands, we use a phenomenology method to delve into users’ experience. By conducting a semi-structured survey with a UX lens, the investigation gains an insight into 14 Wuhan dwellers’ hidden psychological demands via mental model diagrams. The analyses show people’s initiatives in bringing their “private bubbles” into public spaces, and their willingness to seek more flexible public space design to facilitate their unmet demands. Their awareness of involvement in urban public space design has been increased in the pandemic. According to the survey, the meaning of urban public spaces also changes due to people’s increased health concerns. Although in the past, urban public spaces were centred on encouraging social engagement, the situation has changed – the publicness of urban public spaces is now declining, while the privateness is increasing accordingly in the pandemic context. Based on Don Ihde’s fourfold human-technology relations theory, we speculate the pandemic-impacted relations of human and public space tend to shift from “background relations” to “embodied relations.”

Yunyu Ouyang, Yuqing Zhu

[Disciplinary Diversity] + Design

Frontmatter
Impact of Disciplinary Diversity on Perceived Interpersonal Conflicts and Creativity of Design Outcomes in a Project-Based Learning Course of Design Thinking

In project-based learning (PBL), a powerful pedological framework in design education, groups of students develop prototypes toward a given design topic. The groups consist of members of different disciplines to stimulate the creativity of design outcomes. However, the impact of disciplinary diversity on outcomes has not been sufficiently investigated, especially in long-term design projects. In this research, we clarified the impact by investigating intragroup conflicts among teams of different degrees of disciplinary diversities in a 1.5-month PBL course whose participants were three highly diverse groups and four low-diversity groups. The intragroup conflicts of each group were evaluated through questionnaires and interviews with group members during the three phases of the course over the periods of the projects. The final design outcomes were evaluated in terms of creativity. The questionnaire results showed that the highly diversified group had a significantly lower degree of interpersonal conflicts than the lower one in the middle phase of the course. It also suggests that a higher degree of conflict significantly leads to a higher quality of design outcomes. However, the degree of disciplinary diversity in a team does not directly have a significant impact on the creativity of design outcomes. The interview results imply that a lower degree of disciplinary diversity created a minority party, which was suppressed from expressing her opinions in the team.

Taoka Yuki, Fuse Emi, Saito Shigeki Saito
Exploring the Design of Online Teaching Courses Based on the Needs of Learners

Technological improvements and accessibility to electronic devices has resulted in a flourishing online teaching and learning mechanism. English writing is a fundamental ability that non-native English speakers must gain; however, it is also a demanding skill to master. Previous research has confirmed that learners were fond of English writing in a digital way and this improved their learning satisfaction, which came from effectively solving the difficulties and obstacles learners encountered in an online learning environment. Thus, it utilised a learner-centred approach to explore their needs. Accordingly, this research aims to identify learners’ needs in English writing courses to increase their learning effectiveness and motivation. This research employed an empathy map to collect data on learners’ needs to provide insight into the real needs of users and apply human-centred design to create an intuitive and positive experience. Additionally, expert interviews were conducted to identify design requirements and complete a quality function deployment matrix, a tool mainly been used in strategic design and served to help produce superior products or services corresponding to customers’ needs. The results showed five essential needs of learners in English writing courses: AI chatroom, tutorial schedule arrangement, history database, sentence structure, and an online-shared dictionary. The function and future implementation of the top five needs are also discussed.

Shuo-Fang Liu, Yi-Chieh Wu, Ching-Fen Chang, Gi-Zen Liu
Introducing Complex Stakeholder Networks to Design Students: A Method of Stakeholder Improv-Play

Drama-based practices have been increasingly adopted in design as it adds a dimension to one’s understanding of the subject matter by featuring sensory, cognitive, spatial-physical experience and interaction, which goes beyond the static methods we are already familiar within design. Although past studies have already argued for drama’s role in design, most discuss the value of the staged performance and its elements, rather than the process in its entirety. However, we see the value in the dialogic, explorative and convergent qualities of drama that could bring much potential for enabling changes in understanding, especially pertaining to complex and ambiguous issues. As design evolves to deal with increasingly open and interconnected societal problems that often come with an open-ended brief involving complex stakeholder networks, designers need to be equipped with the right skillsets to navigate complexity and ambiguity. In our attempt to teach an introduction to system-level thinking in design education, we developed ‘Stakeholder Improv-Play’—a method that enables design students to approach the networked complexities of project briefs in diverse operating contexts, through a combination of improvisation and role-play. In this paper, we discuss how this method has been developed and applied, with borrowed elements from existing drama-based techniques that have been employed in design practices. We describe how the method can be adopted in a design education setting, and the changes in students’ levels of understanding that we have observed through our case study.

JiaYing Chew, Delia Yi Min Lim, Christine Ee Ling Yap, Jung-Joo Lee
How Thinking Patterns and Strategies Drive Idea Generation: From Novices to Experts in Service Design

Design thinking patterns reflect the process of designers solving “wicked problems”. In many design processes, designers need to use design strategies to help them inspire ideas and improve conceptual creativity. To understand the traits and differences of design thinking patterns and strategies application of designers on different design capability levels in the design process, this study tries to reveal design thinking patterns in the novice group, competent group and expert group, respectively, by using the Linkography method and uninhibited concept generation environment, and extracted the strategies that can stimulate new ideas, and discusses the strategy application tendency of the different capability of designers. The results show that designers on three different design capability levels exhibit four design thinking patterns and have a different tendency in design strategies application. These findings provide insights not only for designers themselves but also for the cultivation of thinking patterns and strategies application guidance in design education.

Xing Du, Tie Ji, Ying Hu, Huazhen Wang, Qin Wang

[Reprogramming Materials] + Design

Frontmatter
Asynja: Sensorial Design for Running Motivation

If starting to run is an easy decision, committing to a long-term running routine proves to be a more challenging endeavor for many people. In this pictorial, we unravel the design process of Asynja, an artefact that triggers exercise imagery by using natural scents related to running. Relying on peripheral interaction, this research probe subtly nudges users to go running, thereby supporting them to trans- form their positive intentions into actions. Exploring sensoriality as a design opportunity for behavior change interventions, we invite the community to expand the design space of exercise-related motivational products and systems.

Daphne Menheere, Myrthe Hilderink, Steven Vos, Carine Lallemand
Prototyping Circular Materials Based on Reprogrammable Matter

For almost two centuries, design, manufacturing and consumption models have exploited Earth’s valuable resources (elements, minerals, flora and fauna) on a profound scale. As resources become depleted, there is a desperate need to develop new approaches for how materials are utilised and fabricated with to reduce or even reverse waste and pollution. The research aims to create a new design and fabrication process that can develop circular materials, which contributes to a circular economy. The research presented documents initial prototyping explorations that build towards a vision of physical products/structures composed of reprogrammable matter. Meaning, an object’s properties (shape, colour, texture) can be updated by uploading information from design tools into matter to avoid redundancies and heal damage. The research is presented as a pictorial in the format of an annotated portfolio that combines photographs and videos to communicate the research-through design process along with our findings and insights.

Adam Blaney, Daniel Richards, Adrian Gradinar, Michael Stead
Healing with Fungi: Unique Aesthetic Expressions for Mycelium-Based Materials Through Patch and Mend

Fungi is a highly attractive organism for biodesign with the potential of converting agro-industrial waste into novel materials, suitable for diverse applications from acoustic panels to packaging, from textiles to building material. This paper presents an explorative study that taps into a relatively unexplored potential of fungi in biodesign, namely, “to heal” living and non-living mycelium-based materials. When still alive, the fungus can fill in the material substrate with a network of thread-like roots called mycelium. By revisiting the concept of the patch and mend, we can repair and reappropriate mycelium-based materials and extend their lifetime. By leveraging the livingness of fungi, our material-driven explorations demonstrate unique aesthetic expressions in the healed mycelium-based samples toward the revival of daily repair practices.

Wasabii Ng, Bahareh Barati, Elvin Karana
A Design-Led Exploration of Material Interactions Between Machine Learning and Digital Portraiture

Design materials are defined as a combination of what they are, what they do, and the ways they interact with other materials. In this pictorial, we explore the interactions between machine learning (as a design material) and another design material—the human face—in the form of digital portraiture. Employing an exploratory Research through Design approach we consider how machine learning simultaneously enriches and subverts the materiality of the human face. Through a combination of images and text, we offer some considerations and provocations for further research.

David Philip Green, Joseph Lindley, Zach Mason, Paul Coulton

[Health and Learning] + Design

Frontmatter
Active Aging with Smart Technologies: What Designers Can Ask When Designing Smart Products for Older Users

This paper presents a study of the engagement of active ageing users with social robots. Advanced digital technologies bring new challenges and opportunities for designers and users. The ways in which older generations interact with smart products deserve a closer examination. The purpose of this work is to develop insights and promote empathic reflections on active ageing users’ interaction with technology to inform the design of future smart products. Influenced by ontological realism and social constructionism, this research applies a Multimodal Extended User Research approach to unpack the social and emotional aspects of active ageing users’ experiences with new technologies. Three data collection stages included two rounds of interviews, a usability test, and an extended user experience of fifteen participants in their home environments. The study recommends designers to step away from the stereotyped views on active ageing users and recognises this user group as a knowledgeable and reflective demographic with ample expertise with disruptive technological changes. We argue that design practices need to account for social and subjective experiences rather than only focusing on users’ emotional ratings of the experience. Lastly, this research advocates for a critical analysis of companion technologies and recommends design practices to avoid generalising what “companionship” may mean to users.

Parisa Moradi, Ricardo Sosa, Amabel Hunting
Mutuality as a Foundation for Co-designing Health Futures

This paper explores how the notion of mutuality can be an ethical driver for engaging participation in the co-design of future health practices and spaces. The context is the design and delivery of a co-design workshop to understand the future practices and ideal spaces for a university health education and research precinct. We report on how mutuality was employed as a framework across four distinct parts of an online co-design workshop. First, to develop the participatory toolkit; second, to engage the interdisciplinary facilitation team; third, to engage participants in envisioning future practices to take place in the precinct; and finally, to link the translation of future practices and values to spatial principles to drive architectural planning processes.

Leah Heiss, Olivia Hamilton, Gretchen Coombs, Ruth De Souza, Olga Kokshagina, Marius Foley
Designing Parents-Adolescents Relationship in Future Mobility in China

Following the rapid growth of private vehicles in China, in-car parents-adolescents communication has become a prominent issue in recent years. Due to the physical also mental challenges of the adolescent period, the existing in-car environment has demonstrated evidenced limitations to support parents-adolescents communications during car rides. Existing solutions are mostly games and virtual agents designed for young children, which focus on entertainment. However, no related study was found in the Chinese context. Thus, how to design novel experiences supporting in-car communications between parents with adolescents in China is still one of the main challenges in the field. Building upon a fundamental understanding of the current parents-adolescents communication situation in China, this study aims to explore how the vehicle’s interior space could help promote positive interactions and improve communication challenges. We conducted the survey studies in semi-structured interviews and a cultural probing study with five Chinese families, as well as a storytelling workshop with college students. Based on the discussion of design implications learned from user research and concept development, the design proposal in this study intends to support both parents and adolescents to be able to express positive and empathetic intentions through embedded in-car interactivity and suggest future research directions.

Xiaoge Wang, Xinyi Lu, Xiaoyang Tan, Yujie Zhu, Taiping Zhu, Yijian Luo, Stephen Jia Wang
Lunar Land: Investigating the Effects of Simulation and Play in Daily Context on Family Functioning

The increasingly overuse of mobile or screen-based products has raised concerns in society. Family, originally a psychosocial support for addiction prevention or treatment, can be weakened in its functioning due to individual members’ over-concentration on the personal addictive devices. In the core of the digital addiction lie simulation and play, which can be repurposed to intervene for more positive family interactions and perceptions. We argue that with always-on sensing and data-driven visualization technologies, interactive tangible artifacts can be designed to detect family members’ use of mobile phones, present simulations that prompt their physical engagements, and hopefully enhance family functioning. This paper presents Lunar Land, which is a smart lamp with its “face” simulating from the crescent to the full moon, when family members put down their phones and take daily-life playful challenges together. Field trials of Lunar Land involved families having the working prototype installed at home for weeks. Usage was automatically logged. Pre- and post-trial surveys were conducted. Families using Lunar Land both for charging phones and taking playful challenges reported higher increase in family time and relationship satisfaction. They also showed higher increase in general family functioning measured by instrument, and more obviously linking the concept of togetherness and “light up.” Results suggest that experiencing simulated outcomes of pausing phone use may assist positive perception of the family. Having the members playing together further enhances the positive perception, because the processes render the positive action-outcome link, from pausing phone use and playing together to joy, cognitively accessible.

Kenny K. N. Chow, Benny Ding Leong, Brian Yu Hin Lee, Elda Mei-lo Chan, Vanice Wing Yan Chan

[Cultural] + Design

Frontmatter
A Viable and Respectful Design Method of Presenting Intangible Cultural Heritage Using Interactive Digital Storytelling

“Intangible cultural heritage (ICH)” is the “living heritage” created by communities, groups, and individuals. Emerging digital media can help with the presentation and dissemination of ICH. However, the improper intervention of external researchers or designers may affect the viability of ICH. This paper outlines the author’s doctoral research in exploring the design method of the digital presentation of ICH. Special attention is given to how to respect the rights of inheritors and how to improve the audience’s experience. A design method of digital presentation of ICH is proposed in this paper. The proposed method includes design principles, design processes, and design evaluation criteria, all of which are intended to arouse the audience’s emotional identity and protection awareness of ICH, and to avoid computer-mediated colonization in the design process. This research is mainly based on analysing relevant theories and organising, designing, developing, iterating, and evaluating the “Warm Inheritors · Digital Diabolo” project.

Cuiting Kong
Contactless Guidance: An Analysis of the Visual Symbols on Covid-19 Posters

Since the outbreak of Covid-19 in the end of 2019, governments around the world have made efforts to disseminate public health information through various channels to deal with the growing pandemic and promote people's health. From the perspective of health communication, this study examines Covid-19 posters in combination with design and semiotics theories. Five posters from UK, US, Thailand, Canada, and Rwanda were selected and analysed from two aspects—the narrative structure and semiotic representation. The initial findings reveal that there are many well-designed Covid-19 public health posters, which have reasonable graphic proportions and appropriate visual symbols to accurately convey the meaning to be expressed.

Linli Zhang, Emmanuel Tsekleves, Serena Pollastri, Yu Yang
A New Frame: Design-Led Transformations from Linear to Circular Economies for Sustainability

In this era of climatic change design needs new tools, frames and approaches to guide the design process for holistic transformations towards sustainability. This requires changes to three intertwined and interdependent dimensions of society, economy and natural environments. Where change to business and economic models is critical to achieve radical change to achieve sustainability. Terms rising in attention among scholars, business and states to address these issues are sustainability, sustainable development and circular economy. Yet while these terms are of increasing global interest there remains a gap in their relationship and specifically the contribution the Circular economy makes to sustainable development. This paper addresses this gap and demonstrates through a synthesized hybrid model, the contribution of the circular economy to sustainable development, the natural environment and the critical need for change of business and economic models to realize and reduce impacts for climatic change. This paper acts as a first step to develop a new frame for a design process for holistic transformation towards sustainability and in the context of a Circular economy.

Susan Evans
Nostalgia-Based Design Methodology for Subtle Connection from East Asian Aesthetics View

Digital technology is playing a significant role in media design which is now increasingly rich and fast. Multiple channels, a wide range of interactive activities are provided to support new communications. Nostalgia which refers to the yearning for the old and the slow, seems to be an opposite side of current mainstream technology design. However, in this paper, we propose that nostalgia has unique power and hidden potential in digital mediated design. We present here a nostalgia-based design methodology for subtle emotional connection, followed by two in-the-field design cases. We would like to dig deeper into the meaning of nostalgia design and open discussions on how factors, such as distance, content-less, slow media, that seem to be negative for emotional communication in fact increase intimacy and contribute to emotional bonding.

Xuqin Yu, Masa Inakage

[Business] + Design

Frontmatter
A Study of Collaborative Analogical Design Methods in the Crowdsourcing Context

Analogies play a key role in the design process. However, the explosive growth of online data poses significant challenges to the retrieval and use of analogies by a single designer or several designers, limiting the development of the analogical design. Although some scholars have attempted to enhance the effectiveness of analogical design through crowdsourcing platforms, there is a lack of work in both theory and practice. The main aim of this work is to improve the quality of analogical design solutions by exploring collaborative analogical design methods between designers and crowds in the crowdsourcing context. This study reviews analogical design research and its important related areas, specific analogical design methods, and the current research landscape. A preliminary empirical study demonstrates the validity of an extended linkography method to describe and analyze the designers’ activities during the analogical design process. This method provides the technical foundation for this study.

Han Lu, Jiang Xu
Analysis on Formation Mechanism of Enterprise Design Competitiveness Based on Structural Equation Modeling

In the age of knowledge networks, the capacity of design innovation has become an essential component of the core competitiveness of enterprises. This research focuses on the connotation of enterprise design competitiveness, applying the combination between case analysis and expert interview. Besides, it constructs an enterprise design competitiveness index system consisting of design efficiency, design ability, and design strategy, uses the structural equation model analysis method to empirically tests relevant hypotheses, and then explores the formation mechanism of corporate design competitiveness. The results show that design competitiveness is mainly affected by three factors: design benefit, design ability, and design strategy. The impact of design benefits and design capabilities on design competitiveness is slightly more significant than the design strategy. The research conclusions provide practical suggestions for enterprises to improve their design competitiveness.

Jiang Xu, Pujie Su, Wang Yi
Improving Brand Loyalty Through Value Creation

Value creation factors have emerged as a dynamic approach to achieving competitive advantage and product differentiation in companies. A product is followed by not just form and function but by meaning as well. This meaning is given by value creation or addition, which affects brand loyalty. But what are the value creation factors which influence brand loyalty for a company? A theoretical base is conducted on the relationship between value creation and brand loyalty. Six value creation factors and three research gaps have been identified, along with the way forward to a pilot study. This research will explore critical value creation and brand loyalty characteristics and link them as input-output processes with value creation factors as the intermediator. The practical contribution of this research is that any company can adopt the identified framework in improving their value creation/addition strategy and brand loyalty.

Bharati Das, Sylvia Xihui Liu
Designing a Tool for Assessing and Developing Technological Innovation Capability Using the Concept of Innovation Capability Maturity Model

Technological innovation is playing an increasingly important role in the current rapid technological change and globalization. In producing technological innovation, Technological Innovation Capability (TIC) is needed to be assessed and developed. Nevertheless, there is limited knowledge of how to measure TIC. This is similar to the situation in Thailand, the country in south-east Asia, that the government has recently promoted the new economic development model to be innovation-driven. The studies of TIC assessment in Thailand are still limited as they do not consider a TIC development, especially in Thai SMEs and start-ups. This study is anticipated to use Action Design Research (ADR) to build a tool for assessing and developing TIC by applying the concept of Innovation Capability Maturity Model (ICMM). Designing does not mean only building the products for commercialization; however, designing the solutions is one of the essential methods in the modes of business as it is the way to solve problems and grow a successful business. The mock-up of the tool will be proposed, and the interview with target users, which are Thai SMEs and start-ups will be conducted to acquire their insights on using the mock-up. The difficulties and key requirements for the solutions will be identified.

Nattida Tachaboon
Explore the Framework: How Design Management Capability as Dynamic Capabilities

In the existing research, more and more scholars associate design management with dynamic capabilities. Design management is a process of managing a series of product and service design processes. From the perspective of capability, design management can be embodied as different design management capabilities. Plays a role in different stages and levels of the firm. Dynamic capability theory is based on resource-based theory, which can be used to identify and reorganize internal and external resources of the firm and form a routine to better address the problem that the company will face in a changing environment. From the similarities between the concepts of design management and dynamic capabilities, and in the literature, we can find that researchers regarded design management as a dynamic capability. This paper focuses on the study of design management as a dynamic capability, presents the relationship between design management and dynamic capability through literature review to clarify the concept of “design management as a dynamic capability”. Furthermore, how design management uses the existing dynamic capability framework to construct a framework or procedure for design management helps us improve design management capability and build its general framework.

Bing Zheng

[Education] + Design

Frontmatter
A Fractal Mindset in Design Education: Explorations in Wellbeing, Form Creation/Aesthetics, and Design Thinking

This work-in-progress aims to present educational content and pedagogical tools so that the Fractal Mindset may be defined, developed, and taught at different levels of education. The educational model will draw from a theoretical understanding of fractal patterns. A fractal pattern is a mathematical concept which defines a pattern that is self-similar across multiple scales. These patterns describe the complexity we see in nature and beyond while underlying positive psychological and physiological wellbeing responses. The novelty of this research lies in the leveraging of fractal patterning to create educational content and tools that value three branches: connections with nature, dimensions of wellbeing, and wicked problems in design thinking. In pursuit of the research aim, the following question is posed: what considerations must be satisfied for the Fractal Mindset’s educational content and pedagogical tools to be effective in expanding student perspectives at each educational level – general public, middle school, and undergraduate?

Murteza Noor
Art-Based Media Education as a Mode of Social Design

Parents are continuously confronted with new challenges in today’s fast-moving online environment. They are anxious about raising their children in times of uncertainty and rapid social change under the added pressure of feeling that parenting with media is something for which they are directly accountable for (Livingstone and Blum-Ross 2020). Parents need tools and guidelines for a more conscious and critical mediation of their children’s media use. This PhD proposes a media educational project that empowers parents to guide their children towards a critical attitude towards media and to show that media can be used towards a common good (Gordon and Mihailidis 2016). The objective is the development of a framework that teaches this understanding and knowledge to parents using the arts as a pedagogical tool.

Andrea Winkler-Vilhena
Scientific Research as a Challenge for Communication Design Students: Experimental Workshop to Encourage Communication Design Students to Collaborate in Scientific Research and Create Synergies in the University Context

This paper presents the outcomes of an experimental workshop designed to stimulate design students’ interest for scientific research. The workshop was conducted online in March 2021, involving twelve Master’s students in Image Design and nine PhD students in Design from the University of Porto, Portugal. The objectives were: to promote scientific research; to contribute to the development of tangible solutions for research project’s needs; and to encourage collaboration between masters and doctoral students. Method of evaluation included application of questionnaires and interviews. The results pointed to a high engagement rate (100% fulfilment of challenges); development of pertinent solutions; and creation of synergies between participants outside the workshop scenario. We therefore conclude the model is aligned with the set objectives; the workshop has the potential to stimulate research among design students. For future studies, new tests will be performed in multidisciplinary contexts within the scope of scientific research.

Santiago Mourão, Marcela Rosa, Heitor Alvelos
Material Turn: Material Thinking-Oriented Sustainable Artefact Design Education Mode

The increasingly decayed eco-system, especially the sudden outbreak of Covid-19, stresses the need to transform human-centred design ethics to non/de/post-human and object-oriented ontology, indicating the mainstream Material Turn in modern philosophy. A circular economy is an ideal economic strategy for sustainable development aiming at achieving the goal of Cradle to Cradle. Realizing material flow in a closed-loop circulating system can be seen as the critical point of a circular economy where the material is playing a crucial role. However, design thinking-oriented artefact design education mode is essentially immaterial and human-centred, separating designers from physical materials and manufacturing, and resulting in a gap between students and the real physical world. In this paper, I suggest an alternative design education mode directed by material thinking which regards material as a new “living” species to guide designers to have a dialogue with materials to bridge the gap between designers and the real physical world.

Ye Yang, Hongtao Zhou, Hanfu He

[Social] + Design

Frontmatter
Can the Social Loneliness of the Elderly Be Alleviated Through Social Participation with the Support of the Community and Stakeholders? A Sustainable Activity Design Study

As population ageing has intensified intergenerational contradiction, the discourse power of the elderly in modern society has often been ignored or weakened. In this case, sustainable activities will become vital factors for helping the elderly rebuild their relationship with society. This research applies qualitative research methods, including extensive literature review and user interviews, for design iteration and reflection. The research problem involves how to make compelling connections amongst the lonely elderly, volunteer institutions, stakeholders, and the community through designing a sustainable service system. Overall, the process and results of this research are beneficial to the sustainable development of the social environment and intergenerational relations. The entire system design includes the design of platform, environment, and services; eventually, it evaluates sustainability from the system level of online and offline parallelism. It has preliminarily completed design positioning, intending to achieve the vision of synergy through future case studies and practical tests.

Yu Wu
Innovation Model in Design for Social Innovation——A Case Study of the Elderly Who Knits Part-Time

The paper explores the innovation model from the perspective of design for social innovation by case study and literature research. The study proposes the “Five Helix” innovation model by the government, industry, NGO/NPO, research institution, and citizen, discusses the role of the stakeholders and participation motivation, and presents the features of the “Five Helix” innovation model. The approaches discussed and lessons learned in this paper provides a starting point for the practice and research of the innovation model of design for social innovation.

Jiapei Zou, Ruimin Hao, Xuelin Tang, Jun Cai, Zhensheng Liu
Making Community Relatable Again: Research on the Mechanism of Service Design in Innovating Community Public Governance

A significant orientation of community governance research is to advocate and reflect on the co-governance of multiple stakeholders. However, in reality, how to effectively promote community participation is still facing many difficulties. In response, this study explores how service design can stimulate the endogenous power of restructuring the community from the cross-over perspective of sociology and design, based on the community governance practices in many regions of China in recent years. The perspective of analysis includes not only the spatial narrative ability in the community but also the public dialogue in the social life of the community. The research method adopts a sequential hybrid research method combining experimental research and comparative case study. This research aims to explore the localized theory of the value co-creation logic of service design. By discussing the transformation of the cooperative relationship between government and society in the construction of urban communities, it supplements the lack of service design in the theoretical system of “service-oriented government.”

Hui Li
Gendered Mobilities: A Critical Approach Towards Understanding Social Exclusion Through the Lens of Mobility

The limited resources of the urban peripheral areas possess the potential to transform into situations that offer various kinds of opportunities. This study engages with multi-disciplinary research focusing on gender and urban peripheries (informality) through the lens of (informal) mobility to reveal the relationship between socio-spatial mobility of urban marginalized women. In the context of developing countries (New Delhi, India), social exclusion is predominantly visible in case of women who reside in urban peripheral areas. Because of prevailing socio-cultural and economic conditions, these urban marginalized women (UMW) experience restrictions on their movement on day-to-day basis. Ethnographic interviews along with mobile methods using new technologies like GPS path tracking are adopted as methods of inquiry into the subject. This paper concludes with a discussion on a broader set of factors that impact the mobility of UMW and at this point does not emphasize the specificities of these factors.

Krity Gera
What is the Role of Interaction Design of Triangulation Elements in Encouraging Citizens Towards Social Interaction?

Urban public spaces set the conditions for social life, becoming familiar with other inhabitants and the rhythms of the city, assigning meanings, everyday individual and collective experience and actions develop social connections. This PhD research questions the role of design as an interaction initiator between citizens in public settings. The objective is to explore how interaction design of ‘21st cc triangulation elements’ initiate social interaction and the role of body movements, through designing mediators that afford a redescribed body response. A corpus collection is developed and analysed using methods adopted from grounded theory. Analysed data provided further information to base the flow of interview and focus group studies. Findings from those studies will generate design parameters for the concept development and testing for the future of the study.

Pelin Gunay

[Technology] + Design

Frontmatter
Man-Made Gems: An Investigation into the Design Implications, Possibilities and Limitations of Utilising Man-Made Gems for Jewellery

With crystal growing techniques having been around for many years, bespoke man-made gems now drive innovations in a range of industries. This has however not translated into the jewellery industry, where innovations with man-made gems have remained limited, and most are still produced to replicate mined gems. This paper documents my PhD study which is investigating the design implications, possibilities and limits of utilising man-made gems in the development of jewellery designs. As part of the research, and whilst conducting experiments and developing planned collaborations, the changing role of the designer is explored in relation to the amount of control and input the designer has had in the material development stage. Furthermore, the appreciation of these man-made gems and the context in which they are appraised is explored as part of the contextual review.

Sofie Boons
Three Post-phenomenological Design Projects on and with ML Technologies as Philosophy-in-Practice

In my doctoral research, I am concerned with making machine learning (ML) technologies accessible as a design material using post-phenomenological investigations. I use the latter framework because, on the one hand, it has become particularly widespread in HCI design research given its focus on technological mediation, or the shaping of subjectivity and objectivity, and according perceptions and actions in the world via technology. However, and on the other hand, the relationship between both approaches is reciprocal in my work. While post-phenomenology can inform design research, the former also requires assistance from the latter due to its own conceptual shortcomings regarding ML technologies. In this contribution, I focus on my work fusing post-phenomenology and design research as philosophy-in-practice to explicate conceptual vocabularies and provocative shorthands for approaching ML technologies as a design material.

Jesse Josua Benjamin
Design of Functional Application Model in Vehicle Infotainment System - Taking Vehicle Music Application as an Example

The application functions of in-vehicle infotainment system (IVIS) continue to progress with the development of related technologies and changes in user needs. Although researchers have conducted in-depth studies on the development of the music industry, the development of music services and their business models in IVIS are relatively vacant. In this paper, the experimental design and test of music application products are carried out by means of simulated driving simulation environment test, and the test experimental data are constructed and analyzed. From the perspective of design and users, this paper proposes new theoretical concepts and conducts experimental design for IVIS and its business model. When using in-vehicle music application, users pay more attention to the artificial intelligence (AI) level, but it is not the preference with higher AI level. With the development of technology of autonomous driving, the driving scene will become abundant, and the business model of IVIS taking music as the entry point may also change.

Jun Ma, Yuanyang Zuo, Zaiyan Gong
Material Meaning: An Investigation into How Meaning Is Organised and Interpreted in Industrial Design Practice

This paper reviews a pilot interview method, intended to investigate what meaning making is in industrial design practice. It is the second part of a PhD study on how meaning is organised in industrial design practice, and after design, when the product has transitioned into the possession of a user. Key literature on design, meaning, and practice is briefly considered, followed by a review of 3 semi-structured interviews with industrial designers, focused on discussing firstly a product they have designed, and secondly an object they own. The research takes a material centric approach, tracing the journey of the artefacts, rather than the designer. The artifacts become the focus for discussion of designers’ meaning making practices, and sketching is incorporated as an embodied method to get at a more layered, complex picture. Following the objects helps to ground reflection in the objects’ materiality, and dwell in the connections and relationships.

Julia Keyte
The Impact of Artificial Intelligence on Graphic Design: Exploring the Challenges and Possibilities of AI-Driven Autonomous Branding

Artificial intelligence (AI)’s potential impact on graphic design has stimulated a range of questions and concerns from both design practitioners and academics about the future of AI-driven designs. For instance, how will AI tackle issues associated with ethics, cultural acceptance, and creativity, and what are the possibilities of having autonomous AI-driven brands? This study investigates the potential impact of AI on graphic designers, including an assessment of how to use AI as a self-governed system in branding rather than an application tool exploring new opportunities associated with data and algorithms. Speculative co-design methodology was the main approach to initiating provocative discussions and debates through semi-structured interviews and co-design workshop. The study was conducted in Saudi Arabia with participants from academia and the industry. The findings suggest alternating human-machine entanglements around self-driven AI brands, which will enable designers and researchers to explore alternative futures in this field.

Duha Engawi, Charlie Gere, Daniel Richards

[Well-Being] + Design

Frontmatter
Development of a Handover Approach in Design for Dementia

Designing for people living with dementia (People Living with Dementia, referring to people with dementia and their (in)formal caregiver network (Brankaert 2016).) (PLWD) is challenging. The benefits of involving PLWD in the design process are widely represented in literature. However, ethical and practical considerations can make it difficult to include PLWD. In these cases there’s a need for approaches to transfer unique experiences with PLWD from one designer who had experiences with PLWD to members of the design team who are unable to meet PLWD. The aim of the doctoral research is to develop accessible handover approaches to be used in the professional design context. This paper describes three concerns that emerged from research thus far (i.e. a literature review and ethnographic research); (1) the designers’ interpretation, (2) the uniqueness of each experience, and (3) the search for methods able to transfer these experiences. These concerns provide a framework for the development of handover approaches, validated with student-designers. These student cases are now in the process of being analysed in order to make conclusions for future research to build on, however the first insights gained from four past student cases are shared in this paper.

Lieke Lenaerts
Designing HCI Strategies to Communicate and Suggest Action for Climate Change Mitigation

Climate change is arguably the most urgent issue of our time, demanding the participation of all types of stakeholders, from individuals to governments. However, climate change communication has been focused on negative framings based on the mere presentation of data, in many cases demotivating or simply not helping in action. This Ph.D. proposes using a Research through Design (RtD) approach to create and evaluate communication design and HCI strategies to meaningfully encode and present outside the obvious, actionable climate-related messages to diverse audiences of non-experts. The studies will focus on the development of HCI projects focused on less explored climate change topics, addressing the gaps found and implementing the implications for design proposed in the first stage of the research. The purpose is to design, test, and evaluate different interactive communication strategies through iterative studies to contribute to new design solutions and guidelines for future work.

Marta Ferreira, Valentina Nisi, Nuno Nunes
Limb Flexibility Measurement Study

Health fitness is now commonly used to evaluate the health level of individuals. Among the four elements of health fitness, flexibility is often neglected. In fact, good flexibility is an essential element to ensure smooth movement and life without injury, especially for the elderly, good flexibility is a prerequisite for functional activities and directly affects the quality of life in later life. However, the current methods of flexibility-related measurement have problems such as unclear measurement base, no definition of measurement time, no description of measurement frequency, insufficient data accuracy, and complicated measurement tools. This study expects to construct a more scientific flexibility measurement system by redefining measurement concepts, expanding measurement methods in disguise, developing new measurement techniques, and developing professional measurement tools.

Yue Sun
FASH-IO-N-FWD: Generative Workshop for Computational Fashion Design

This paper outlines an exploration to be carried out by the author, utilizing a constructionist, co-experiential methodology to explore alternative ways in which traditionally trained fashion designers can apply computational methods in their practice. Leaning on Constructive Design Research (Koskinen 2011) traditions, fashion designer participants will be confronted in their practice with knowledge outside their field (i.e. computational design methods). In response, through a process of priming, sensitization and co-design, they will generate novel, alternative approaches to implement computation into their creative processes. The outcomes of this study will be the generated novel, alternative computational design methods which are aligned to the fashion design paradigms, and be utilised for innovating practice and pedagogy, as well as contribute to the development of future computational design tools.

Lionel Zhen Jie Wong, Clifford Choy

[Praxis] + Design

Frontmatter
IASDR’ 2021 Workshops Framework

For over a decade, IASDR Workshops have provided an excellent opportunity for designers of all genres to build connections and crossovers between disciplines, communities, education, research, and practice. The following workshops thus probe key issues, topics, and prospects in the eclectic field of design. Within the conference theme ‘[ _ ] With Design: Reinventing Design Modes,’ IASDR’ 2021 attracted 17 proposals that grasped this biannual occasion for reflecting on critical positions in design, revisit historical trajectories of design, reimagine design impacts through its simultaneously temporal, economic, artistic, cultural and philosophical effects, and help shape the ‘new normal’ in and beyond the pandemic period.

Markus Wernli, Yiying Wu, Shun-Ling Chen
Envisioning New Futuring Models: Past, Plurality, and Positionality

This workshop will draw from critical scholarship to critique the popular futures cone model and invite participants to remake tools and icons for futuring. Creating visions of better futures can help align people toward positive societal change. Such far-future perspectives help people understand the outcomes of the difficult work towards making the significant transition happen—whether shifting to new sources of energy, ending police violence, or increasing access to democracy. However, the most prominent icon of design futuring, the Voros Cone, is inadequate for social equity contexts. Such a model ignores the importance of the past and portrays a single, narrow experience of the present. Our hope is to inspire participants to reflect on their own connection to time and to reimagine visual models to guide their personal design practice with futuring.We will share examples from our current research project as well as highlights from critical futures scholars who have explored visual representations of alternative futures. Interactive modules will begin with presentations by the facilitators, move into breakout rooms to give participants a chance to talk with others about time scales and positionality, then into quiet individual time to sketch, and finally sharing sessions to learn from each other’s unique and creative perspectives.Anyone from the community is welcome to participate. No specific artistic skills are required. There will be moments where we are asked to talk about our perspectives, listen attentively to others, and make visual representations of ideas (which can be done as simply or elaborately, digitally, or physically as you like). No previous knowledge about futures studies or social justice is required. Participants must be willing to acknowledge that structural oppression is a current and ongoing harm experienced by people around the world and be able to listen and talk about possibilities for more equity.

Hillary Carey, Rachel Arredondo, Mihika Bansal, Christopher Costes
Gender and Agency: ‘Care’ as a Facilitator for Social Change

The notion of ‘care’ represents a significant expanse of women's lives that has remained unacknowledged and has been treated with contempt within the existing capitalist and patriarchal context. Moreover, it has been predominantly associated with the home-based reproduction arena, signifying oppression, and neglecting it as a capacity. This workshop intends to repurpose the language arising from the experiences of ‘care’ – from a feminist perspective – as an agency to critically inform theoretical and practical discourse of design that operates on non-hierarchical, informal, network-oriented participatory logics. Although socially engaged design is related to well-being and care yet is often ignored as feminist approach that highlights its significance in design practice. This workshop seeks to identify concepts on how the participants perceived and experienced ‘care’ at three different scales: micro (individual), meso (regional) and macro (global) concerning aspects of inclusion, respect, and alternate ways of thinking, collaborating, participating, and designing. A conceptual framework will be developed using participatory design methods to identify critical elements to inform design agency and recognize the overlapping relationships between them that engender flexibility for its adaptation within different contexts. This co-created knowledge will contribute towards creating a conceptual framework that can extend beyond the workshop; one that is based on a flexible structure that (1) promotes social inclusion and collectiveness, besides an individualistic and hierarchical structure; (2) generates human capacities guided by social values rather than economic interests; (3) increases society's engagement and its members’ role in inclining towards participation and action; (4) encourages participants for further collaborations to foster informal horizontal productive models. Post-workshop documentation and outcomes analysis is intended through a journal article about re-thinking co-design strategies from feminist capacities.Further, this will eventually contribute and strengthen a broader discussion on the possibility of informing alternate design cultures from a non-patriarchal lens.

Andrea Navarrete, Krity Gera, Peterb Hasdell
The Art of Regenerative Design

The Art of Regenerative Design Workshop invites participants to explore a new and original mode for design to contribute to social and regenerative transformation. It is a playful design mode that embraces uncertainty and unanticipated discovery – helping to establish an inner relationship with that which we don’t know that we know. Arts-based interventions create a gateway to our feelings, intuitions and senses, the deeper and diversified ways of knowing. This enables new questions and meaningful insights to surface through a more inclusive and holistic understanding of the situation. This in turn can manifest profound alternatives to our current ways of thinking and acting. The art of regenerative design is a mode in which what is designed, and the transformation of the designer unfolds hand in hand as part of a bigger eco-system. Participants bring a question, a challenge, or a theme from their own project they would like to explore individually and as a collaborative exploration. During the workshop they experience a process alternating between physical exercises (modeling in clay, drawing, creative writing) and reflection (note-taking and ‘show & tell’). By experiencing their work through arts-based interventions, the participants gather knowledge about the subject with all their ways of knowing, rather than just the thinking function. This in turn can lead to meaningful insights and a comprehensive understanding of the question or project they are working on. Alas, the workshop provides participants with new, original modes of creating knowledge which they can return to and incorporate in their practice. In the two weeks following the workshop participants are invited to reflect on the interventions, their impact and ask questions in an interview with one of the workshop organizers. In January 2022, the IASDR conference and the participants will receive a condensed overview of the findings serving as a workshop evaluation.

Silje Alberthe Kamille Friis, Annegrete Mølhave
Tackling Online Empathy Deficits: Exploration of New Methods with Humanities and Social Scientific Concepts

Online empathy deficits are commonly found in social media interactions, where users frequently encounter arguments, misunderstandings, and abuses caused by low interpersonal empathy. This workshop explores a new method of harnessing humanities/social scientific concepts to tackle online empathy deficits and enhance design processes. Phenomena of online empathy deficits are accelerated and amplified by the interactional affordances of social media platforms, where designers can intervene, such as with targeted innovations on interface features (visible) or algorithmic infrastructures (invisible). The workshop sensitizes participants to a series of conceptual resources from psychological science, communications studies, and philosophy through playful activities and design tools, and guides participants towards fresh perspectives and techniques of creative ideation in designing for empathy. Participants will attempt to creatively apply the newly gained conceptual resources, while reflecting on how unforeseen design opportunities may be found with a combination of new conceptual resources and pre-existing design practices. Through this interdisciplinary process, participants will begin to develop methods for harnessing new and unfamiliar humanities/social scientific conceptual resources, without having to become a specialist in the external domains. This workshop will be held fully online, and is suitable for a broad range of participants, including design researchers (in HCD, interaction design, value sensitive design, design justice, persuasive technology, emotive design, and related fields), industry practitioners (e.g. social media platform technologists), and humanities scholars / social scientists interested in engaging with design.

Chen Will Zhang, Kate Sangwon Lee, Hai Guang Lian, Mitchell Alex, Yiying Wu, Jung-Joo Lee
Diversifying Approaches to Co-Designing the Smart Everyday

In this workshop, we will venture into the current state of co-design for imagining and creating smart objects and services within the context of “the home”. Together with a diverse group of workshop participants, we will conduct two rounds of co-designing which gives each of the participants the opportunity to explore two of the following three toolkits and methods. The Idiosyncratic Ideation Workshop is a combination of Loaded Dice, a pair of 3d-printed, cubical IoT devices with diverse sensors on the sides of one, and diverse actuators on the sides of the other cube and different card sets. The IoT Design Kit is a set of design and strategy workshop tools which provides various elements that can be completed as individual exercises and from different starting points and user journeys in workshops. Tiles IoT Inventor Toolkit consists of the Tiles IoT Cards, a canvas and a playbook for instructions on the use of the cards. The Tiles IoT Inventor Toolkit focuses on basic understanding of possibilities of the IoT.Collectively, participants will have the opportunity to reflect on the implicit assumptions, goals, and values backed into the co-design methods and toolkits. This helps us to articulate desiderata beyond standard solutions for the self-contained habitat of cost-efficient consumers, and instead appreciate the contingent and idiosyncratic needs and expectations enveloping “the home”.In particular, we will critically inquire about the western perspective of the available co-design methods and toolkits. In response, we will collectively explore and interrogate goals and values of co- design for “the home” from a non-Western perspective. Furthermore, the workshop enables the participants to select the most fitting design method and toolkit for their own creative practice beyond the workshop.

Arne Berger, Michael Heidt, Alexa Becker, Benedikt Haupt, Christian Pentzold, Albrecht Kurze, Dries De Roeck, Jesse Josua Benjamin, Simone Mora
Narratives in Biodesign – Bridging Methods, Processes and Tools

This workshop invites participants interested in biodesign to build new connections and crossovers between diverse disciplines. The aim of the workshop is to collaboratively investigate and reflect on alternative design modes (transdisciplinary and interdisciplinary design) that are rooted in biological materials, systems, experiences, and interactions. This investigation is necessary, to enable practitioners in addressing complex contemporary societal challenges from alternative perspectives. This workshop provides a complementary perspective to previous initiatives by focusing on the process of biodesign(ing). Participants explore state-of-the-art biodesign tools, strategies, methods and approaches to showcase and build narratives in biodesign. The workshop consists of brief inspirational talks by the organisers and interactive facilitated sessions where participants explore, discuss and produce their own narratives. Biodesign narratives aim to support design practitioners and researchers in gaining an overview of the field for carrying out further work, getting insights into the field, building connections and demystifying biodesign for new members of the community.By bringing focus on new and alternative narratives of biodesign, the workshop will challenge existing paradigms that position ‘Human’ in the centre of the design process. We explore and propose alternative modes for biodesign that reflect its potential to create impact on larger-than-human scale through integration of temporal factors, alternative (to human) perspectives and contexts. The workshop offers and questions biodesign support tools, processes and methods available now and possibly in the future. These will be summarised to incite future research on biodesign processes. The organisers welcome participants from diverse backgrounds and levels of expertise. Previous experience with biodesign and narrative building is useful, but not essential.

Sander Välk, Yuning Chen, Livia Kalossaka, Raphael Kim, Celine Mougenot, Larissa Pschetz, Carolina Ramirez-Figueroa, Nurul Ayn Ahmad Sayuti, Björn Sommer
Governing with Nature: Applying More-than-Human Design to the Management of Shared Urban Green Space

A commons refers to a shared resource that is governed by a community of people, in contrast with a resource managed by a private company or public agency. The commons literature offers robust and respected frameworks for understanding how a community manages a commons. However, decolonization critiques in the commons field identify the need to account for other ontologies when we think about what constitutes a community. A recurring theme, particularly in indigenous ontologies, is the location of humans as part of nature rather than separate from nature. What does it mean to govern a shared resource as a more-than-human community? The workshop will draw on real world scenarios about the management of urban green space. The aim of the workshop is to understand how people design governance rules for a shared resource like urban green space when asked to incorporate nonhuman species as equal actants. Workshop participants interested in the following topics will find this workshop helpful: emerging issues in codesign and participatory design research, design as political work that challenges mainstream capitalist economics, and exploring the role of nonhuman species in design. Participants do not need a background in any of these fields. The workshop will spend significant time in the first part of the workshop creating a shared grounding in theoretical issues regarding the commons. Workshop participants can therefore expect to gain an understanding of several emerging design research approaches, including the commons and more-than-human design.

Justin Sacks, Paul Coulton, Rosendy Galabo
Backmatter
Metadaten
Titel
[ ] With Design: Reinventing Design Modes
herausgegeben von
Gerhard Bruyns
Huaxin Wei
Copyright-Jahr
2022
Verlag
Springer Nature Singapore
Electronic ISBN
978-981-19-4472-7
Print ISBN
978-981-19-4471-0
DOI
https://doi.org/10.1007/978-981-19-4472-7