Skip to main content
main-content

Über dieses Buch

An important outcome of the Fourth World Internet Conference, this book provides a comprehensive account of the status quo and trends in global Internet development. Covering network infrastructure, information technology, digital economy, e-governance, cyber security, and international cyberspace governance, it presents the Global Internet Development Index System to assess the Internet development of various major countries and emerging economies.

Inhaltsverzeichnis

Frontmatter

Chapter 1. Development of World Internet

Looking at the history of world civilizations, humanity has progressed along with agricultural, industrial and information revolutions. Each of these industrial and technological revolutions has had great and profound impact on our way of production and life. Today, information technologies represented by the Internet are experiencing rapid changes with each passing day. They have become the leading power for the innovation-driven economic and social development. The world Internet development history is a cross-language, cross-national and cross-cultural history, a history in which all countries make joint effort and work together to build a community of shared future in cyberspace, and a history the integration of information technology innovation with industries. It is an important part of the history of world civilizations. Comprehensively considering technical innovation, industrial development, number of Internet users and situation change, we can divide the world Internet development into five stages: the birth of the Internet (1960s–1992); expansion and application of the Internet (1993–2000); popularization of the Internet (2000–2007); mobile Internet (2008–2016); Internet of Everything (2016–present).

Chapter 2. Development of the World’s Information Infrastructure

(1) With the evolution of fixed broadband network technology, fiber broadband access is becoming the mainstream and the number of its users keeps increasing. By the first quarter of 2017, the number of fixed broadband users in the world had reached 875.1 million, including over 500 million fiber users. (2) The commercial scale and number of users of 4G technology keep increasing rapidly and its application scenarios are enriched. Its technical standard is evolving toward 4G+ and 4.5G at a high speed. By June 2017, 192 countries and regions had opened 601 LTE (4G) commercial networks, with 7.72 billion mobile users and the 4G penetration rate of 28%. (3) The demand for WLAN keeps increasing and the throughput is being calculated in gigabit. By the end of 2016, there were 94 million public WLAN access points (AP) and the number is expected to increase by six times in 2021. (4) With the explosive growth of the demand for Internet addresses, IPv6 sees new development opportunities. The layout is being accelerated and the number of its users is increasing. By July 2017, the number of IPv6 users in the world had accounted for 11.25%. (5) Internet broadband is witnessing rapid growth and the undersea cable construction is booming. Google, Microsoft and Facebook and other Internet giants are important force in the construction. In 2017, the speed of Internet broadband reached 295 Tbps and 270 undersea cables had been put into use. (6) High-orbit broadband communication satellites are developing fast, so are satellite Internet systems. Communication technologies like hot-air balloons and drones are being tested. By the end of 2016, there were 59 high-orbit broadband satellites and the Internet access capacity was 600 Gbps. (7) Data centers and cloud computing platforms are under centralized construction, which is witnessing obvious synergy effect. By 2016, 45% of large data centers were located in the United States. Content distribution networks (CDNs) are developing at a high speed and they can bear higher traffic. In 2016, the global CDN market scale was US$ 6.05 billion, with the compound growth rate in the past five years exceeding 22%. (8) IntelliSense facilities boost the development of the IoT. In 2016, the global cellular mobile communication networks bore approx. 800 million devices’ access to the IoT and they are expected to witness explosive growth in the future. Internet exchange points are expanding rapidly, promoting the networks to evolve in a flattening way. At present, there are nearly 500 exchange points in the world, distributed in 147 countries. (9) Basic resources of the Internet are unevenly distributed. Information infrastructure in some developing countries is not complete. There is a widening digital divide. Among all the Internet users of the world, only 10% come from Africa, but the population of Africa accounts for 16.6% of the world’s total. (10) The future broadband will develop into gigaband and 5G mobile communication standard commercialization will bring about the popularization of the IoT. Space-ground Integrated Network (SGIN) will be available across the globe, network facilities will be more intelligent and open, and universal telecommunication service will boost the sustainable development of economy and society.

Chapter 3. Development of the World’s Network Information Technology

Today, network information technology is developing fast, having been integrated into every area of economy, society and life. It produces great impact on the global economy, interests and security. The world’s economy is more and more focused on the industry of network information technology, which has become a general tool integrated into all economic and social areas. The comprehensive competition between countries is becoming technical competition with the innovation of network information technology as the core. Major countries are promoting original and integrated innovation as well as popularized application, taking the development of network information technology as the foundation for transforming economic development and discovering new advantages for competition. To sum up, the present network information technology development is manifested in the trends as follows: (1) The iterative evolution of network information technology is being accelerated. In recent years, the innovative development and iterative evolution of all kinds of network information technology are being accelerated, including networks, software, IC, computing, storage and sensing. ICT has also witnessed accelerated development and optical communication technology is evolving toward super-speed and super-capacity technology, with its transmission capacity exceeding 560 Tbps. R&D and standardization of 5G network is progressing fast and it will be put into commercial use soon. Software technology tends to develop in the direction of mobile, networking and cloud technology. Cloud service software is becoming the direction of the development of all kinds of software. Massive production has begun for the 7 nm techniques of IC technology and great breakthroughs will be made. Especially, new materials, structures and techniques of IC technology will break the physical limits of Moore’s Law. (2) Integrated innovation and AI technology are thriving. Network, hardware and software technologies are being integrated with each other fast, which has promoted the rapid maturity of mobile smart terminal technology. Smartphones, pads and wearable devices keep emerging. In 2016, the shipments of smartphones in the world reached over 1.47 billion. Storage, computing and analysis are shifting from the edge of networks to the center. The capacity of large-scale storage, computing and data analysis keeps improving. AI technologies such as speech and natural language processing, computer vision and smart chip are becoming more mature and have been put into commercial use. AlphaGo has stirred a new wave of AI development. (3) Cross-border innovation and integrated development are being sped up. Network information technology is being applied in areas like biology, material, energy and equipment industries and thus it pushes them to develop in the direction of digitalization, networking and intelligence. The integration between network information technology and biological technologies promotes the in-depth and segmented development of biological technologies such as gene sequencing, brain science and organ repair. Network information technology is changing the model of R&D, design, manufacturing and application service of material, and it is reshaping the industry of energy and boosting digitalized, networked and intelligent production, transportation, transaction and utilization of energy. (4) IT is being used in all areas of economy and society. Network information technology is an important drive for the industrial innovation and development. It has boosted the comprehensive innovation of the model of corporate structure, service and business. New corporate structure model embracing networks, platforms and crowdsourcing stimulates the wisdom and potential of people. Service innovations including mobile service, targeted marketing, nearby supply, personalized customization and online and offline integration are stimulating and creating new consumption demands. Corporate development models including customization, everyone’s involvement, experience in manufacturing, production and marketing integration, self-organizing collaboration and adaptive management are being formed rapidly. (5) Network information technology has become the strategic commanding point for all countries to create scientific and technical advantages. To reshape the national competitive strength, major countries take network information technology as the priority in their development strategies, trying to solve problems in development, cultivate new driving forces and speed up transformation to smart society through innovation and popularization of network information technology. Emerging developing countries and industrialized countries initiatively adjust their strategies for the development of network information technology, and less developed countries are speeding up the creation of new advantages for scientific and technical competition to conform to the development so that they will not fall behind but catch up with the new opportunities in the new-round international development.

Chapter 4. Development of the World Cyber Security

At present, cyber security is increasingly threatened by cyber attacks, crime and privacy disclosure, which are penetrating areas like politics, economy, culture and society. All countries are strengthening their attention to cyber security and have taken a series of actions in accordance with their own situation and the world Internet development to improve their capacity of cyber security assurance. (1) Cyber attacks are becoming more hidden but more destructive. Technically peacocking represented by CIH virus, Melissa and Code Red virus are replaced by purposeful and organized attacks represented by Worm.WhBoy.cw, Stuxnet and Ukraine Power Grid Incident. Governmental intervention is being deepened. (2) Web spoofing, DDoS, Trojan and botnet, and cybercrime are the major threats to cyber security. In 2016, at least 255,100 phishing attacks happened worldwide, an increase of over 10% in comparison with the number (230, 300) in 2015. Actually, the number in 2016 was unprecedentedly high. Every year, about 500 million host computers are attacked by botnets, 18 computers per second, resulting in a loss as high as US$110 billion. (3) Advanced persistent threats are becoming increasingly serious with great power of destruction, imperceptibility, durability and complexity, posing great threat to critical infrastructure of finance, business, communication and transportation, and national defense. (4) The number of ransom software attacks is growing explosively. By the end of 2016, such software had evolved into a family-like development mode, with 44,300 new varieties having been discovered and 114 countries having been affected. RaaS is developed into a black industrial chain. From 2016 to 2017, the market scale of the underground market of ransom software saw an increase of 2502%. (5) Large-scale data breach happens frequently, threatening the security of data from governments, businesses and individuals. From 2008 to 2016, over seven billion pieces of online ID information worldwide was embezzled, which indicates that every person’s information is embezzled once. The governmental data of Sweden, Mexico and the Philippines were disclosed, which should arouse the attention of all governmental sectors. (6) With the maturity of IoT and AI, the equipment of IoT and AI may be the major targets of cyber attacks. By the end of 2016, it had been discovered that 2526 control servers had controlled 1.254 million intelligent devices of IoT of the world. Therefore, we should attach equal importance to security and development and take actions in advance to prevent any attack. (7) The United States, Russia, China, Germany and Singapore have launched national cyber security strategies and established special organizations to strengthen the protection of critical infrastructure. They also enhance cyber content security supervision and promote the development of cyber security industries. (8) The position of cyber security has been elevated in the overall national security. Some countries have channeled cyber security into military security to enhance its importance. The United Sates has elevated Cyber Command to be the highest United Combatant Command. Germany and Israel have also founded their cyber commands to improve cyber military fighting capacity, which, at the same time, brings about new factors of instability of cyberspace.

Chapter 5. Development of the World’s Digital Economy

Digital economy is the major economic form in the era of information revolution, representing a new technical model, new resource endowment and a new institution and system. It is the most promising new drive for the mid and long-term growth of the global economy, marking that human beings have entered a new stage with digital productivity as the monument. Digital economy has become the direction of all countries in guaranteeing their steady economic growth and rebuilding their competitive strength as well as one of the cooperative areas of international community. (1) In major countries, digital economy is developing fast, with its speed higher than that of GDP. In 2016, the global digital economic scale accounted for over one fourth of the global total GDP. (2) China and the United States are the “twin stars” in the field of digital economy. The latter ranks first in the scale of digital economy while the former is the largest e-commerce market of the world, with its e-business transaction volume accounting for 40% of the world’s total. (3) Platform economies have new ecosystems of digital economy. Global Internet businesses have adopted the platform development mode. So far, the top 10 Internet businesses in market value have surpassed the top 10 traditional multinationals and become the leading force in the global digital economy development. (4) Digital economy has become the “wind gap” of global entrepreneurship and innovation, attracting a large proportion of technologies, capital and talents of the world. (5) Digital economy is ushering in a new round of globalization. In the global service trade, digital trade accounts for an increasing percentage. It is expected that the transaction volume of global cross-border B2C business will reach US$994 billion by 2020. (6) Intelligent manufacturing has become the major direction of global manufacturing and will bring about revolutionary changes in traditional industrial manufacturing. (7) China’s sharing economy has become the biggest highlight of the world. In 2016, the transaction volume amounted to RMB3.45 trillion yuan, with a year-on-year growth of 103%. It is taking the lead in global sharing economy.

Chapter 6. The World e-Government Development

E-government is the inevitable result of Internet development. The history of the world e-government is also the history of integration between governmental administration innovation and information technologies. After over two decades of development, e-government has improved the administration efficiency of governmental sectors, and facilitated public administration innovation and overall government building, to meet the increasingly diversified and complicated demands of the people. All countries take the development of e-government as an important means of improving the national governance capacity to narrow the digital divide and guarantee sustainable development.

Chapter 7. Development of the World Internet Media

(1) Internet media, the application with the most users, the highest use frequency and the widest scope, are the means of obtaining information, acquiring knowledge, socializing and enjoying entertainment and leisure time, playing an important role in enriching Internet users’ cultural life and facilitating cultural prosperity and civilization progress. (2) Compared with mass media, Internet media are characterized by digitalization, multi-media, hypertext and strong interaction. They have experienced three stages, namely, Internet media 1.0, Internet media 2.0 and next-generation Internet media, developing from one-way communication in the direction of interaction, diversified ecosystems and smart media. (3) By product or service type, Internet media can be categorized into new media, social media, search engines, knowledge platforms and audio-visual media. North America and Europe have more media discourse power and technical advantages, with their products available worldwide; and Asia, Latin America and Africa have local products and services with great potential, with room for improvement. (4) Internet media are channels for Internet users to obtain news and information. Comprehensive portals and aggregated news websites enjoy wide coverage. For example, the number of monthly accesses to Google News is 499.2 million. Traditional news media in major countries maintain strong momentum. The number of monthly accesses to the website of New York Times has reached 388.1 million. Europe, North America, China, Japan, Republic of Korea and Australia are witnessing digital transformation and upgrading of their traditional media and the revolution of their media industry. Africa and Latin America are weak in Internet news media, but some countries there with good Internet infrastructure have their local influential news media. (5) Social media are one of the most popular types of Internet media, including the social network, instant messaging (IM) and online forum (BBS), with the number of their users and their growth rate and penetration rate on the leading list of the world. By the second quarter of 2017, the number of active users of social media in the world had amounted to 3.028 billion, accounting for 79.29% of the total number of the world’s Internet users, but there exists imbalance in the development between regions. The penetration rate in Africa is only 14%, much lower than that in other regions. Social media have increasingly comprehensive functions. News feeds, payment transaction and live video have been added into social media and the mobile terminal has become an important area. (6) Google is the leader on the search engine market. By July 2017, its market share had remained 86.83% of the global total, and it had over 4.5 billion active users, as the leading search engine in most countries of Asia, Europe, Africa and Americas, but not in some non-English speaking countries, such as Russia, China, Republic of Korea and Japan. (7) Internet media of knowledge platforms include online encyclopedia and online Q&A. Wikipedia enjoys over 15 billion accesses every month. Knowledge platforms started early and have witnessed rapid development in North America, Europe and Asia, but started late in Africa and Latin America, where there are few localized knowledge platforms. (8) Audio-visual media take the lead in all Internet media in terms of traffic. It is estimated that their traffic will account for 76% of the total traffic of Internet media in 2018. YouTube has 1.5 billion active users every month. Audio-visual media will become an important growth point of the global entertainment and media industry, and tend to generate and deliver their content by themselves. They are divided into short video, live streaming and bullet screen to meet the demand of different groups of people for entertainment. The products of the United State enjoy the fastest development while those in other regions can meet their local cultural demand. Africa and Latin America have great potential demand, with South Africa and Brazil witnessing the greatest. (9) Forms of Internet media are undergoing profound changes. Traditional media are transforming into new media, with their delivery channels expanding to social platforms. News generation flows represented by “Central Kitchen” witness constant innovation and an obvious trend of paid subscription. Internet media embody open scenario communication, participation and feedback communication, layer communication, and social interaction communication. Internet media are becoming diversified, personalized, professionalized and data-oriented. (10) The necessity and importance of Internet content governance have become the consensus of governments, businesses, trade associations, media and the public, harmful information supervision being the core. The focus of governance is on information threatening national security, information of pornography and violence, information violating privacy and online rumors. In recent years, to curb the spread of terrorism online has been another focus. Legislative and administrative supervision has been combined with civil self-discipline, self-governance of media platforms and special actions. Varieties of technical means have been adopted for comprehensive governance. With the deep combination of advanced technologies like AI, VR and intelligent algorithm with media development, news content generation and information communication will be more diversified, personalized and target-oriented. To sum up, the Internet is a big social information platform, on which billions of Internet users obtain and exchange information. Internet media are the most common Internet application and service type and an important tool of obtaining information, acquiring knowledge, socializing and enjoying entertainment and leisure time. They have changed the pattern of mass communication, and they are influencing and reshaping production and social life. They can also reshape Internet users’ knowledge acquirement ways, thinking and values. They are carriers spreading positive energy and excellent cultures, playing an important role in enriching the Internet users’ cultural life and facilitating cultural prosperity and civilization progress.

Chapter 8. International Cyberspace Governance

Cyberspace is the product of the IT Revolution. Since 1990s, IT Revolution represented by the Internet has gone beyond national and regional borders and cultural differences and created the man-made space connecting all countries and regions, which is the global cyberspace. On the one hand, state and non-state actors have more and more interactions in the cyberspace to enjoy benefits and convenience. On the other hand, traditional politics, economy and social structures are faced with the totally new shock and challenge resulting from the cyberspace and practice proves that no individual actor can only rely on himself in tackling the shock and challenge. How to exercise effective governance over the global cyberspace and build peaceful, secure, open and cooperative cyberspace has become the key strategic issue facing all countries and all actors. (1) The antagonism between the “multiple stakeholders” model and “multilateralism” is the main thread running through the global cyberspace governance, but the two have begun to integrate with each other. China holds that the cyber sovereignty should be respected and consultation should be carried out about common issues, and the country advocates multilateral cyberspace governance involving different participants. (2) The international community has different opinions on global cyberspace governance principles, digital economy development and cyberspace militarization, but they all hold that complete governance rules should be made for cyberspace governance. (3) The global cyberspace governance mechanism keeps being improved. ITU, UN and ICANN play different roles in cyberspace governance and all countries participate in it through bilateral and multilateral mechanisms. (4) China is an active promoter of the reform of the global cyberspace governance system. The proposals on international cyberspace made by President Xi Jinping have won extensive acknowledgement in the international community. To build a community of shared future in cyberspace is becoming the common direction of responsible actors’ effort.

Backmatter

Weitere Informationen

BranchenIndex Online

Die B2B-Firmensuche für Industrie und Wirtschaft: Kostenfrei in Firmenprofilen nach Lieferanten, Herstellern, Dienstleistern und Händlern recherchieren.

Whitepaper

- ANZEIGE -

Globales Erdungssystem in urbanen Kabelnetzen

Bedingt durch die Altersstruktur vieler Kabelverteilnetze mit der damit verbundenen verminderten Isolationsfestigkeit oder durch fortschreitenden Kabelausbau ist es immer häufiger erforderlich, anstelle der Resonanz-Sternpunktserdung alternative Konzepte für die Sternpunktsbehandlung umzusetzen. Die damit verbundenen Fehlerortungskonzepte bzw. die Erhöhung der Restströme im Erdschlussfall führen jedoch aufgrund der hohen Fehlerströme zu neuen Anforderungen an die Erdungs- und Fehlerstromrückleitungs-Systeme. Lesen Sie hier über die Auswirkung von leitfähigen Strukturen auf die Stromaufteilung sowie die Potentialverhältnisse in urbanen Kabelnetzen bei stromstarken Erdschlüssen. Jetzt gratis downloaden!

Bildnachweise