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Built on flawed and uneven foundations a building can be raised to the Pleiades and it will still be neither strong nor straight. As the ancient wisdom says, the loftier the building, the deeper must the foundation be laid. The same logic holds for the architect of the Economic and Monetary Union of the European Union (EMU) which is the longest economic and political integration project with still work in process and no ending in sight.
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See, V. Havel, “Dreaming Aloud” in J. Coleman (ed), The Conscience of Europe (1999, Strasbourg: Council of Europe Publishing), at 89–97. Treaty on the Establishment of Peace throughout Christendom. Edit. Kejř J., Transl. Dvořák I. In VANĚČEK V., The Universal Peace Organization of King George of Bohemia a fifteenth Century Plan for World Peace 1462/1464. Prague: Publishing House of the Czechoslovak Academy of Sciences 1964, pp. 81–90. Also see Smith (1992).
“An ESSAY towards the Present and Future Peace of Europe by the Establishment of an European Dyet, Parliament, or Estates” year 1693.
A manifestation of this factor is evident and clearly observable in almost all of the historical political unions including united India or former soviet states. In the case of former, despite the hostile relationship and wars between India and Pakistan, both suffer from the nostalgia of being a one country under different rules.
See Hont (2005).
See Kant (1795).
See Markham (1966), as quoted in Matthew Zarzeczny, Napoleon’s European Union: The Grand Empire of the United States of Europe (Kent State University Master’s thesis) visit https://www.napoleon-series.org/research/napoleon/c_unification.html.
On About eternal peace between the nations, published 31 May 1831.
Visit https://www.visitguernsey.com/victor-hugo-garden for Victor Hugo’s garden.
See the Anarchist Sociology of Federalism at http://library.nothingness.org/articles/anar/en/display/334.
In its Soviet form Trotsky also proposed the idea of “United States of Europe”.
Visit http://federalunion.org.uk/ for details on Federal Union.
Navari (1992) .
At the annual meeting of the Assembly of the League of Nations in September 1929, Foreign Minister Aristide Briand of France proposed the establishment of a federal European union to coordinate economic and political policies. Briand believed that the proposed union should be created within the framework of the League and promised to submit a detailed plan for a federal union to the 27 European states that were League members. Visit https://www.wdl.org/en/item/11583/ for details.
See Lipgens (1985).
See Ponting (1996).
For Churchill, Winston (19 September 1946). Speech to the Academic Youth. Zürich, Switzerland. Visit https://archive.is/20100820031147/http://www.europa-web.de/europa/02wwswww/202histo/churchil.htm.
See Dinan (2005).
Visit https://web.archive.org/web/20130531235410/http://docs.fdrlibrary.marist.edu/psf/box31/t297a01.html for Suggested Post-Surrender Program for Germany. The plan entailed proposal to remove and destroy all the key industries which are important to military strength. The plain was set out in his booked titled “Germany is Our Problem”.
See Petrov (1967).
See Gimbel (1972).
For Speech by J.F. Byrnes, United States Secretary of State “Restatement of Policy on Germany” Stuttgart September 6, 1946, https://www.linkedin.com/pulse/hoffnungsrede-restatement-policy-germany-speech-hope-francisco-cruz/.
Article 43 of the 1907 Hague Rules of Land Warfare.
Milward (1984). The Saar was returned to Germany in 1957 though French was allowed to extract resources till very late.
Smith (1993). Also see How T-Force abducted Germany’s best brains for Britain, available at https://www.theguardian.com/science/2007/aug/29/sciencenews.secondworldwar and Jacobsen (2014).
American Committee on United Europe.
Visit https://www.coe.int/en/web/portal/home for details.
British memorandum on the future of intra-European payments (15 December 1949), available https://www.cvce.eu/en/obj/british_memorandum_on_the_future_of_intra_european_payments_15_december_1949-en-04f98523-70bc-446c-bae9-5d919472866b.html.
For details on the European Payments Union, visit https://www.cvce.eu/en/education/unit-content/-/unit/02bb76df-d066-4c08-a58a-d4686a3e68ff/ab473e40-d7d8-419b-b507-ac6d7a7ffe76.
For the Schuman Declaration—9 May 1950, visit https://europa.eu/european-union/about-eu/symbols/europe-day/schuman-declaration_en.
Jean Monnet who proposed the Monnet Plan became the first President of the High Authority of the European Coal and Steel Community. Some of the relaxation to Germany for instance return of Saarland to Western Germany was more a matter of people’s will than French benevolence as the referendum held on 23 October 1955, the people of the Saar voted against this European statute, and instead opted for the return of the Saar to the Federal Republic of Germany from 1 January 1957. For details visit https://www.cvce.eu/obj/en-26859090-52d0-4850-9019-92748182042a, though the West Germany would still have to agree to channelisation of the Moselle. In addition to a High Authority and a Common Assembly, ECSC was composed of a Special Council of national ministers and a Court of Justice, somewhat similar to Council of the European Union and the European Court of Justice.
For details visit https://file.wikileaks.org/file/bilderberg-meetings-report-1955.pdf.
Although, there was also proposed to form European Political Community (EPC), however, the refusal of the French National Assembly on 30 August 1954 to ratify the Treaty establishing the European Defence Community (EDC) automatically led to the plan for a European Political Community, of which it was the institutional corollary, being abandoned, for details visit https://www.cvce.eu/obj/the_european_political_community-en-8b63810a-e5bd-4979-9d27-9a21c056fc8d.html. This led to resignation of ECSC 1st President Jean Monnet in protest. Also see Mikesell (1958).
See Maclay (1999) and Stokes (1999).
For De-Commissioning the Empty Chair Crisis visit https://web.archive.org/web/20071025203706/http://eprints.lse.ac.uk/2422/01/Decommisioningempty.pdf.
For The Luxembourg Compromise (January 1966), visit https://www.cvce.eu/en/education/unit-content/-/unit/d1cfaf4d-8b5c-4334-ac1d-0438f4a0d617/a9aaa0cd-4401-45ba-867f-50e4e04cf272.
This aspect led to overreaction and frequent use of veto power, and resistant to even small changes. However, it was rectified in Single European Act, July 1987.
For Report to the Council and the Commission on the realisation by stages of Economic and Monetary Union in the Community (Werner Report) visit http://aei.pitt.edu/1002/1/monetary_werner_final.pdf.
For details on The European Monetary Cooperation Fund (1973–93), https://www.ecb.europa.eu/ecb/access_to_documents/archives/emcf/html/index.en.html.
These included, Michele Fratianni, Giorgio Basevi, Herbert Giersch, Pieter Korteweg, David O’Mahony, Michael Parkin, Theo Peeters, Pascal Salin and Niels Thygesen. All the signatories gathered at the round table discussion at the Katholieke Universiteit te Leuven.
On this aspect, Dominguez (2006) argued that “The slim margins by which the Maastricht Treaty passed and the wide margin on which the European Constitution failed are reminders that Europeans are still wary of giving up their national sovereignty. This wariness also influences the ability of the ECB to efficiently take over monetary policy and limits the ability of the euro to become a true rival of the dollar in global financial markets”. The fact of the matter is “wariness” Dominguez pointed out still prevails.
For European Stability Initiative visit https://www.esiweb.org/index.php?lang=en&id=156&document_ID=74.
Article 17 of European Union Treaty as of 1999.
For detail on The European flag visit https://www.coe.int/en/web/about-us/the-european-flag.
For details on the signing of the Single European Act visit https://www.cvce.eu/obj/the_signing_of_the_single_european_act-en-d29e6c74-ba4d-4160-abc0-1f1d327bfaae.html.
For details on the provisions of the Single European Act visit https://www.cvce.eu/obj/the_provisions_of_the_single_european_act-en-243555aa-d219-4525-9978-34325bb5e17a.html.
According to reports by the Hindu newspaper “ Margaret Thatcher pleaded with Gorbachev not to let the Berlin Wall fall out of London” See Suroor (2009). The times also reported that “ Thatcher told Gorbachev Britain did not want German reunification” See Binyon (2009).
See Sebetsyen (2009).
For “Germany starts recovery from €2000 billion union” visit http://archive.li/ahXRd#selection-677.25-677.166. Also see Hunt (2008).
For “Solidarity Pact II to Be More Effective” visit https://www.dw.com/en/solidarity-pact-ii-to-be-more-effective/a-1474273.
For details on “Treaty on the Final Settlement with Respect to Germany September 12, 1990” visit https://usa.usembassy.de/etexts/2plusfour8994e.htm.
For Potsdam Agreement visit https://www.nato.int/ebookshop/video/declassified/doc_files/Potsdam%20Agreement.pdf.
For “Treaty between the Federal Republic of Germany and the Republic of Poland on the confirmation of the frontier between them, 14 November 1990”, visit https://www.un.org/Depts/los/LEGISLATIONANDTREATIES/PDFFILES/TREATIES/DEU-POL1990CF.PDF.
See Cohen (2005) and Zoellick (2000).
There was approximately $1.70 trillion in circulation as of 23 January 2019, of which $1.66 trillion was in Federal Reserve notes.
See for instance, the Euro-Trap by Sinn (2014).
- Wrong Intentions and Flawed Foundations
Muhammad Ali Nasir
- Chapter 1
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