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The preceding chapter showed how the Intel Xeon Phi coprocessor uses a two-dimensional tiled architecture approach to designing manycore coprocessors. In this architecture, the cores are replicated on die and connected through on-die wire interconnects. The network connecting the various functional units is a critical piece that may become a bottleneck as more cores and devices are added to the network in a chip multiprocessor (CMP) design such as Intel Xeon Phi uses. The interconnect design choices are primarily determined by the number of cores, expected interconnect performance, chip area limitation, power limit, process technology, and manufacturing efficiencies. The manycore interconnect technology—although it has benefited from existing research on other interconnect topologies in multiprocessor systems and the close interaction among cores, cache subsystem, memory, and external bus—makes interconnect design for coprocessors especially challenging.
- Xeon Phi Cache and Memory Subsystem
- Chapter 5