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2023 | Buch

XIII General Meeting of the Russian Mineralogical Society and the Fedorov Session


Über dieses Buch

This book presents the materials of the XIII General Meeting of the Russian Mineralogical Society. Over 190 participants prepared the result of their scientific work on mineralogy: mineral diversity and the evolution of mineral formation (S1); minerals as markers of petro- and ore genesis and new methods of their determination (S2); mineralogy and formation conditions of deposits of strategic minerals (S3); problems of applied (technological and ecological) mineralogy and geochemistry (S4); natural stone in art and architecture (S5); modern research in the field of stone and gemological studies (S6); mineralogical crystallography, crystallochemistry, and new minerals (F1); history of science, museumification, and popularization of natural science knowledge (F2).

The Russian Mineralogical Society is the oldest mineralogical Society in Russia (from 1817). The Russian Mineralogical Society joins more than 1200 researchers from universities, academic and industry institutes, and production organizations in Russia's major scientific centers. The Society has 17 sections, including crystallochemistry, radiography and spectroscopy of minerals, ore mineralogy, technological mineralogy, experimental mineralogy, ecological mineralogy and geochemistry, and new mineral nomenclature classification.

The main scientific and organizing event for the Russian Mineralogical members is the meeting session, organized every fourth year.



Fundamental Issues of Mineralogy, Mineral Diversity and Evolution of Mineral Formation

Priorities of Modern Mineralogy

This message continues traditions of Russian mineralogy, which has always paid special attention to general methodological discussion of the state and prospects for the development of mineralogical science. The author wrote the message on the occasion of the 25th anniversary of the publication of the programmatic article of Academician N. P. Yushkin “Priorities of mineralogy on the threshold of the 21st century” (Vestnik of the Institute of geology, Komi SC UB RAS, 1996, No. 5). We offer the author's list of priority problems that are now attracting the most attention and from the solution of which breakthrough results are expected. These are mainly problems or research trends entrenched in the large mineralogical agenda in the last decade (“growth points”). This list is named the “mineralogical list” for brevity. It is compiled by analogy with the famous list of important and interesting physical problems by Academician V. L. Ginzburg. The “mineralogical list” as well as the “physical minimum” is addressed to young researchers and can be perceived as a minimal educational program for mineralogists.

A. M. Askhabov
E. S. Fedorov’s “Drusites”: Metamorphic Reaction Structures in Paleoproterozoic Metagabbronorites of the Belomorian Province of the Fennoscandian Shield

The reaction structures (coronas) in metagabbronorites from the Belomorian Province were resulted from two stages of high-grade metamorphism. The early garnet-free coronas were formed at olivine/plagioclase boundary. They formed radial new-formed clinopyroxene and orthopyroxene grains after olivine with simultaneous replacement of magmatic plagioclase by metamorphic one + spinel. The early coronas were formed during low-pressure granulite metamorphism at 750–950 ℃ and 3–5 kbar. The late garnetiferrous coronas and peak mineral assemblage after olivine gabbronorites were formed during high-pressure high-temperature metamorphic event at 700–850 ℃ and 15–28 kbar. The retrograde high-pressure amphibolite metamorphism resulted in garnet-bearing and garnet-free antophyllite amphibolites after olivine gabbronorites.

P. Ya. Azimov
Calcium and Cuprum Oxalates in Biofilms on the Surface of the Scoria Cones of Tolbachik Volcano

The study of biofilm oxalates creates the scientific basis for the development of modern nature-like biotechnologies in various fields of science and technology. Calcium (whewellite and weddellite) and copper (moolooite) oxalates in lichen thalli on scoria cones of Tolbachik volcano (Kamchatka Peninsula, Russia) were firstly found. The morphology of oxalate crystal has been described. New species of lichens (Psylolechia leprosa, Sarcogyne hypophaea, Rinodina gennarii, Ochrolechia subplicans) producing oxalic acid, which leads to the formation of oxalates, have been discovered. It was concluded, that in the process of biomineralization the growth of oxalate crystals alternates with their dissolution.

I. A. Chernyshova, O. S. Vereshchagin, M. S. Zelenskaya, D. Yu. Vlasov, O. V. Frank-Kamenetskaya, D. E. Himelbrant
Heterogeneous Mineral Complex in Bottom Sediments North-Western Black Sea

Lithological-mineralogical studies of bottom sediments in the northwestern shelf of the Black Sea using modern methods made it possible to diagnose a mineral complex reflecting the features of Holocene sedimentation and marking the stage of early diagenesis. The study of the material composition of bottom sediments in general, as well as diagnostics of the authigenic mineral complex, including gypsum, pyrite, and Mg-calcite, was carried out by X-ray powder diffractometry, as well as by microscopic methods, including optical and scanning electron microscopy. A genetic relationship of pyrite diagnosed in sediments with diagenetically altered remains of diatoms of the genus Amphitetras was revealed.

O. M. Dara, L. E. Reykhard, M. D. Kravchishina
Monticellite from Spurrite Marbles of the Kochumdek Contact Aureole

The emplacement of the Kuzmovka intrusive complex (νβT1kz) into marly limestone of the Lower Kochumdek subformation (S1kč + rs) in the Kochumdek River area (Podkamennaya Tunguska catchment, East Siberia) produced a zoned thermal metamorphic aureole of high-temperature and ultrahigh-temperature marbles. The Kochumdek marbles contain a number of indicator Ca-Mg silicates (bredigite, merwinite, monticellite, and melilite-group minerals) with restricted Mg2+  → Fe2+  → Mn2+ isomorphism. Monticellite from spurrite marble samples was analyzed for mineralogical and crystal-chemical characteristics. Monticellite was commonly found in high-temperature marbles, where it mainly formed during retrogression breakdown of merwinite (Ca3Mg[SiO4]2) at ~0.2 kbar and 820–880 ℃. Such monticellite (Ca-Mg-Fe-Mn carrier) appears as symplectitic intergrowths with spurrite or cuspidine (Ca carriers). Monticellite has the most variable element contents among Ca-Mg silicates from the Kochumdek aureole: Ca(Mg0.63–0.92Fe0.04–0.27Mn0.02–0.09)[SiO4]. It is the principal host of Mn, Mg, and Fe, with the respective enrichment factors KMn = 13.2, KMg = 8.2, and KFe = 3.1.

A. S. Deviatiiarova
The Association of Henritermierite with Mg-Rich Vesuvianite in Mn Ores: Indicator Significance and an Example of Crystal Chemical Selectivity

Regularities of isomorphism at octahedrally coordinated sites of vesuvianite-group minerals have been investigated based on a representative data on samples from different geological occurrences. Most Mg-rich samples can be divided into two groups: wiluite and boron-free samples from associations with henritermierite. Geochemical and crystal-chemical factors determining the composition of associated Mn-rich vesuvianites and henritermierite are discussed.

N. V. Chukanov, V. N. Ermolaeva, D. A. Varlamov, E. Jonsson
Microbial Biomineralization: Morphogenetic and Crystal Chemical Patterns

The patterns of the oxalate and carbonate crystallization on different rocks and minerals under the influence of microorganisms (fungi, bacteria, lichens and microbial associations) were studied for the first time. The sequence of formation and alteration of biofilm minerals, variations of composition and morphology of the growing crystals and their intergrowths and pH evolution in crystallization medium were analyzed. It is shown that regularities of microbial biomineralization are determined by the chemistry of the crystallization medium, which depends on the metabolic activity of the microorganisms and the properties of underlying minerals. The components of the solution actively interact with crystallizing oxalates, either replacing Me2+ ions or adsorbing on the faces of growing crystals. The metabolism of fungal monocultures and bacterial-fungal associations varies significantly. Research results create the scientific basis for the potential microbial technology applications in a future as efficient low-cost alternatives of the traditional approaches.

O. V. Frank-Kamenetskaya, D. Y. Vlasov
Synthetic Uranyl Compounds: Chemical View on Natural Processes of Uranium Ore Alteration

The discovery of a large number of new U6+ minerals in recent years demonstrates the unique evolution of the natural material within the uranium deposits, but the processes of direct alteration of mineral species remain largely unexplored and not fully understood. In this paper we report on the investigation of the crystal chemical characteristics, which points that the bulk of the discovered natural uranyl sulfates and presumably all natural uranyl selenites were grown from heated solutions, and the temperature range could be assumed from the manner of interpolyhedral linkage.

V. V. Gurzhiy, O. S. Tyumentseva, I. V. Kornyakov, S. V. Krivovichev
Sulfide-Oxide Mineral Formation During Melt Differentiation in the Intermediate Chamber

As a result of the studies carried out, it was found that the process of formation of sulfide and Fe-Ti-mineralization during the differentiation of the melt in the intermediate chamber consists in the crystallization of the sulfide and Fe-Ti melt, depending on its composition; crystallization of iss in the form of “intermediate” compounds, chromomagnetic and Cr-Mg-ilmenite, as well as the evolution of the composition of pentlandite towards Co-containing varieties. At the final stage, the process of decomposition of Fe-Ti solid solutions with a different number and composition of coexisting phases is realized.

S. G. Kovalev, S. S. Kovalev
Native Niobium in the Rocks of the Bobruisk Marginal Salient of the Eastern European Craton Foundation

In the Bobruisk ledge of the Belarusian massif of the Eastern European craton (EEC) mineralization with rare native and intermetallic compounds, carbides, nitrides, alloys, amorphous metals discovered here was revealed. It is represented by an unusually wide range of elements - K, Na, Fe, Mn, Sa, Ba, Sr, Cu, Pb, Co, Ni, Sn, Zn, Al, Ce, Nd, La, Pr, Sm, Y, Yb, Hf, W, Mo, Zr, Cr, V, Ag, Ti, Si, As, P, Bi O. H, F, Cl, S, Se. C, V, N F. All of them are present in rocks of the crystalline basement, gabbro-dolerite and rhyodacite-rhyolite formation, metasomatites. Among them is the native niobium, which was previously found only in the regoliths of the Moon. It is developed in the form of nanosized grains and stones in the secretions of amorphous metals first discovered in nature. FeMnCr compounds predominate among them. Native niobium is observed either in the borders together with corundum, osbornite, manganese sulfides, or in the form of nanosized grains. Associates with silicate and alumosilicate minerals, oxides.

I. V. Levitskiy, V. I. Levitskiy, L. A. Pavlova, M. V. Lukashova
Solid-Phase Gold Transformation in Contact Interactions

This paper presents the results of long-term experiments and observations of solid-phase processes of scattering and concentration of gold in contact interactions. It has been established that even insignificant effects on metal/metal contacting systems with similar and significantly different rheological properties cause activation of mass transfer along the structure-related percolation channels and the subsequent formation of intermetallic compounds, as a reaction to the fine interpenetration of metals. Under stabilization conditions, low-temperature dissipative processes cause the decomposition of intermetallic compounds and intermetallic-based solid solutions, with the release of gold particles. Long-term contact interactions of grains in a monofraction of native gold causes their accretion and the formation of new individuals in the form of dendrites and other complex intergrowths.

V. I. Rozhdestvina
Thiozincate Phase Na2Zn4S5 in Spurrite Marbles at Tulul Al Hamam, Daba-Siwaga Pyrometamorphic Complex, Jordan: Chemical and Raman Data

The first data on chemical composition and Raman spectroscopy are given for a thiozincate phase from spurrite marbles at Tulul Al Hamam (Central Jordan). It is commonly associated with sphalerite to form overgrowths and replacements on ZnS (up to 20 µm). The empirical formula is (Na1.66K0.15Ca0.10Ba0.07)(Zn3.68Fe0.25Cd0.12)(S4.84Se0.12) (n = 77) that is close to ideal composition Na2Zn4S5 (Na2S•4ZnS). The phase is enriched in K, Ba, Fe and Se and mainly inherits variable concentration of Cd from parental sphalerite. The Raman spectra for Na2Zn4S5 are given in comparison with neighboring sphalerite. The main bands of the Na-Zn-sulfide are (in cm−1): 136, 146,150, 225, 255, 337, 345 and 357. This band suite differs from that of sphalerite. In general, the Na2Zn4S5 phase is a first natural Na-thiozincate and seems to be a new compound (Na2S•4ZnS) for the system ZnS-Na2S. It may be considered as a potential new mineral species.

V. V. Sharygin, E. V. Sokol, E. N. Nigmatulina
Trace Element Impact on the Corundum Morphology

The article presents the results on the chemical and morphological research of corundum crystals (α-Al2O3) from several African, Asian, and Russian deposits. The trace- elements of interest were determined by rim-to-rim laser ablation-inductively coupled plasma- mass spectrometry and electron micro-probe analyses coupled to Cr3+ photoluminescence mapping. The variations of corundum morphology are directly linked to a distinct range of Cr and Fe values. Chromium ions, which are larger than Al ions, when substituting in the crystal structure, elongate it along the prismatic face or the c axis. Whereas the fastest growth of the bipyramidal faces is linked to the co-introduction of Cr and Fe ions. The higher amount of Fe comparing to Cr (3: 1 and more) leads to faster growth of the rhombohedron and pinacoid faces.

E. S. Sorokina
Hydrothermal Tourmaline from the Girvas Paleovolcano (Onega basin, Karelian Craton): Morphology and Chemical Composition

The paper considers a previously unstudied hydrothermal tourmaline from the Paleoproterozoic basalts of the Girvas paleovolcano (Onega basin, Karelian Craton). Tourmaline in association with quartz and carbonate forms large nests in lavas, as well as nested and disseminated mineralization in the contact zones between lava flows and the eruptive center. Three morphological types of black-brown tourmalines were identified: large (up to 20 cm) prismatic crystals in quartz veins; fine-needle tourmaline crystals in nest-shaped clusters in association with quartz, albite, epidote, chlorite, and sulfides; radiated aggregates of fine-needle crystals on sub-vertical planes of tectonic dislocations of basalts − «tourmaline suns». According to their chemical composition tourmalines belongs to the alkaline series and corresponds to the isomorphic schorl-dravite group. Under electron microscope in cross-sections of tourmaline, needles zoning was revealed. Microscopic zoning is consistent with the chemical variation of Fe, Mg, Al, Na and vacancy content in individual zones. The zoning of tourmaline crystals provide evidence for multi-stage process of their formation, which proceeded during several impulses of hydrothermal activity, differing in the physicochemical parameters of the mineral formation environment.

E. N. Svetova, S. A. Svetov
Ti-Fe-Nb Mineral Phases from the Boxiton Bearing Weather Bark of the Verkhne-Shchugorsky Deposit (Middle Timan)

In the bauxitebearing crust of weathering of the Verkhne-Shchugorskoye deposit (Middle Timan, Russia), developed over alkaline metasomatites, the presence of Ti-Fe-Nb phases unusual in composition (with high TiO2 contents up to 20–40 Wt%) was established. Ti-Fe-Nb phases are found in alkaline metasomatites and rocks of the bauxitebearing crust of weathering along them in aggregates with columbite in the form of nesting accumulations, veinlets and rare phenocrysts and are characterized by wide variations in chemical composition, significantly differing from the minerals of the Ti-Fe-Nb system described in the literature. Presumably, this is a new mineral species corresponding to the compositions of the (Ti, Nb) (Fe, Nb) O4 series, which is confirmed by preliminary data of single crystal diffractometry and Mossbauer spectroscopy.

O. V. Udoratina, D. A. Varlamov, B. A. Makeev, V. P. Lutoev, A. S. Shuyskiy
Scandium Garnets from Chloritolites, South Ural

During studying chloritolites from copper ore occurrences near the Muldakaevo village (Uchalinsky district, Bashkortostan, Russia), very exotic scandium-vanadium garnets were identified, corresponding in composition to the series of eringaite - goldmanite - andradite. Previously, similar garnets (but represented by Sc-Zr varieties) were found only in rodingite-like rocks on the Vilyui River, Yakutia. The ore occurrences are located 35 km southeast of the city of Miass in the eastern foothills of the Southern Urals and are localized in metasomatites of the Late Devonian-Permian age.

D. A. Varlamov, V. V. Murzin

Minerals - Indicators of Petro- and Ore Genesis and New Methods of Its Identification

Compositional Evolution of Ree- and Ti-Bearing Accessory Minerals in Metamorphic Schists of the Atomfjella Series, Western Ny Friesland, Spitsbergen

Representative samples of metapelites with the assemblage Ms–Bt–Grt–Qz–Pl and calcic pelitic schists with additional carbonate and clinozoisite were studied. The special attention was paid to the microstructure of aggregates of accessory minerals and its petrogenetic interpretation. Conditions and mechanisms of phase reactions responsible for the formation of accessories are discussed.

S. A. Akbarpuran Haiyati, Yu. L. Gulbin, A. N. Sirotkin, I. M. Gembitskaya
Sulfostannates of Zwitter-Tourmalinite Complexes Accompanying the Lithium-Fluoric Granites (On the Example of Pravourmiysky Rare-Metal-Tin Deposit)

The complex of sulfostannates from the Pravourmiyskoye greisen deposit in the Far East of Russia is discussed. The complex includes stannoidite, mawsonite, stannite, sakuraiite. The discovery and typomorphic features of ferrokësterite and kësterite are noted. Zwitter-tourmalinite metasomatic complexes accompanying the lithium-fluoric granites are distinguished by high ore fertility and lithochalcophilic specialization. They combine cassiterite, wolframite, sulfides (arsenopyrite, lollingite, chalcopyrite, bornite, sphalerite, pyrrhotine, bismuthinite, etc.) and sulfostannates with an admixture of In, Ag, Cd. It is proposed to use sulfostannates as minerals indicating large-scale formation of rare-metal-tin ore.

V. I. Alekseev
Mineralogical Features of Columbite from Rare-Metal Granites and Its Isomorphism

The Zashikhinsky massif is unique tantalum-niobium deposit of alkaline-granite type hosted by the Late Paleozoic rare-metal zone of magmatism in the East Sayan Mountains. Columbite is the mineral concentrating Nb, Ta and Y-group elements. It forms both large (2–5 mm) and small (smaller 0.5 mm) black grains, in places it occurs as flattened elongated crystals. In the rocks, it is associated with major rock-forming minerals like quartz, microcline, albite and accessory minerals arfvedsonite, aegirine, zircon and mica. Columbite is found in all facial varieties of granites, and its chemical compositions vary widely. It makes up a complete isomorphous series from columbite-Fe to columbite-Mn (0.38–12.06 wt.% MnO, 7.19–19.71 wt.% FeOtotal, 1.85–18.94 wt.% Ta2O5, 58.88–75.46 wt.% Nb2O5). Heightened TiO2 (up to 3.26 wt.%), SnO (to 0.41 wt.%) and low Ce2O3, Nd2O3, Yb2O3, UO2, ThO2 contents have been defined as well. The Zashikhinsky deposit is derived from the magma of “transitional composition” holding the mineral associations intermediate between alkaline agpaitic and Li-F granites.

N. V. Alymova, N. V. Vladykin
The Inclusions in Zircon of the Kozhim Massif (The Subpolar Urals)

The study of zircon provides extensive information of a geological and petrographic nature. A detailed study of the inclusions of this mineral is even more able to supplement the data obtained. In the present paper, the mineral inclusions from the accessory zircon of the Kozhim granite massif (the Subpolar Urals) are considered. These minerals usually contain a large amount of the fluid and molten inclusions. Mineral varieties are represented by inclusions of apatite, quartz, plagioclase, titanite, monazite, epidote. For the first time, the gold inclusions were detected. Apatite can be divided into early and late generations of the host mineral. Monazite clearly indicates the zircons crystallized at the final stage of granitogenesis. Quartz and, more rarely, plagioclase prefer to fill the cracks of zircon after exposure to catalase processes. Even a single gold piece indicates the presence of gold in the parent melt. Titanite and epidote can be considered as indicators of secondary generation zircons.

Yu. V. Denisova
Method for Multiple Analysis of Indicator Mineral Compositions of Kimblites to Estimate the Presence of Type IIa Large Diamonds

In the last decade, researchers are especially interested in giant type IIa diamonds, which differ strongly in composition and physical characteristics from diamonds of “P” and “E” generations. Especially large diamonds of this type of high quality are mined at several deposits in Africa and Russia. The cost of some crystals of such diamonds reaches tens of millions of dollars (Fig. 1). Their genesis has not yet been fully elucidated, and it represents a large field for the study of this amazing phenomenon of kimberlite nature. One of the ways to decrypt the genesis of these diamonds is to simulate the mineralogical and geochemical conditions of the diamond generation environment by the chemical compositions of the KIM that characterize this environment - pyropes, chromites, ilmenites and pyroxenes. 5E diagrams of the KIM compositions for five elements - Cr, Al, Fe, Mg, Mn were constructed for Karove and Grib industrial deposits, mainly containing large and giant type of diamonds. On the basis of such diagrams, a method for assessing the probability of the presence of large and giant type IIa diamonds in kimberlites of explored deposits is proposed based on the method of comparison with the standard (analogy method).

A. S. Ivanov, V. N. Zinchenko
Mineral Inclusions in Irghizites and Microirghizites (Zhamanshin Astroblem, Kazakhstan)

A collection of irghizites and microirghizites selected by the authors during two field seasons 2018–2019 at the Zhamanshin impact structure (Kazakhstan) was studied. The main task is to identify and study mineral inclusions regarding the morphological features of the samples. This study will help to resolve existing ambiguities and contradictions in the data on these impact rocks. On the other hand, it will serve to understand the genesis and ontogenesis of the impact glasses (i.e., zhamanshinites, irghizites, and microirghizites) of the Zhamanshin astrobleme in general and will provide information for the reconstruction of the impact event.

E. S. Sergienko, S. J. Janson, A. Esau, Hamann, F. Kaufmann, L. Hecht, V. V. Karpinsky, E. V. Petrova, P. V. Kharitonskii
Minerals-Indicators of Fluids Compositions in the Metabasites (by Experimental Data)

The results of modeling the transfer of petrogenic components at 750-800 °C, under pressure gradient conditions, are presented. The source of the transferred Si, Ca, Mg, Al in the experiments was diopside, or garnet. The composition of the solution was represented by H2O or solutions of NaCl, Na2CO3. During the experiments, the diopside or garnet was partially dissolved under gradient conditions, with the transfer and redeposition of the dissolved components. New minerals were formed, the composition of which was determined by the composition of the fluid. The transfer of petrogenic elements by H2O ± CO2 fluids or with H2O + NaCl ± CO2 leads to the formation of Ca-Mg-Fe clinopyroxenes and amphiboles of the edenite-pargasite series. The carbonate-alkaline fluid causes the formation of aegirine augites and sodium-calcium amphiboles-richterite-vincite. Quantitative estimates of the salt component in the fluid that determines the formation of various types of metasomatites are given.

L. I. Khodorevskaya
Trace Elements in Amphiboles from Marbles of Luk Yen Ruby and Gem Spinel Deposit, North Vietnam

The composition and mineral associations of amphiboles from marbles of the Luk Yen deposit of colored stones, northern Vietnam have been investigated. It was found that in ruby-bearing marbles, amphiboles are found in association with tourmaline, anorthite, phlogopite and are represented by pargasites and sadanagaites. Moreover, they are enriched in light lithophilic elements (Li, Be, B, K), fluorine, transition metals (Ti, Fe, Cr) and Ga and have more fractionated REE spectra relative to amphiboles from spinel-bearing marbles. At the same time, the latter are associated only with forsterite, clinohumite, and graphite and, in terms of chemical composition, belong to the tremolite-pargasite group. They are characterized by increased contents of V, Rb, Sr, Y, and REE and less fractionated distribution spectra of rare earths. The totality of the obtained data suggests that the formation of ruby-mineralized marbles took place not at the regressive, but at the progressive stage of metamorphism.

K. A. Kuksa, P. B. Sokolov, M. E. Klimacheva, S. G. Skublov, I. S. Sergeev
Periclase from Kuhilal Deposit, Southwestern Pamirs as a Result of Magnesian Solfats and Chlorites Metamorphism

For the first time, periclase was discovered at the Kukhilal deposit located in the Southwestern Pamirs in the Goranian series, which underwent polycyclic metamorphism from granulite to high-temperature amphibolite facies. The deposit is localized in magnesian skarns of the abyssal facies. This mineral characterizes the low-pressure, high-temperature - periclase facies of metamorphism. Its presence in the Southwestern Pamirs (apart from Kukhilala, periclase was found in two more points) is an unusual fact. We explain the formation of periclase outside its facies setting not by the metamorphism of magnesian carbonate rocks, but by the result of changes in sulfate and chloride mineral associations that arose in evaporite salt-bearing sediments in the Early Archean. The presented study provides data on the geological position of periclase-bearing rocks, paragenesis of periclase, diagnostics of the mineral, chemical composition and trace elements, as well as possible conditions for its formation.

A. K. Litvinenko, D. A. Litvinenko, A. F. Fedorov
Monazit of Pizhemskogo, Yarega Deposits and Occurrence of Ichetju, Experience of Chemical Dating

The study of typomorphic features and age of monazite from two giant titanium deposits of Timan - Pizhemskoye and Yarega, as well as the occurrence of Ichetyu (spatially related to Pizhemskoye) made it possible to establish differences in morphology, in the species composition of inclusions, grain sizes, distribution of chemical varieties of the mineral, associated with the conditions of its crystallization and different sources of the substance. The isochronous Th-Pb age of monazite was calculated using the CHIME method. Crystals of yellow monazite from the Ichetyu occurrence are represented by the La-Ce variety, the time of their crystallization (recrystallization) is estimated at 518 ± 40 Ma. The formation time of the Nd-Ce-variety of monazite-kularite (oolitic appearance, grayish-brown color) is 978 ± 31 Ma. Three isochrones with ages 1301, 1105, and 778 Ma were constructed for the Yarega monazite; for the Pizhemsky monazite-kularite, one isochron with an age of 782 Ma. The source of the high-thorium monazite of the Yarega deposit could be ancient granite batholiths, and the origin of the low-torium Yarega monazite and Nd-Ce-monazite-kularite of the Pizhemskoe deposit with an age of ~ 780 Ma could be associated with the hydrothermal transformation of the weathering crust by lamprophyres similar in age (spessartites and kersantites) of the Chetlas Stone.

A. B. Makeyev, A. O. Krasotkina
Filament Crystals of Isoferroplatinum

Among the native platinum minerals of the alkaline-ultrabasic Kondyor Massif of the Aldan Shield (Ayano-Maisky District, Khabarovsk Territory) have been identified filamentous crystalline individuals and aggregates of isoferroplatinum or its cryptoaggregates with tetraferroplatinum. Filamentary crystals were found as subindividuals of crystals and pseudomorphisms of isoferroplatinum among minerals of the platinum group of magmatogenic-fluid-metasomatic palladium-platinum type in metasomatites after dunites. The sizes of whiskers are from 2–15 microns in thickness and up to 4 mm in length. These are well-faceted, highly elongated square or rectangular prisms in cross-section. Rarely are “frameworks” of numerous whiskers that seem to continue the growth of the {100} face of the isoferroplatinum crystal and even form separate “framework crystals” with pronounced {100} and {111} faces. Filamentous crystals and their aggregates should be classified as forms associated with skeletal and multi-headed growth. It seems that the growth of whiskers, probably, mostly occurred on the base, above micron-sized pores on the surface of a pseudomorphosis or crystal, through which the mineral-forming fluid entered. Whisker growth is different from dendritic multi-headed growth.

A. G. Mochalov
Compositional Zoning of Spessartine-Grossular Garnets in the Archean Metavolcanics of the Central Bundelkhand Greenstone Complex, Bundelkhand Craton, Indian Shield

The paper deals with the peculiarities of the chemistry and internal structure of garnet from the Archean metavolcanites of the Mauranipur structure of the Central Bundelkhand greenstone complex. Garnet in them is stable during a long metamorphic evolution and naturally changes its composition from almandine-spessartine, to grossular, associating with amphibole (composition from pargasite and chermakite, to grunerite-cummingtonite and actinolite), clinopyroxene, chlorite, zoisite-clinocoisite, kalishpate, etc., In the final stages it is in equilibrium with calcite, albite, prenite, etc. pumpellite. In some garnet grains, a contrasting complex chemical zonality is formed with sharp zone boundaries and changes in the mineral composition of inclusions across zones. The number of zones (three) is comparable to the number of epigenetic stages. Due to the contrast of the BSE images of the garnet (due to the inverse dependence of the FeO and CaO contents), the character of zoning is considered, stringers, “interzone anomalies” and inclusions of grossular garnet in spessartin-almandin are identified. Garnet grains are not always a closed system and they can undergo processes of recrystallization of inclusions.

O. S. Sibelev
Anomalous Composition of Zircon from Leucogranites of the Belokurikhinsky Massif, Altai

For the leucogranites of the Belokurikha massif, depletion of LREE and HFS elements was established as a result of fractionation of the granite melt while maintaining the unchanged content of LIL elements. High content of rare-earth elements (up to 87800 ppm) and Y (up to 50000 ppm) was found in zircon from leucogranite. The anomalous composition of zircon from leucogranites confirms the assumption that a late magmatic fluid rich in fluorine, saturated with incompatible elements, was formed during the evolution of the magmatic system of the Belokurikha massif.

S. G. Skublov, M. E. Mamykina
Chrome-Spinelides from Layered Intrusions of the Paleoproterozoic Fennoscandian Shield as Indicators of Petro - and Ore Genesis

A comparative study on compositions of accessory and ore chrome-spinelides of the harzburgite-orthopyroxenite-gabbronorite-anorthosite layered intrusions (Monche- and Burakov plutons, Imandra Complex, Kemi, Penikat, Akanvaara, Koitelainen), Pados dunite-orthopyroxenite massif, as well as Paleoproterozoic lherzolite-gabbronorite massifs (“Drusite Complex”) deposited within the Kola region, Karelia, and Finland was carried out. Compositions of mineral phases were studied by X-ray spectrometry using MS-46 CAMECA (GI KSC RAS, Apatity) and CAMECA SX50 (Nancy, France) electron microprobe analysers. The phases were diagnosed based on the author’s minal classification diagram that takes into account a Ti admixture. In composition of ore chrome-spinelides, two groups of ore intrusions were identified, i.e., with more chromic (Kemi, Monche- and Burakov plutons) and more ferruginous (Imandra Complex, Koitelainen) chrome-spinelide. Compositions of ore and accessory chrome-spinelides are rather similar in some intrusions (Imandra Complex) and differ drastically and consistently in others (Monche- and Burakov plutons, Penikat). Composition of accessory chrome-spinelides is highly dependent on rock composition and regulated by changes in composition of evolving melts and increasing oxygen fugitiveness (dlogfO2 (QFM) = −4 to 1.8).

V. F. Smolkin, A. V. Mokrushin
Composition of Volatile Components in Polycrystalline Diamond Aggregates from Mir and Udachnaya Kimberlite Pipes, Yakutia

Polycrystalline aggregates of diamonds, known as bort, framesite, diamondite, are densely cemented aggregates of small (<1 mm) crystals of both transparent and dark color. The study of fluid inclusions in three samples from the Mir and Udachnaya kimberlite pipes (Yakutia) by IR spectroscopy and GC-MS methods for the first time showed the hydrocarbons and their derivatives contained in them. A total content (from 25.7 to 57.3 rel. %) significantly lower, and the amount of carbon dioxide (up to 39.5 rel. %) and water (up to 41 rel. %) is significantly higher compared to macro-diamonds from kimberlite pipes and placers in Yakutia. The assumption of the possibility of the participation of deep hydrocarbons and CO2 in the formation of diamonds is confirmed.

N. V. Sobolev, A. A. Tomilenko, T. A. Bulbak, A. M. Logvinova, R. Wirth
Nature of Daughter Mineral Phases of Melt Inclusions

The article deals with minerals that usually form hydrothermal-metasomatic rocks and for which the magmatic nature was not assumed for a long time. However, the use of thermobarogeochemical methods showed the constant presence of daughter phases of such minerals in the primary melt inclusions. This suggests that carbonates, halides, sulfates, hydroxides, and some aqueous silicates, which are immanent to hydrothermalites and metasomatites, crystallize from melts under certain conditions. The examples of minerals-carriers of such inclusions, forming ultrabasites, alkaline rocks, carbonatites and their accompanying ores, show how the daughter phases of minerals, which are usually part of hydrothermal-metasomatic formations, but under certain conditions, can have a magmatic origin, evolve.

S. V. Sokolov
Gold Nuggets-Indicators of the Frontal Part of the Ore Column of the Deposits of the Amur Province

It is shown that numerous gold nuggets are present in the placers of the Amur province, formed mainly due to the destruction of deposits of the low-sulfide gold-quartz formation. Less common are nuggets in ore-placer nodes with mineralization of the gold-polymetallic formation and the skarn type. There are no nuggets in the ore-placer nodes with deposits of the gold-silver formation. Mass accumulations of nuggets in the Yasnensky and Unya-Bomsky ore-placer nodes are indicators of erosion of the upper part of the ore column of the mineralization of the gold-quartz formation.

V. A. Stepanov
Trace Element (V, Sc, Ga) Composition of Zonal Pyroxenes–As the Basis for the Reconstruction of Crystallization Conditions of Basaltic Magmas

Chemical composition, texture and zoning of pyroxenes are frequently used as indicators of magmatic system evolution. This paper presents trace element data for zoned clinopyroxene phenocrysts hosted in the variolitic lavas of the Suisaari Formation, Karelian Craton, Eastern Fennoscandian Shield. Clinopyroxene phenocrysts from variolitic lavas are characterized by various zoning patterns, mainly manifested in Fe и Mg variations. V/Sc and V/Ga ratios determined for normal and reverse zoned clinopyroxene phenocrysts were used to estimate the variations of redox conditions during the clinopyroxene crystallization. The obtained data suggest that the variations in redox conditions during clinopyroxene crystallization were negligeable. The obtained results support the model that crystallization of zoned clinopyroxenes from basalts of the Yalguba Ridge involves magma mixing and crystal convection.

S. A. Svetov, S. Y. Chazhengina
Compositions of Pyroxenes from Kimberlites and Eclogite Xenoliths of the Katoka Pipe (Angola)

Pyroxene is one of the indicator minerals of kimberlites, the compositional features of which are used to study the petrogenetic and mineragenic parameters of deep diamond formation - RT conditions of the diamond-generating mantle and its composition, in particular, indicator parasteresis of diamond satellite minerals. It occurs both in inclusions of mantle xenoliths and as porphyry phenocrysts in kimberlites. Microprobe analysis (JSM 6510 LA/JET-2200) of pyroxene compositions from eclogite xenoliths of the Katoka pipe (95 grains) and from kimberlites of the Katoka, Luele, Lx071 diamond pipes (800 grains) was carried out. The data obtained made it possible to compare the composition of pyroxenes in terms of main and minor elements and to establish signs of similarity and differences between two different genetic groups of this indicator mineral of kimberlites, as well as to identify its chemical-genetic groups (ChGG) indicator for diamonds.

V. N. Zinchenko, A. S. Ivanov, L. P. Nikitina, J. T. Felix, T. M. Vunda

Mineralogy and Formation Conditions of Strategic Mineral Raw Materials Deposits

First Finds of Weissbergite (TlSbS2) and Avicennite (Tl2O3) in Yakutia

Rare thallium minerals – avicennite and weissbergite were found in the Khokhoy field of the Verkhnyaya Amga gold area (South Yakutia, Russia) in karst zones for the first time. Weissbergite, TlSbS2, the second find in Russia, found as grains in jasperoid fragments in the karst. The chemical composition is (wt.%): Tl 50.3–55.8, Sb 27.4–30.9, S 14.1–16.9. It is associated with native gold. Avicennite, Tl2O3, the first found in Russia, found in karst cavities in oxidized ores. The mineral is associated with rhythmically zonal particles of unnamed phases, presumably antimonate Tl and carbonate Tl, sometimes with adularia and goethite. The discovery of weissbergite, avicennite, and other unnamed thallium minerals is of great importance due to the strong toxicity of Tl to living organisms and an increase in its economic value.

G. S. Anisimova, L. A. Kondratieva, V. N. Kardashevskaia
Lithochemical Characteristics of Dome Deposits Shungite Rocks of Onega Structure

The study of shungite rocks of domed deposits developed along the sixth shungite horizon of the Zaonega Formation of the Ludikovian superhorizon of the Paleoproterozoic of Karelia has been carried out. Three groups of deposits have been identified by petrochemical modules. On the example of two deposits belonging to different groups, it is shown that they also differ in physical and chemical properties.

Yu. E. Deines
Petrological and Geochemical Features and Age of the Granitoid Complexes of the Kordonnoe Deposit as Indicators of the Geodynamic Conditions of Its Formation (Primorsky Krai, Russia)

The article presents the results of studying igneous rocks of the Kordonnoye deposit in order to clarify the geodynamic conditions for the formation of the ore-magmatic system (OMS). Based on the study of petrological and geochemical features of igneous rocks and determination of their age, it was concluded that granitoids of the first group (101 ± 2.0–103.5 ± 2.0 Ma), with which tungsten deposits are associated in the region, should be considered as derivatives of the Early Cretaceous complex, the formation which is due to the activity of intracrustal magma chambers producing IS-type melts with limited participation of deep (through-magmatic) fluids. In the schemes of the geodynamic evolution of the region, these rocks correspond to the stage in which the regime of sliding of lithospheric plates dominated. Granites of the second group, with which tin, polymetallic, gold-silver deposits are associated, judging by their age (86.6 ± 1.8–88.3 ± 0.8 Ma) and petrochemical characteristics, represent an association of rocks of the Sikhote-Alin volcanic belt, and belong to the complex of rocks that records subduction mode.

D. G. Fedoseev, V. A. Pakhomova, V. B. Tishkina, V. V. Gusarova
Rare Minerals in the Ore-bearing Sediments of the Hydrothermal Cluster Pobeda (17°07.45´N. - 17°08.7´N MAR)

The chemical and mineral composition of metal-bearing and ore-bearing sediments of the Pobeda ore cluster (17°07.45–17°08.7 N. MAR) was studied. The phosphorus content was found to be increased to 0.1–0.4%, relative to background concentration (0.0n weight %). At the same time, a positive correlation between P and Zn is observed due to the mineral features of the sediments of the Pobeda hydrothermal cluster. Rare minerals were found in the sediments for the first time in the MOR zone: zinc phosphates - tarbuttite (Zn2 [PO4] [OH]), paragopeite (Zn3(PO4)2•4H2O) and spencerite (Zn4(PO4)2(OH)2∙3H2O), and zinc oxide – zinkite (ZnO). It has been suggested that hydrothermal solutions could have been the source of phosphorus as well as the ore elements (Fe, Cu, Zn). These rare minerals are evidence of unusual geochemical conditions of ore formation in the Pobeda hydrothermal zone and require further investigation.

I. F. Gablina, O. M. Dara, A. D. Lyutkevich
On the Genesis of Gold Mineralization in the Central Part of Hautavaara Greenstone Structure (Karelia)

In the central part of the Khautavaar greenstone structure, there are gold ore occurrences confined to the endo- and exocontact zone of the granitoid massif of the same name. This study is aimed at establishing the nature of the relationship between gold mineralization and the rocks of the Khautavaar massif. There are 3 stages of mineralization formation: 1 - (pre-ore) scheelite-pyrite-molybdenite, 2 stage - (ore) gold-tellurium-bismuth, 3 stage - (post-ore) gold-silver-polymetallic. The results of studying ore-mineral associations make it possible to consider all ore occurrences as elements of a single ore system corresponding to the characteristics of deposits associated with intrusions. The composition of the fluids participating in the formation of quartz in ore-bearing rocks is heterogeneous - these are weakly saline CO2-containing aqueous solutions, chloride brines and substantially carbon dioxide fluids, the homogenization temperatures of which decrease with distance from the massif. The data from thermocryometric studies indicate a multistage evolution of the fluid and the possible existence of magmatic and metamorphogenic sources of fluid. The hypothesized genetic relationship between the massif and mineralization is also consistent with the U-Pb isotope data obtained for zircons from the wall rocks of the Central occurrence.

F. A. Gordon, A. V. Dmitrieva
Gold-Bismuth Mineralization of Pasechnoe Deposit (South Sikhote-Alin)

This paper shows the results of detailed mineralogical research of the Pasechnoe deposit ores. Ore zones are steeply dipping and made of quartz-sulfide, quartz, carbonate-quartz, rare of tourmaline-quartz ores with gold, gold-bismuth, gold-silver, and sometimes tungsten-bearing mineralization. Mineral samples were obtained from ore zones located in different parts of the deposit.Based on conducted mineralogical and mineralogical-geochemical investigations, various rare sulfosalts of Ag-Pb-Bi elemental composition (lilianite homologs − vikingite, eskimoite; pavonite homologs − makovickyite, and a sulfosalt of Ag10PbBi30S51), gold intermetallic (maldonite), bismuth sulfo-telluride (joseiteA), bismuthinite, native bismuth and gold, and also secondary bismuth minerals − bismite, spherobismite, and rooseveltite were identified for the first time in the studied samples. It has been established that presence of bismuth mineralization closely associated with native gold serves as typomorphic indicator of mineralization formation conditions.The character of relations between minerals and their chemical composition allowed distinguishing several paragenetic associations: (1) bismuth-sulfide-sulfo-telluride association with native bismuth, maldonite, gold, joseite A, and bismuthinite; (2) and bismuth-sulfosalt association with sulfosalts of bismuth, lead, and silver.

A. A. Grebennikova
New Data on Ore Minerals of the Konder Deposit

The article presents and analyzes the results of microscopic and microprobe studies of polished sections of the Konder deposit. We have identified ore minerals of the sulfosalt group, and provide data on their chemical composition, spatio-temporal relationships. The joint finding of sulfosalts of lead, silver, antimony, tin, nickel and copper, representing geochemically contrasting groups, allows us to continue the discussion of the history of the formation of the deposit and to clarify some of the features and originality of the named parageneses.

V. V. Gusarova, V. A. Pakhomova, D. G. Fedoseev, L. F. Simanenko, A. A. Karabtsov
Telluride Mineralization of Gold Deposits of the Aldan Shield

The known and new data on the telluride mineralization of the gold deposits of the Aldan shield are systematized and generalized. Gold content is associated with hydrothermal-metasomatic processes caused by the Mesozoic igneous activity of the region with a wide manifestation of subalkaline and alkaline magmatism. The formation of tellurides took place at the very late stages of the formation of gold mineralization of all existing types of metasomatic formations - sericite-microcline metasomatites, gumbeites, jasperoids, and argillisites. The ores contain 29 tellurium minerals: 16 tellurides, 5 sulfotellurides and 8 tellurates. Te minerals of two systems predominate: Au-Bi-Te and Au-Ag-Te. Gold is found not only in an invisible state in pyrite and in the form of native gold of various fineness, but also tellurides: montbrayite, calaverite, sylvanite, krennerite and petzite.Three mineral types of mineralization have been identified: Au-Ag-Te, Au-Bi-Te, and also mixed, which combines the mineralization of both systems. In the spatial distribution of various types of telluride mineralization, lateral zoning is established, consistent with the distribution of derivatives of Mesozoic magmatism: Au-Ag-Te is developed in the northern and central parts of the Aldan geoblock, Au-Bi-Te in its southern part, close to the Stanovoy area of the Aldan-Stanovoy shield…The studies have revealed the species diversity and wide distribution of Au-Te mineralization, which indicates its large-scale regional manifestation in the Aldan Shield.

L. A. Kondratieva, G. S. Anisimova, V. N. Kardashevskaia
Rare and Unknown Secondary Minerals of the Khangalas Ore Cluster (NE Russia)

The paper describes hypergene minerals of the Khangalas ore cluster in the Yana–Kolyma metallogenic belt (NE Russia), among which rare and unknown minerals have been identified. Secondary minerals mainly belong in the sulfate and arsenate classes; out of iron hydroxides only goethite has been recorded. Supergene minerals are more widespread at the Khangalas deposit than at other sites of the ore cluster. The identified rare sulfates, arsenate, and sulfoarsenate. Three unknown minerals are: hydrous ferric sulfate, hydrous Fe-Al sulfate-arsenate-phosphate, and an amorphous mineral. The sources of hypergene minerals were highly sulfidized Upper Permian – Triassic clastic rocks and gold-quartz veins. When carrying out appraisal works in the oxidized zone of the Khangalas deposit, the possibility exists of discovering supergene high-fineness gold, which can significantly increase the gold potential of the deposit. This must be taken into account when studying other deposits of the Yana–Kolyma metallogenic belt.

M. V. Kudrin, N. V. Zayakina, V. Yu. Fridovsky, T. I. Vasileva
New Data on the Mineralogy of Copper-Molybdenum-Porphyry and Associated Gold-Base Metal Mineralization of the Lobash and Lobash-1 Deposits, Karelia

The Lobash copper-molybdenum-porphyry mineralization of the Lobash deposit. Northern Karelia, Russia, is located in the apical portion of the 2.715 Ga Lobash granitic intrusion and at its exocontact in an Upper Archean greenstone rock sequence. Molybdenite mineralization is confined to a quartz vein at the massif margin, while disseminated-streaky mineralization is confined to a stockwork in host rock sequences. The gold-base metal mineralization of the Lobash-1 deposit lies to the north of the molybdenum deposit. Mineral associations of ores and their geochemical characteristics were studied by microprobe analysis and the ICP-MS method. At the Lobash deposit, molybdenite is associated with pyrite, chalcopyrite and zonal scheelite-molybdoscheelite. The ore mineralization of the Lobash-1 deposit is confined to schistosity zones and rhyodacite dyke contacts. It consists of pyrrhotite, sphalerite, chalcopyrite, galena, gold, electrum, hessite, bismuth, bismuthine and various bismutotellurides. The ore mineralization of the Lobash Ore Field formed at a temperature which decreased from 440 to 145 ℃.

L. V. Kuleshevich
Mineralogy of Altered Rocks and Ores of the Multistage Kekura Intrusion-Related Gold Deposit, Western Chukotka, Russia

The Kekura gold deposit, amongst other volcanogenic Au-Ag, intrusion-related Au and porphyry Cu-Mo-Au deposits in the Western Chukotka, is considered to be of economic importance. It is associated with the central part of the Early Cretaceous stock-shaped three-phase Kekura granitoid intrusive. Gold-bearing quartz veins and lenses occur within the intrusive and near-contact country rocks. The following alterations were recognized at the deposit: (1) unmineralized quartz-calcite-tourmaline-albite-muscovite, (2) propylitic accompanied with rare thin quartz veinlet and pockets containing Sn-W-Cu-Bi-As mineralization, (3) quartz-tourmaline-albite-muscovite alteration rimming quartz-molybdenite veinlets, (4) beresite (quartz-muscovite-dolomite±arsenopyrite±pyrite type) rimming gold-bearing quartz-dolomite veins with arsenopyrite and pyrite, (5) quartz-muscovite-illite-siderite-dolomite alteration containing quartz veinlets and pockets with Au-Ag-Sb mineralization, and (6) rare kaolinite type with disseminated pyrite related to faults. The major economic gold grade is related to the fourth stage. The Kekura deposit combines features of reduced and oxidized intrusion-related gold deposits with the late epithermal mineralization.

E. V. Nagornaya, I. A. Baksheev
Major and Trace Element Signatures in Lagoon Vivianite: A Case Study from the Kerch Ooidal Ironstones

The study focuses on mineral chemistry of vivianite from the Kerch ooidal ironstones. The major- and trace-element signatures of the analyzed samples (predominant impurities and MgO/MnO, YbN/LaN, and GdN/LaN ratios) are common to vivianite from Fe phosphates that form during early diagenesis in reduced brackish-water environments.

A. N. Nekipelova, S. N. Kokh, E. V. Sokol, O. A. Kozmenko
Influence of Exogenous Conditions on the Transformation of Native Gold

The transformation of native gold is considered depending on the exogenous conditions of its residence – in weathering crusts, hydrodynamic, aeolian and technogenic environments, as well as in ancient gold-bearing conglomerates. The article is based on the results of field, experimental and analytical studies on the mineralogy of native gold. It was revealed that the formation of spongy and kidney-shaped gold occurs in the weathering crust, as well as the formation of goldenrods with a high-grade porous shell and the deposition of newly formed gold. In a hydrodynamic environment, native gold, regardless of its shape, is flattened. In the Aeolian environment, native gold of various configurations tends to acquire a spherical shape, while not only the shape of the gold changes, but also its refinement-an increase in penetration, a decrease in impurity elements and a decrease in microhardness. Pseudo-ore gold is formed in ancient gold-bearing conglomerates. The identified indicator signs of placer gold for various exogenous environments allow us to reconstruct the geological and geomorphological situation of placer formation - to determine the genetic type of placers, as well as food sources, which makes it possible to choose more correctly the method of searching for placer and ore deposits of gold.

Z. S. Nikiforova
Noble Metals and Carbon Substances in the Uranium and Rare Metal Deposits of Central Asia

Twenty-four hydrothermal deposits and numerous ore occurrences of uranium and rare metals in Central Asia have been studied in varying detail. The main regularities of the appearance of high concentrations of noble metals in the composition of ores are revealed. It is shown that solid carbonaceous substances (graphite, amorphous carbon, anthraxolite, kerite) and hydrocarbons in the composition of gases of fluid inclusions (from methane to hexane) are widely distributed in the ores of such deposits. Isotope-geochemical and mineralogical data indicate the formation of complex mineralization from a single metal-bearing fluid. In some cases, their regular zonal distribution is established. Central Asia, uranium and rare metal deposits, precious metals, carbonaceous substances.

A. A. Potseluev
Mineral Associations of Gold Occurences in the Taimyr-Severnaya Zemlya Orogen as Indicators of Major Deposits in the Central Sector of the Russian Arctic

Gold-bearing mineral associations of gold-quartz and gold-sulfide-quartz occurrences of the Taimyr-Severnaya Zemlya Orogen (Nizhnelitkenskoe on Bolshevik Island, Vidimoe, Nerpichye, Konechninskoe in the myogeoclinal zone of the western Taimyr and Yasnenskoe, Malinovskoe in the accretion zone in the northern part of the Central Taimyr) have been studied. The data obtained indicate the possibility of identifying two new economic geological regions in the Central Sector of the Russian Arctic, comparable to the mineral resource potential of the Vitim-Patom Upland and the Yenisei Ridge.

V. F. Proskurnin, O. V. Petrov, G. A. Palyanova, N. S. Bortnikov
Garnet as a Promising Source of Rare Metals

In the Republic of Karelia, at least 50 Mt of almandine garnet are concentrated in garnet ore deposits and occurrences. Garnet is regarded as a promising non-radioactive source of Sc (major useful constituent) and YTR (Y + Sm + Eu + … + Lu). Their highest average concentrations (ppm) are present in garnet from sialic (Sc2O3 – 211–307; TR2O3 – 245–485, YTR – 91–99%) and some mafic (Sc2O3 – 141–145; TR2O3 – 188–341, YTR – 87–99%) metamorphogenetic rocks. Inferred recoverable Sc resources at the prospects studied are consistent with the ranks of potential small (Sc2O3 < 1 kt) and medium-sized (Sc2O3 ≈ 1.1- 3.0 kt) deposits. To create and develop the strategic critical metal potential, geological prospecting should be conducted to estimate the Sc and TR reserves of know garnet ore prospects and to locate new ones. It is important to develop industrial technology for recovery of Sc and TR from garnet.

A. M. Ruchyov
Comparative Analysis of Micropolicrystalline Diamonds Type Carbonados and Their Synthetic Analogues

Synthetic diamond micropolycrystalline aggregates obtained in the H – C – O – Fe system under the condition of a high concentration in the reaction zone of a carbon phase with a graphite structure and a component (metal catalyst, hydrogen, etc.) facilitating the direct transformation of carbon derivatives with a layered structure in tetrahedral have been investigated. The experiments were carried out on the basis of the original diamond synthesis schemes. The appearance of the cleavage surface of artificial polygranulous diamonds turned out to be close to those of natural Brazilian carbonados.

A. E. Sukharev
Smectite in the Triassic Greywacke and its Influence on Reservoir Properties

The article presents results of studying of mineral composition of the cement of the Lower Triassic sandstones, and its influence on the reservoir properties of the rocks. We carried out the morphogenetic analysis of clay minerals by X-ray diffraction and electron microscopic methods. We found that the distribution, composition and nature of the minerals of cement was influenced by the composition of the weathering zone, the depositional environment, and also diagenetic transformation of sediments. Kaolinite, chlorite, smectite, and hydromica associations were distinguished according to the predominance of one or another clay mineral in the cement of sandstones. The smectite association was the most typical to the floodplain, river oxbow and lacustrine facies. The revealed regularities would help to improve the accuracy of reconstructions of depositional environments, to create more correct geological models of reservoirs, taking into account their filtration and capacity heterogeneity.

N. N. Timonina

Problems of Applied (Technological and Ecological) Mineralogy and Geochemistry

Micron-Sized Mineral Inclusions and Impurity Phases in Graphite from the Ihala Deposit, Karelia, Russia

Macroscale graphite from the Ihala metamorphogenetic deposit, analyzed using electron microscopy methods, was shown to contain impurity phases and micron-sized inclusions. Their morphology and composition were determined. The presence of impurity phases and micron-sized inclusions of chlorite and Fe, Zn, Cu, Pb, and Ag sulphides, feldspars, quartz, rutile, La-Ce-Nd monazite, and other minerals may create more problems in graphite ore dressing graphite.

N. S. Biske, T. P. Bubnova, A. G. Nikiforov
Mineralogical-Technological Characteristics of the South-Western Lupikko Fluorite Occurrences, Republic of Karelia

Karelia’s fluorite potential is discussed. The results of the mineralogical study of fluorite-bearing aposkarn metasomatic rocks from the Southwestern Lyupikko occurrence, in which fluorite, feldspars, quartz, and chlorite are rock-forming minerals, are reported. It has been shown that the mode of occurrence, size, and micromineral inclusions of the minerals are the factors that complicate a dressing process and the production of good-quality concentrates. The presence of felted, fine-grained acicular chlorite, which forms closely-packed polymineral intergrowths with fluorite, is a negative factor.

T. P. Bubnova, O. V. Bukchina
Integrated Approach to Determining the Phase Composition of Ores

An integrated approach was applied to determining the phase composition of iron ores. The data obtained by X-ray powder diffraction method, X-ray electron probe microanalysis, and physico-chemical modeling allowed us quantifying the content of the main ore (hematite, magnetite, goethite, pyrite) and some other minerals (chlorite, apatite), to assess the ratio of mineral phases and to establish polymorphic modifications of several minerals in iron ores significantly varying in phase composition. Issues related to X-ray powder diffraction limitations (limits of detection for minerals of low contents) and X-ray electron probe microanalysis (necessity of long-time measurement for methods) were solved using physical-chemical modeling required only chemical composition data that can be obtained by a routine wavelength-dispersive X-ray fluorescence method. The proposed complex of methods can be used to precisely determine the phase composition of iron ores to assess potential industrial significance.

V. M. Chubarov, A. V. Oshchepkova, O. Yu. Belozerova, E. V. Kaneva
The Chemical Composition of Water and Sediments of an Arctic Mountain Lake in the Zone of Influence of Sewage of Apatite-Nepheline Production

The article presents the results of studies of the chemical composition of water and sediments of the Arctic Mountain Lake Bolshoy Vudjavr, Murmansk Region, polluted by effluents of apatite-nepheline production. There is a clear vertical hydrochemical stratification in the water column of Lake Bolshoy Vudjavr due to the distribution of water flows in different layers from the two main tributaries. The values of pH and mineralization, the content of the basic ions, nutrients, organic matter and microelements in the bottom layer of the water column of Lake Bolshoy Vudjavr are 2–3 times higher than in the surface layer. An analysis of the vertical distribution of chemical elements in a sediment core with a thickness of 27 cm revealed a significant increase in the concentrations of elements (up to 15 times), supplied in increased concentrations with wastewater from enterprises extracting and processing apatite-nepheline production, in the upper 20-cm layer compared to the underlying layers. Production effluents enrich the water and sediments of Lake Bolshoy Vudjavr with alkali and alkaline earth metals (Li, Be, Na, K, Ca, Rb, Sr, Cs, Ba), compounds of N, P, Mn, Fe, Al, rare earth elements, trace elements (Cu, Mo, Sn, Sb, Pb).

V. A. Dauvalter, Z. I. Slukovsky, D. B. Denisov
Technological Mineralogy of Chrome Ore

Advanced mineralogical studies, based on the methods and principles of technological mineralogy, make it possible to assess the influence of texture and structural features and material composition of ore on the technological properties of minerals and ore in general at different levels of organization of mineral matter. On the example of chrome ores from Akkarginsky, Ammonal and Vodorazdelny ore occurrences, it was established that the behavior of ores in the processes of pre-dressing, ore preparation and dressing depends not only on their initial characteristics, but also on the multistage processes of their transformation.

E. A. Gorbatova, B. I. Pirogov
Influence of the Chemical Composition of Minerals on the Mechanical Properties of Basalt Continuous Fibers

In this work, the aim was to define the dependence of the strength of basalt fibers (BCF) on their chemical composition, characterized by two parameters: the NBO/T ratio and the acidity modulus Ma. It makes it possible to predict the change in the mechanical parameters of fibers from their composition, since basalt rocks have a significant drawback - the inconstancy of the chemical composition.Fibers of various chemical compositions were obtained based on 14 different basalt deposits. Pearson’s correlation coefficient for NBO/T and ultimate tensile strength was 0.79, and for acidity modulus and tensile strength it was 0.53. The tensile strength of tested fibers from different deposits ranges from 1495 to 3380 MPa.In addition, with the help of the Raman spectra analysis, it was confirmed that tensile strength can be largely determined by the influence of the chemical composition of basalts on their structure.

S. S. Popov, S. I. Gutnikov
High-Iron Bauxites: Composition Features and Processing Technology (The Middle Timan)

The lack of reserves of high-quality bauxite raw justifies increased attention to refractory bauxites of the Middle Timan (Russia). The objects of research are bauxites of the Vezhayu-Vorykvinskoe deposit, which are distinguished by a complex mineral composition together with a dispersed structure and incomplete crystallinity of the mineral matrix. We used a complex of physical methods of mineralogical analysis to obtain reliable information on their composition and structure. We specified the data of the composition of bauxites of the Vezhayu-Vorykvinskoe deposit and discussed proposals for improving processing technologies.

O. B. Kotova, Shyeng Sun, I. N. Razmyslov, Yu. S. Simakova
Effect of Structure and Stereochemistry on Metakaolin Reactivity when Geopolymerization

Taking into account a wide range of potential raw materials in the synthesis of geopolymers, the technological features of their production, in particular, the thermal and moisture parameters of hardening, are one of the key ones that determine the efficiency of the geopolymerization process and, as a result, the qualitative characteristics of the final geopolymer product. The article discusses the effect of various hardening conditions (natural hardening and thermal drying) of geopolymer binding systems based on kaolinite and metakaolin on their physical and mechanical properties. It was found that experimental geopolymer samples based on kaolinite demonstrate an increase in compressive strength by more than 2.6 times after exposure to thermal drying, while for geopolymer samples based on metakaolin, thermal drying, on the contrary, leads to a decrease in strength by 77.6%. The obtained results of the compressive strength, as well as the features of the microstructure of both studied geopolymer systems, indicate differences in the structures of the initial aluminosilicate raw material. This should be taken into account when choosing thermal moisture parameters and hardening conditions. The literature review presented in this study on the influence of hardening conditions for geopolymers on different aluminosilicate raw materials confirmed the results obtained in the work.

N. I. Kozhukhova, I. V. Zhernovskaya, D. N. Danakin, A. Yu. Teslya, M. I. Kozhukhova
Rare-metal Weathered Crust Saprolite: Material Composition and Selection of Rational Flow Chart

Low-grade multicomponent rare-metal ores prevail in the Russian mineral base. Their mineral and chemical composition vary due to the presence of ore minerals displaying wide isomorphism-controlled variations in chemistries, radioactivity, irregular grain size distribution, and morphology. An in-depth mineralogical study of ores is a must to assess their quality, ensure effective processing, justify the ways of extracting economic component(s), and optimize the flow chart by meaningful changes in properties of the ore or its constituents.Mineralogical and technological studies of the rare-metal deposits are becoming especially relevant, as their industrial development in the oncoming years cannot just meet the demand of the national industry, but enter the world market with a wide variety of the rare metal products.Using techniques and methods of metallurgical mineralogy, new data have been obtained on the special features of the rare-metal ores mineralogy due to their genesis, which affects their technological properties.

E. N. Levchenko
Mineral-Geochemical Evaluation Criteria of Ecological Situation in Territories of Mining Profile

Ecological-geochemical studies are to disclose the pollution patterns within the environmental components, to monitor the ecological situation in anthropogenically impacted territories and to predict the ways of their ecological evolution. The studies and prediction of the environmental impact of natural and man-made agents during the course of exploration and development of mineral deposits in order to reduce, and, sometimes, prevent negative consequences of the project activities have lasting history (Saet, 1990, Yanin, 2002). The tasks to be solved here are: identification of the areas of pollution of environmental components; assessment of the pollution’s degree and chemistries; assessment of geochemical endemicity; zoning of the territory by the pollution level and the environmental hazardousness; identification of the pollution sources and potential man-made mineral deposits; ecological-geochemical monitoring and prognosis of negative processes; compilation of recommendations concerning the rehabilitation of impacted territories; identification of the human population contingents subject to an increased morbidity risk.

I. G. Spiridonov, E. N. Levchenko
Sorption of Phosphorus on Leucoxene: Experimental Studies

We carried out experimental studies of the dependence of the sorption of phosphate ion with ilmenite-leucoxene ore (non-magnetic fraction of the gravitational concentrate, Pizhemskoe deposit, Middle Timan, Russia) on the concentration of sodium phosphate solution and pH of the medium. Phosphorus sorbed mainly in the form of HPO42– and H2PO4– ions on the surface of leucoxene mineral phases causing a change in pH of the medium. The result was a change in the magnitude and sign of the surface charge. The experiments have confirmed the idea that leucoxene is most likely the main geochemical barrier for phosphorus under hypergenesis conditions.

A. V. Ponariadov, O. B. Kotova, Shiyong Sun, M. Harja
Physico-chemical Properties of Analcime-Bearing Rocks of Timan

Increasing the safety of use of water and land resources, improving the quality of life of the population and reducing the risk of diseases are urgent scientific challenges for modern society. Zeolites are cost-effective natural sorbents suggested to solve environmental problems. The paper presented data on the sorption activity of analcime-bearing rocks (ABR) widespread in the north-east of the European part of Russia. The obtained data testified to promising application of ACR in sorption processes. We determined that ABR were characterized by a high sorption activity to radium, uranium, and thorium, the extraction of which from aqueous solutions amounted to 99.6, 99.4, and 100%, respectively, and had a potential for the rehabilitation of radiation-contaminated areas. We reported a significant decrease in various pollutants resulted from purification of drinking water and waste water from enterprises using ABR.

D. A. Shushkov, O. B. Kotova, Shiyong Sun, M. Harja
Reflection of Geochemical Features of the Environment on the Bone Tissue of Krasnoyarsk Residents

The geochemical background of the city of Krasnoyarsk and its environs is determined by the features of carbonate-terrigenous rocks formed in open sea basins. These rocks are characterized by positive geochemical anomalies B, Mg, Si, S, Ca, V, Sr, Y, B, Ce, Nd, Tb, Dy, Ho, Lu, Hf, Hg, Tl, Pb, Bi etc. enter the environment.Krasnoyarsk is a large industrial center, where large-scale production facilities are located, including aluminum-the source of Be, B, Mg, Al, Si, Ca, Ti, Fe, Cu, Ga, Cd, In, Sn, Pb, Bi; non-ferrous metals plant-source of S, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, As, Ru, Rh, Pd, Ag, Sn, Sb, Os, Ir, Pt, Au, Pb. The city is heated by three thermal power plants that burn fossil fuels (coal); and with the smoke, Li, Be, B, P, S, Sc, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, Ga, Ge, As, Sr, Zr, Nb, Mo, Ag, Cd, In, Sn, Ba, Pb, Bi, etc. enter the environment.The trace element composition of the bone tissue of Krasnoyarsk residents was determined. High content of chemical elements is considered as a negative factor, but low content (deficiency) of vital chemical elements is also a negative factor.The coefficient of biological absorption (biophilicity) of chemical elements by the bone tissue of Krasnoyarsk residents is calculated, on the basis of which it is concluded that many elements due to a technogenic source are characterized by the greatest biophilicity, regardless of their content in the environment.

T. P. Strimzha

Natural Stone in Art and Architecture. Modern Methods of Research in the Field of Gems, Semi-precious Stone Raw Materials and Geology

Acoustopolariscopy is the Method for Determining Mineral Samples and Rocks Quality

Investigations of some rock forming minerals and rocks from German (KTB-HB) borehole by means of the acoustopolariscopy method were carried out. As a whole, acoustopolariscopy of minerals of different syngony provides extensive information about their elastic-anisotropic properties, inhomogeneities, including oriented ones. Analysis of some rock samples from KTB-HB showed that the use of the acoustopolariscopy method can reveal the level of heterogeneities and orientation of the elastic symmetry elements.

F. F. Gorbatsevich
Turning the Thunder Stone into the Population of the Bronze Horseman Monument in St. Petersburg (Experience of Historical Reconstruction)

The granite pedestal of the Bronze Horseman monument in St. Petersburg consists of four blocks, into which the Thunder-stone, found in 1768, was divided. In order to reconstruct the sequence of operations to transform the Thunder Stone into the Bronze Horseman pedestal, the method of comparing the pedestal blocks by three interconnected geological reference points was used: the granite trachytoid plane, the position of the pegmatite veinlets developed in granite, and the intersection line and angle between the indicated planar elements of the stone texture. The position of the Thunder-stone and its fragments in the process of processing and moving is illustrated in stages from the initial state of the Thunder-stone, when all the geological benchmarks in it were aligned, to the completion of work on connecting the blocks of the pedestal, in which the observed position of the indicated benchmarks in each block was determined by engineering solutions during construction.

M. A. Ivanov, A. G. Bulakh, G. N. Popov
Nephrite of Bazhenovskoye Chrysotile-Asbestos Deposit, the Middle Urals: Composition, Properties and Quality

The bodies of serpentinite-type nephrite were found at the Bazhenovskoye chrysotile-asbestos deposit. The nephrite forms veins in the contact zone of rodingites after gabbro and serpentinites. The nephrite color is uniform to non-uniform, saturated green to apple-green, grassy-green, spinach-green, grey-green, light green, whitish. Spots, streaks, lenticules of bright spinach-green or, conversely, light green color are sometimes noted. The nephrite consists mainly of tremolite. The chromite decreases the quality of an ornamental stone, but it is replaced by chrome grossular giving the nephrite brighter green coloring. The quality of the nephrite is reduced by serpentine and talc, because of drilling and blasting works. Nickeline, maucherite and uvarovite are specific minerals of the Bazhenovskoye nephrite deposit. The nephrite of the Bazhenovskoye deposit meets the ornamental stone requirements.

E. V. Kislov, M. P. Popov, Y. V. Erokhin
Mineralogy and Gemmology of a New Jewelry Stone of Raiizite

This paper presents the research of a new jewelry and ornamental stone-rayizite. Comprehensive studies of the mineralogical and chemical composition of rayisite were carried out. The main gemological characteristics and features of the nature of the color of this jewelry material are revealed.

A. G. Nikolaev, M. P Popov, A. V Spirina, F. M Nurmukhametov, L. D. Iagudina
Diamond Fields of the Nezametnoe Area (Primorye, Far East of Russia)

Gemological, spectrometric, and chemical properties of alluvial diamonds and their micro inclusions from the Nezametninskaya area, which consider to be diamond-bearing by means of many researchers, were examined. We investigated the sorting of studied diamonds according to their particle size distribution, a complex of the most characteristic typomorphic features, the way the inclusions are located and their contents, ultraviolet microscopy, detection of metal particles on the surface of grains (nickel, cobalt, copper) which are used to provide a greater bond in the manufacture of industrial diamonds. This scientific research has shown us the found minerals have a synthetic origin.

V. A. Pakhomova, D. G. Fedoseev, V. A. Solyanik, V. B. Tishkina, A. A. Karabtsov, V. V. Gusarova
Mineral Composition of Jewelry Septaries of Morocco

In the recent period, the world market, including the Russian one, began to receive high-quality gem-quality septaria from Morocco, which until now remained unexplored. The septaria are predominantly from 2 to 6 cm in size, presumably associated with the deposits of the Aptian. The carried out comprehensive studies have established that the septaria consist, wt. %: quartz - 38, goethite - 16, chlorite (chamosite) - 28, kaolinite - 6, siderite - 5, dolomite - 4, calcite - 1, pyrite, microcline, zeolite, apatite, barite, hydromica, leucoxene are present. Of the impurity elements with a content of more than 0.01 wt. % are fixed: Zn - 0.042, Sr - 0.011, Ba - 0.016. Septarian veins are filled with dolomite, chlorite, quartz with calcite inclusions. The main rock of the septaria is goethite-chlorite-quartz siltstone with a microlepid-granoblastic structure. The mineral composition of septaria is associated with regional low-temperature metamorphism and differs significantly from gem-quality septaries in other regions of the world, in which calcite is the main mineral.

D. A. Petrochenkov
Determination of the Validity of a Collectional Malachite Deposit by an X-ray Fluorescent Analysis

The paper considers the possibility of using X-ray fluorescence analysis as a non-destructive express method for determining the deposit of a collection sample of malachite. This method can be used as an additional method.

M. P. Popov, A. G. Nikolaev, V. V. Kuptsova, N. P. Gorbunova
The Most Urban Stone: Quartzite Sandstone of the Petrozavodsk Suite

The article is devoted to the history of development of the Kamennoborsk quartzite sandstone deposit. The paper notes the composition of the rock, the geological structure of the deposit, the stages of its development, for the first time provides an overview of the use of Kamennobor quartzite sandstones in the architecture of Petrozavodsk. The analysis of the use of this natural material, inextricably linked with the history of the city, is of scientific and cognitive interest.

A. V. Rachmanova
Patterns of the Hydrogen Distribution in the Volume of Natural Diamonds: Causes and Consequences

The report contains results of Fourier Transform Infrared microspectroscopy of diamonds with the hydrogen-containing center N3VH. The determination of temperature change in local growth zones was based on nitrogen ratio in the form of defects of crystalline structure A and B and on the shift of the “platelets” absorbance band. The analysis of the hydrogen concentration in various areas of diamond crystals was performed by the measuring absorbance of the 3107 cm−1 band of the center N3VH. The general scheme of correlation of growth temperature in local zones of diamond crystals with the concentration of hydrogen in them was developed. The scheme confirms the model of energy transfer in mantle processes by hydrogen and its compounds.

E. A. Vasilev

Fedorov Session: Mineralogical Crystallography, Crystallochemistry and New Minerals; History of Science, Modification and Popularisation of Natural Science Knowledge

Centurial Discussion on Building Units in Crystal Growth: Kossel vs Balarev

Based on the analysis of the dramatic history of the development of ideas about the nucleation and growth of crystals, we discussed problem of building units in crystal growth. We showed that in the twenty-first century, the competitive advantage in the theory of crystal growth would be shifting to concepts of building units larger than individual atoms and molecules. New experimental data, testifying to the stable existence in crystal-forming media of prenucleation clusters-quatarons or other organized groups of atoms, exactly like the already formed crystalline particles, as well as the facts of the so-called non-classical growth of crystals with their participation allowed solving the old “Kossel vs Balarev” problem in a new way. At least, Balarev's ideas are no longer outsiders in the theory of crystal growth.

A. M. Askhabov
Crystal Chemistry of Biofilm and Synthetic Oxalates of the Humboldtine Group

Synthetic and bioinspired analogs of oxalate minerals humboldtine, glushinskite, lindbergite, falottaite were obtained on the surfaces of a set of minerals (pyrrhotite, siderite, todorokite, kutnogorite and magnesite) under the action of A.niger fungus and in aqueous solutions. Studies of the obtained oxalate phases showed that oxalate minerals of the humboldtine group can be considered as a solid solution (Fe,Mg,Mn)C2O4·2H2O with limited miscibility. The obtained results can be used in the development of modern biotechnologies, which use microscopic fungi for industrial enrichment of poor ores containing manganese, iron and magnesium, as well as for bioremidation of environmental objects.

A. R. Izatulina, M. A. Kuz’mina, A. V. Korneev, M. S. Zelenskaya, V. V. Gurzhiy, O. V. Frank-Kamenetskaya, D. Yu. Vlasov
Some Structural Features of Monodisperse Spherical Silica Particles - Structural Units of Opal Matrices

We studied the sedimentation rate of monodisperse spherical silica particles and the volume of the supramolecular structure formed by them which together with the data on the particle sizes allowed calculating their real density. The obtained data testified to a significant content of voids in the structure of the particle, the volumetric values of which are within 30%.The specific surface area for supramolecular structures consisting of monodisperse spherical silica particles was determined by nitrogen sorption, according to which we calculated their estimated sizes. Comparison of the results obtained with the data determined using scanning electron and atomic force microscopy, as well as by dynamic light scattering methods, showed that spherical particles had a surface area 30% higher than the theoretically calculated one which indicated the complex structure of silica particles and the presence of a system of hidden pores and voids.We interpreted the data within the framework of the assumption of hierarchical nature of structure of spherical silica particles.

D. V. Kamashev
Fedorite in Charoite and Brookite-Feldspar-Quartz Rocks of the Alkaline Murun Complex

The paper presents the mineralogical-petrographic study of fedorite from three locations of the Murun complex: Irkutskiy and Yakutskiy districts and Gavrilovskaya zone. Two different mineral associations were discovered. The first one is associated with charoite mineralization (Irkutskiy and Yakutskiy district), while the second one from the Gavrilovskaya zone is associated with brookite-feldspar-quartz rocks. The morphogenetic features of fedorite, its paragenetic associations were studied using an Olympus BX-51 polarizing microscope in transmitted and reflected light. The investigation of the form of occurrence of minerals and their relationship made it possible to determine the sequence of the crystallization of minerals in the studied associations. In addition, some differences are noted in the chemical composition of fedorite, both between the studied samples and with previously published data.

E. V. Kaneva, T. A. Radomskaya, Yu. Uzhegova
Solid Phase Relationships in Systems of Amino Acid Enantiomers in Connection with Their Participation in Geological and Technological Processes

The present article sets forth the results of experimental investigations of solid phase interactions in chiral systems of the following types: (1) systems composed of enantiomers of one amino acid, the representative examples being L-threonine—D-threonine and L-phenylglycine—D-phenylglycine; (2) systems composed of diastereomers of one amino acid, the representative examples being L-threonine—L-allo-threonine and D-threonine—L-allo-threonine; and (3) systems composed of left enantiomers of different amino acids exemplified by the following pairs: L-valine—L-isoleucine, L-valine—L-leucine, L-leucine—L-isoleucine, L-alanine—L-serine, and L-aspartic acid—L-glutamic acid. The limits of solid solutions in the above systems are analyzed and possibility of formation of equimolar and non-equimolar discrete compounds is considered. Thermal deformations of crystal structures of the components involved, as well as thermal deformations of several solid solutions formed are investigated and the figures of thermal expansion coefficients (CTE) are plotted. Systematization of organic compounds formed in the binary chiral systems is proposed. The availability of the investigation is closely connected to an important part the amino acids play in both natural processes and technological applications.

E. N. Kotelnikova, A. I. Isakov, R. V. Sadovnichii, H. Lorenz
Investigation of Substance Aggregation Effect on Variation of No3− Anions and Oh-Groups Vibrations in Aqueous Solution by Raman Spectroscopy

In this work, using Raman spectroscopy, the main peak of ~1050 cm−1 of vibrations of the NO3- anion and the band ~3460 cm−1 of stretching vibrations of OH groups in an aqueous crystal-forming solution of KNO3 with different concentrations with varying temperature are studied in detail. Displacements and asymmetry of the NO3- peak were found, which indicates the presence of several frequency components in its composition. An analysis was carried out, which showed the presence of three Gaussian components responsible for the structural units of the solution, which, presumably, include: free, hydrated and clustered NO3 - anions. It was found that there are always cluster associations in the solutions under study, even if the solution is undersaturated. The change in the ratio between hydrated and clustered anions is shown with a change in temperature and concentration of the solution. The effect of temperature and concentration on the general shape of the peak of OH groups in all samples was studied. The observed displacement, asymmetry, and change in the shape of the main and OH groups of the peaks in the solutions under study are probably associated with structuring, as well as with the release of water due to aggregation into clusters of the solute.

A. A. Kryazhev
57Fe Mössbauer Spectroscopy of Dispersed Fe-Mn Carbonate Ores (The Pay-Khoy Ridge, Russia)

The 57Fe Mössbauer spectroscopy was applied to study of the raw Mn-ores of the Famennian manganese formation (the Pay-Khoy ridge, the Ugra Peninsula, Russia) and products of its lab processing during fluorination and reductive calcination up to 650 ℃. The ore samples were finely dispersed and differed significantly in the content of manganese, silica, and iron oxyhydroxides. In rich raw ores about 90 at. % of Fe is localized in rhodochrosite structure as Fe2+ ions, in poor ores this value is about 30 at.%. The rest Fe is in the composition of amorphous phases of superparamagnetic goethite and other iron hydroxides. Fluorination and reduction calcination of ores lead to partial dissociation the rhodochrosite. The presence of significant amounts of ultrafine iron hydroxides in the ore composition leads to the formation of magnetite and jacobsite during the reduction calcination of ores.

V. P. Lyutoev
Experience of Calculation Factor of the Structural Complexity Coefficient for Structural Challenges Describe the Regularities of Genetic Inheritance Structure Under Crystallization of Berillian Indialite

For the first time, a quantitative assessment of the evolution of the indicator of the formation processes structural complexity of the beryl and petalite structural type compounds in the BeO – MgO – Al2O3 – SiO2 system during spontaneous crystallization of the melt, growth of beryllium indialite on the isostructural seed of natural cordierite and in the subsolidus region is carried out. Calculating criteria for the crystallized phases information content are proposed, taking into account the fractional participation of the phase in the total sample mass, the crystal lattice topological complexity contribution to the system structural information, considering the topological identity of the formed phases to known structural analogs… It is proposed to compare the stages of development of the system according to the values of the molar topological informational complexities sums of successively arising phase associations. In the structural inheritance and phase portraits terminology, the structural relationship elements of beryllian indialite and chemically similar phases genetically related to it with the petalite and β-quartz structure are characterized.

S. G. Mamontova, S. Z. Zelentsov, A. A. Dergin
Nano- and Micromorphological Evidence of Colloidal Fluid Structure in Inclusions of Aquamarine Crystals

Using atomic force, scanning electron microscopy and electron beam lithography, it was shown that the fluid in the inclusions of the Sherlovaya Gora aquamarine crystal (Schorl Mountain, Transbaikalia, Russia) is a colloidal sol-gel SiO2 • mH2O system with the mineral impurities. It was found that, unlike crystals with true solutions in the inclusions, the fresh section of crystals with colloidal contents always contains films of sol-gel isolated from the inclusions. Exposure of such a crystal surface to an electron beam in vacuum leads to effervescence of a nanosized colloidal film in the spot area, which makes possible controlled surface modification with formation of submicron structures on it, which represent foam-glass after cooling. The method was tested on various silicate crystals - aquamarine, beryl and sherl (Sherlovaya Gora, Transbaikalia, Russia), rubellite (Manghai Mountain, Transbaikalia, Russia), rock crystal (Zhelannoye, Subpolar Urals) and phenacite (Urals emerald mines, Russia).

N. N. Piskunova
Order-Disorder in Charoite and Denisovite Structures

The charoite and denisovite are rare minerals. They are found as thin needle asbestos-like fibres. The structures of these minerals are composed the edge-sharing (Ca,Na)- octahedra and some types of dreier silicate chains. The chains are running along [001] and are located between the ribbons and walls of octahedra. In polytype charoite-90 three adjacent fragments, produced by silicate chains, are followed each other without shifts. In polytype charoite-96 the same fragments are displaced by a translation of ½c. In the structure of denisovite the layers parallel to (100) formed by silicate chains and the octahedra walls can be distinquished. The chains are located between neighboring octahedra walls and can be displaced either Δz =  + c/4 or –c/4 between neighboring layers. Such an ambiguity with respect to their z-position along octahedra walls can lead to the formation of polytypic sequences, to twinning, to new ordered structure, or to disorder when the directions of the reverse randomly.

I. V. Rozhdestvenskaya, W. Depmeier
Raman Spectroscopy of Isomorphic Substitutions in the Structure of Jarosite Formed During Pressure Oxidation of Refractory Gold Ores

This paper presents the results of studies of solid solutions of jarosite formed during pressure oxidation of flotation concentrates of the Malomyr gold deposit (Russia). Isomorphic impurities of Pb, Na, Al, As, Si are components of the various structural positions of K-jarosite, forming compositional zonality in the transverse structure of accretions. Iso- and heterovalent substitutions bring distortion in the symmetry of SO4 tetrahedra and lead to the splitting of the vibrational mode ν2 (SO4). The Raman spectrum exhibits three peaks at 435 cm−1, 444 cm−1 and 455 cm−1. The compositional zonality discovered by the methods of electron microscopy and X-ray spectral studies is well reproduced by maps of the distribution of the ratios of the integral intensities of vibrational modes at 444/435 cm−1.

V. I. Rozhdestvina, A. S. Zavalyuev, N. V. Mudrovskaya
Crystal Chemistry of Glaukonite from the South-East of the Bashkortostan Republic (Yangyssko-Bayguskarovskaya Zone)

The results of mineralogical investigation of glauconite from the Jangyssko-Bajguskarovskaja zone (Bashkortostan) are presented. Grains were examined using complex of chemical and physical methods: X − ray diffraction, 57FeMössbauer spectroscopy 57Fe, scanning electron microscopy and microprobe analyses.Glauconite is characterized by a relatively high content of K, Fe, Mg. According to Mössbauer spectroscopy data Fe2+ occupies not more than 3% of the total iron content in glauconite. Average crystal-chemical composition of mineral is Ca0.04K0.49 [Fe3+1.05Fe2+0.04Al0.50Mg0.43] {(Si3.80Al0.16Fe3+0.04)4O10}(OH)2 and corresponds to evolved (less mature to mature) glauconite. Glauconite contains a small (<10%) number of swelling layers.

Yu. S. Simakova, V. P. Lyutoev, A. Yu. Lysiuk
The First Results of the Habit Estimate of Real Crystal Octahedra

The shape is the simplest geometric characteristic that allows you to evaluate the shape of a mineral crystal. However, despite the simplicity of this characteristic, the vagueness of its formal definition can lead in some cases to difficulties in estimating the shape of the crystal, especially those transitional between extreme cases of forms.The paper proposes an original method for determining the shape of distorted crystals, which consists in approximating the shape of a crystal described around it by a triaxial ellipsoid of minimal volume. The first results on the estimation of the variety of appearance of all real forms of octahedral crystals obtained using the proposed technique are presented.

D. G. Stepenshchikov
The Leningrad Mining Institute Scientists Contribution to the Non-ferrous Metallurgy Ore Base Creation During the Second World War

The report is devoted to the activities of scientists of the Leningrad Mining Institute in the deep rear of the Soviet Union during the Second World War. The Soviet economy was reoriented towards the needs of the front. The activities of scientists proceeded simultaneously in different areas: research activities, in the organization of production and prospecting work in aluminum, tin, nickel, and molybdenum and cobalt production. The report among others presents the scientific achievements of the LGI nickel group, thanks to whose efforts during the Great Patriotic War, in the deep rear of the Soviet Union, uninterrupted production of “defense” metals, such as nickel, cobalt and molybdenum, established on its own scientific base, in a short time and without any foreign assistance. Research carried out during the Second World War provided concrete technical assistance to the country's mining and metallurgical enterprises, thereby contributing to the rapid development of a number of industries and thereby making a key contribution to the victory over NazisMoskow.

V. V. Vedernikov
Nesquehonite from the Kimberlite Pipe Obnazhennaya: Thermal Analysis and Infrared Spectroscopy

The data of thermal and spectroscopic studies of the first find of rare magnesium carbonate - nesquehonite in the Obnazhennaya kimberlite pipe are presented. Transparent crystals with a columnar and acicular shape represent nesquehonite. The thermogram of nesquehonite shows endothermic effects at 125, 167, 219 ℃, which correspond to the removal of three water molecules with a weight loss of ~ 37% close to the amount of water in the mineral. The decomposition of carbonate occurs at 440 ℃, the weight loss of ~ 30% is close to theoretical. Then crystallization of a new phase - MgO occurs. The IR spectrum of the sample shows typical absorption bands for nesquehonite. It is assumed that the formation of rare carbonates on the serpentine of the Obnazhennaya kimberlite pipe is mainly a consequence of the weathering of silicates, the formation of mineralized solutions and their subsequent crystallization, not excluding the capture of CO2 from the air.

N. V. Zayakina, S. S. Ugapeva, O. B. Oleinikov
New Data on the Crystal Chemistry of Technogenic Minerals from the Burned Dumps of Chelyabinsk Coal Basin

Herein we report a crystal chemical and spectroscopic study of two anthropogenic ferrites: aciculite and srebrodolskite from the burnt dumps of the Chelyabinsk coal basin (South Urals, Russia).

A. A. Zolotarev Jr., S. V. Krivovichev, M. S. Avdontceva, M. G. Krzhizhanovskaya, E. S. Zhitova, T. L. Panikorovskii, V. V. Gurzhiy, M. A. Rassomakhin
XIII General Meeting of the Russian Mineralogical Society and the Fedorov Session
herausgegeben von
Yuri Marin
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