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About this book

This book is open access under a CC BY 4.0 license. It presents the results of the ComBoNDT European project, which aimed at the development of more secure, time- and cost-saving extended non-destructive inspection tools for carbon fiber reinforced plastics, adhered surfaces and bonded joints. The book reports the optimal use of composite materials to allow weight savings, reduction in fuel consumptions, savings during production and higher cost efficiency for ground operations.

Table of Contents


Open Access

Chapter 1. Introduction to Recent Advances in Quality Assessment for Adhesive Bonding Technology

The first chapter highlights the relevance of both adhesive bonding technology and in-process quality assessment for mastering twenty-first-century challenges in joining functional and lightweight materials like carbon fibre reinforced polymers. The ongoing developments of the relevant technological and regulatory procedures and frameworks are hereby outlined, following trends for data-driven innovation and standardisation. Advances from monitoring process variables towards the in-depth and objective Extended Non-destructive Testing (ENDT) of material-related features are presented, based on methodological and technological innovation and insights from recent European joint research projects like Horizon 2020s ComBoNDT—“Quality assurance concepts for adhesive bonding of aircraft composite structures by advanced NDT”. Introducing ten heuristic principles for quality assessment in bonding processes, a concept is demonstrated for establishing empirically consolidated sets of quantitative material and process-specific correlations between design-relevant joint features and quality data measured during the manufacture or repair of adhesive joints using ENDT. Each correlation is obtained by systematically introducing disturbances of relevant process features identified by experts and is levelled once by linking findings from standardised mechanical tests with ENDT results obtained for joints that have intentionally been manufactured or repaired in an off-specification way. Subsequent chapters will demonstrate the suitability of the broadly applicable process.
Michael Noeske, Welchy Leite Cavalcanti, Hauke Brüning, Bernd Mayer, Antonios Stamopoulos, Apostolos Chamos, Thomas Krousarlis, Paweł H. Malinowski, Wiesław M. Ostachowicz, Konstantinos Tserpes, Kai Brune, Romain Ecault

Open Access

Chapter 2. Characterization of Pre-bond Contamination and Aging Effects for CFRP Bonded Joints Using Reference Laboratory Methods, Mechanical Tests, and Numerical Simulation

In this chapter, the pre-bond contamination and ageing effects on carbon fiber reinforced plastic (CFRP) adherends and CFRP bonded joints are characterized by means of reference laboratory non-destructive testing (NDT) methods, mechanical tests, and numerical simulation. Contaminations from two fields of application are considered, namely in aircraft manufacturing (i.e. production) and for in-service bonded repair. The production-related scenarios comprise release agent, moisture, and fingerprint, while the repair-related scenarios comprise fingerprint, thermal degradation, de-icing fluid, and a faulty curing of the adhesive. For each scenario, three different levels of contamination were pre-set and applied, namely low, medium and high level. Furthermore, two types of samples were tested, namely coupons and pilot samples (a stiffened panel and scarf repairs). The CFRP adherends were contaminated prior to bonding and the obtained surfaces were characterized using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. After bonding, the joints were tested by ultrasonic testing. To characterize the effects of each contamination on the strength of the bonded joints, mode-I and mode-II fracture toughness tests, and novel centrifuge tests were conducted on the coupons, while tensile tests were performed on the scarfed samples. Additionally, numerical simulation was performed on CFRP stiffened panels under compression using the LS-DYNA finite element (FE) platform.
Konstantinos Tserpes, Elli Moutsompegka, Mareike Schlag, Kai Brune, Christian Tornow, Ana Reguero Simón, Romain Ecault

Open Access

Chapter 3. Extended Non-destructive Testing for Surface Quality Assessment

This chapter introduces various extended non-destructive testing (ENDT) techniques for surface quality assessment, which are first characterized, then enhanced, and finally applied to assess the level of pre-bond contaminations intentionally applied to carbon fiber reinforced plastic (CFRP) adherends following the procedures described in the previous chapter. Based on two user cases comprising different scenarios that are characteristic of either aeronautical production or repair, the detailed tests conducted on two types of sample geometry, namely flat coupons and scarfed pilot samples with a more complex shape, form the basis for applying the advanced ENDT procedures for the monitoring of realistic and real aircraft parts, as will be described in Chap. 5. Specifically, the reported investigations were performed to assess the surface quality of first ground and then intentionally contaminated CFRP surfaces using the following ENDT tools: the aerosol wetting test (AWT), optically stimulated electron emission (OSEE), two differently implemented approaches based on electronic noses, laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS), Fourier-transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, laser-induced fluorescence (LIF), and laser vibrometry.
Mareike Schlag, Kai Brune, Hauke Brüning, Michael Noeske, Célian Cherrier, Tobias Hanning, Julius Drosten, Saverio De Vito, Maria Lucia Miglietta, Fabrizio Formisano, Maria Salvato, Ettore Massera, Girolamo Di Francia, Elena Esposito, Andreas Helwig, Rainer Stössel, Mirosław Sawczak, Paweł H. Malinowski, Wiesław M. Ostachowicz, Maciej Radzieński

Open Access

Chapter 4. Extended Non-destructive Testing for the Bondline Quality Assessment of Aircraft Composite Structures

We present the results of extended non-destructive testing (ENDT) methods for bond line quality assessment in adhesive joints. The results presented were derived for important application scenarios with regards to aircraft manufacturing and the in-service repair of composite structures. The electromechanical impedance (EMI), laser shock adhesion testing (LASAT), and nonlinear ultrasound scanning (NUS) were used on flat coupon samples, scarfed samples, and curved samples. The EMI method applied to the flat coupons showed some relation of the frequency shift to the level of contamination. For the curved samples, there was insufficient sensitivity to differentiate distinct levels of contamination, while for scarfed samples in most cases both detection and distinction were possible. The LASAT method gave good results for the coupon samples, which were also in accordance with the results of the \({\text{G}}_{\text{IC}}\) and \({\text{G}}_{\text{IIC}}\) tests. For coupon samples with multiple contaminations, we obtained results with varying significance. In the case of NUS, the measurements revealed an increase in nonlinearity affected by contamination at the interphase between the CFRP adherend and the adhesive layer for the majority of scenarios comprising single contamination of flat coupons and scarfed samples. The effect of multiple contaminations was a decrease in nonlinearity for the curved samples.
Paweł H. Malinowski, Tomasz Wandowski, Wiesław M. Ostachowicz, Maxime Sagnard, Laurent Berthe, Romain Ecault, Igor Solodov, Damien Segur, Marc Kreutzbruck

Open Access

Chapter 5. Extended Non-destructive Testing Technique Demonstration in a Realistic Environment with Technology Assessment

This chapter highlights two advances towards a higher maturity of versatile extended non-destructive testing (ENDT) procedures. Full-scale demonstration tests are presented in realistic user application cases that involve typical production or repair scenarios. Subsequently, the investigations used to assess the probability of detection (POD) are detailed for the respective ENDT processes and application-relevant scenarios in a realistic environment. Although some results indicated that some additional in-depth investigations would be even more enlightening, these demonstrations still clearly showed that developments and progress described in the previous chapters have enabled some of the technologies to achieve a maturity that is sufficient to proceed towards industrial implementation. Some ENDT techniques revealed the presence of contaminants on real structural parts with unknown contaminant amounts. For the first time, POD results obtained for ENDT investigations are presented. Some ENDT procedures permitted POD results to be obtained for several scenarios, while others showed technologically relevant POD only for certain scenarios. For two ENDT techniques, determining the POD helped to enhance the respective testing and evaluation procedures. In most of the cases, it was possible to estimate a preliminary quantification of POD by giving the POD90/95. For some techniques, this value was below the lowest contamination degree.
Romain Ecault, Ana Reguero Simon, Célian Cherrier, Paweł H. Malinowski, Tomasz Wandowski, Mirosław Sawczak, Kai Brune, Hauke Brüning, Mareike Schlag, Johannes Derksen, Welchy Leite Cavalcanti, Laurent Berthe, Maxime Sagnard, Wiesław M. Ostachowicz, Saverio De Vito, Andreas Helwig, Rainer Stössel, Damien Segur, Apostolos Chamos, Konstantinos Tserpes

Open Access

Chapter 6. Integrating Extended Non-destructive Testing in the Life Cycle Management of Bonded Products—Some Perspectives

In this chapter, we outline some perspectives on embracing the datasets gathered using Extended Non-destructive Testing (ENDT) during manufacturing or repair process steps within the life cycle of bonded products. Ensuring that the ENDT data and metadata are FAIR, i.e. findable, accessible, interoperable and re-usable, will support the relevant stakeholders in exploiting the contained material-related information far beyond a stop/go decision, while a shorter time-to-information will facilitate a prompter time-to-decision in process and product management. Exploiting the value of ENDT (meta)data will contribute to increased performance by integrating all defined, measured, analyzed and controlled aspects of material transformation across process and company boundaries. This will facilitate the optimization of manufacturing and repair operations, boosting their energy efficiency and productivity. In this regard, some aspects that are currently driving activities in the field of pre-process, in-process and post-process quality assessment will be addressed in the following. Furthermore, some requirements will be contemplated for harmonized and conjoint data transfer ranging from a bonded product’s beginning-of-life through its end-of-life, the customization of stand-alone or linked ENDT tools, and the implementation of sensor arrays and networks in joints, devices and structural parts to gather material-related data during a product’s middle-of-life application phase, thereby fostering structural health monitoring (SHM).
Welchy Leite Cavalcanti, Elli Moutsompegka, Konstantinos Tserpes, Paweł H. Malinowski, Wiesław M. Ostachowicz, Romain Ecault, Neele Grundmann, Christian Tornow, Michael Noeske, Peter Schiffels, Bernd Mayer
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