Skip to main content

About this book

This contributed volume contains the results of the research program “Agreement for Hybrid and Electric Vehicles”, funded by the International Energy Agency. The topical focus lies on technology options for the system optimization of hybrid and electric vehicle components and drive train configurations which enhance the energy efficiency of the vehicle. The approach to the topic is genuinely interdisciplinary, covering insights from fields. The target audience primarily comprises researchers and industry experts in the field of automotive engineering, but the book may also be beneficial for graduate students.

Table of Contents



For more than a century, our society has been dependent upon oil. Today, worldwide industry and government are forced to consider alternative and sustainable solutions for transportation. Vehicles, driven by alternative drivetrain offer an unique advantage concerning energy efficiency, emissions reduction and reduced petroleum use. Thus, they have become a research focus around the world. Electric driven vehicles are seen as one way of reducing oil use and GHG emissions but the challenges for their market introduction often focus on the performance and cost of batteries as well as the corresponding charging infrastructure. Other essential aspects are often not taken into account. Therefore, a special Task of the Implementing Agreement Hybrid and Electric Vehicles under the umbrella of the International Energy Agency (IEA)—Task 17—analyzed technology options for the optimization of electric and hybrid vehicle components and drivetrain configurations that will enhance vehicle energy efficiency performance. This chapter highlights the milestones in history of electrified vehicles and explains the objectives, as well as working methods of Task 17—“System Optimization and Vehicle Integration for Enhanced Overall Vehicle Performance”.
Michael Nikowitz

OEM and Industry Review—Markets, Strategies and Current Technologies

This chapter focus on the current status of battery, hybrid and fuel cell electric vehicles, from an electrochemical and market point of view in order to give a common understanding. It also provides an overview about the advantages and disadvantages between the different technologies, as well as a comparison towards conventional vehicles. Besides that an overview of famous OEMs of electrified vehicles with their respective markets but also their penetration strategies is shown. A comparison of all countries demonstrates that the United States leads in number of total registered electric vehicles, while Norway leads in the market share of such vehicles. The demand for electrified vehicles has grown so rapidly within the last year, that the market for the batteries going into these cars is expected to grow more than sevenfold by 2020.
Michael Nikowitz

International Deployment and Demonstration Projects

Governments around the world have set goals to increase electric vehicles’ future market share. Therefore, fiscal policies as well as tax exemptions and subsidies are a famous instrument in spurring electric vehicle markets, but in widely divergent ways. These conditions are highlighted in this chapter. There are clear differences in the taxation benefits and sales of electric vehicles across the major vehicle markets: Asia, United States and Europe. This chapter indicates that fiscal incentives are not the only factor which influences the market growth of these vehicles. Besides that, demonstration projects also play an important role in terms of market growth. The data for this chapter have been collected from various information exchange meetings within the IEA, conferences from the Austrian Association for Advanced Propulsion Systems (A3PS) and from an ICCT report (Mock and Yang, http://​www.​theicct.​org/​sites/​default/​files/​publications/​ICCT_​EV-fiscal-incentives_​20140506.​pdf, 2015) [1].
Michael Nikowitz

Advanced Vehicle Performance Assessment

In order to provide answers about the performance of vehicles driven by electrified drivetrains, appropriate test procedures must be developed that are robust and compatible with the technology. In IEA-HEV-Task 17, these results are presented from vehicles tested at the Argonne National Laboratory Advanced Powertrain Research Facility under direction from the U.S. Department of Energy’s Vehicle Technologies research portfolio. Chassis dynamometer testing with controlled conditions was employed and included adoption of sophisticated instrumentation, research techniques and considerable staff expertise in testing advanced automotive vehicle technologies. This process was going on for several years, including BEV and PHEV tests with a Nissan Leaf, a PHEV-converted Prius as well as a Chevy Volt (based on the reporting year 2010). This chapter provides comparisons between the different electrified vehicles in terms of their principal configurations and operating modes, charge-sustaining and electric-only and highlights the major findings.
Michael Duoba, Henning Lohse-Busch

System Optimization and Vehicle Integration

This chapter deals with the most important possibilities for improving the overall vehicle performance of electrified vehicles. Thus, it describes the results and the key messages of several IEA-IA-HEV-Task 17 workshops and studies, by focusing on the following topics:
  • E-Motors: This section is focusing on the advantages and disadvantages of Permanent Magnet Motors with rare-earth permanent magnets, representing one of the most common motors being used so far (based on the reporting year 2012). Additionally it focuses on alternatives for permanent magnet motors, which are currently at a few level.
  • Battery Management Systems (BMS): A BMS constantly controls the functionality and charge of the battery cells. Therefore, it is necessary to lengthen battery life. This chapter addresses concerns for current BMS, provides an overview about their basics and highlights the most important BMS-Tasks for High Voltage batteries as well as the demonstration of a Lithium-Ion battery performance and cost model for electrified vehicles.
  • Thermal Management Systems: The optimization of thermal management has become an important business segment, as it is essential for effective operation of electrified vehicles in all climates. The results and outcomes of a study (Argonne National Laboratory) as well as various workshops addressed innovative methods for Thermal Management Systems. The results are described within this chapter and include specific thermal management technologies, explored innovations on components and Phase-Change-Materials.
  • Simulation Tools: For many years now numerical simulation has become an essential tool to engineers in the product development process. Computing methods have been refined to such an extent that today simulations are more and more referred to as a basis for important product decisions. This chapter deals with a few simulation tools in the field of system optimization and vehicle integration, including “Autonomie”, “Cruise” and “Dymola/Modelica”.
  • Functional and Innovative Lightweight Concepts and Materials: In the future, the proportion of high-tensile steels, aluminium and carbon-fibre-reinforced plastics in vehicles is set to increase from 30 % today to up to 70 % in 2030 (McKinsey & Company, Lightweight, heavy impact, 2013). High-tensile steel will remain the most important lightweight material and carbon-fiber-reinforced plastics are expected to experience annual growth of 20 %.
    As Lightweight construction of the vehicle body has become a very important field of R&D activities, this chapter focus on the outcomes of a study on the impacts of the vehicle’s mass efficiency and fuel consumption (Argonne National Laboratory) as well as on various methods of light weighting a vehicle, like simulation tools, advanced “smart” materials, bionic concepts and functional integration.
  • Power Electronics and future Drive Train Technologies: Around 40 years ago, the first piece of software was used in a vehicle to control the ignition of the engine. Today, up to 90 % of all innovations in a car are realized with electronics and software, based on the customers demand for new safety and convenience functions—Advanced Driver Assistance Systems—which are the basics for autonomous driving. This chapter points out that modular drivetrain topologies are as much important as the requirement of layered, flexible and scalable architectures. The further improvement of the power control unit as well as the E/E-Architecture will play a key role in the future of electrified vehicles.
Michael Nikowitz, Steven Boyd, Andrea Vezzini, Irene Kunz, Michael Duoba, Kevin Gallagher, Peter Drage, Dragan Simic, Elena Timofeeva, Dileep Singh, Wenhua Yu, David France, Christopher Wojdyla, Gotthard Rainer, Stephen Jones, Engelbert Loibner, Thomas Bäuml, Aymeric Rousseau, Peter Prenninger, Johannes Vinzenz Gragger, Laurent Garnier

Final Results and Recommendations

Task 17 of the International Energy Agency’s Implementing Agreement for Hybrid and Electric Vehicles was working on the System Optimization and Vehicle Integration of electrified vehicles to enhance the overall vehicles performance. The Task successfully demonstrated that lightening the vehicle (by using bionic concepts, smart materials and functional integration), improving the electric power control unit (trough improvement of the electrical and electronic architecture), optimizing thermal management solutions and improving the battery management system, can help to improve the energy efficiency and the overall system performance of such a vehicle. These improvements can significantly increase the drive range and reduce costs and therefore can make the vehicle more attractive in terms of customer acceptance. Some of the developed methods and improvements are now being used in current vehicles, which highlight the significant importance and success of this Task.
Michael Nikowitz
Additional information

Premium Partner

image credits