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2018 | Book

Advances in Human Factors and Systems Interaction

Proceedings of the AHFE 2017 International Conference on Human Factors and Systems Interaction, July 17−21, 2017, The Westin Bonaventure Hotel, Los Angeles, California, USA


About this book

This book reports on cutting-edge research into innovative system interfaces, emphasizing both lifecycle development and human–technology interaction, especially in virtual, augmented and mixed-reality systems. It describes advanced methodologies and tools for evaluating and improving interface usability and discusses new models, as well as case studies and good practices. The book addresses the human, hardware, and software factors in the process of developing interfaces for optimizing total system performance, particularly innovative computing technologies for teams dealing with dynamic environments, while minimizing total ownership costs. It also highlights the forces currently shaping the nature of computing and systems, including the need for decreasing hardware costs; the importance of portability, which translates to the modern tendency toward hardware miniaturization and technologies for reducing power requirements; the necessity of a better assimilation of computation in the environment; and social concerns regarding access to computers and systems for people with special needs. The book, which is based on the AHFE 2017 International Conference on Human Factors and System Interactions, held on July 17–21, 2017, in Los Angeles, California, USA, offers a timely survey and practice-oriented guide for systems interface users and developers alike.

Table of Contents


System Interaction in Industry

Operators Working with Transmission Flexibility: Enhancing Utility Control Rooms with Dynamic Line Rating Technique

This paper reflects generally on the human factors approach of integrating the Dynamic Line Rating (DLR) technique into power utilities control room as well as other monitoring systems, investigates how to accommodate transmission operators’ needs and incorporate the new technology into a control room regarding these needs.

Wei Zhang, Katya Le Blanc, Jake P. Gentle, Timothy R. McJunkin
An Approach for the Integration of Non-ergonomic Work Design as a New Type of Waste in Lean Production Systems

Nowadays, Lean Production Systems are an industry standard implemented to achieve the objectives set by the management. The overall goal is to reduce costs and delivery time as well as to increase quality. By reducing waste, production processes are improved and, in turn, help to achieve these objectives. However, mostly technical or organizational changes are being made. Human Factors and Ergonomics is not seen as a potential for waste so far although non-ergonomic work causes high costs for companies. The paper outlines four different approaches for integrating non-ergonomic work in the framework of Lean Production Systems.

Uwe Dombrowski, Anne Reimer, Jonas Wullbrandt
A Novel Concept for a Collaborative Dashboarding Framework

Dashboards are commonly used to visualize, analyze, interact with, or to present data in various forms. Their application domains are unlimited, e.g. they can be used as an information desk in the town hall, as a platform in meetings, as an analysis tool for business intelligence, or for providing an overview in disaster scenarios etc. Nevertheless, current dashboarding solutions mostly incorporate only rudimentary collaboration features. After an extensive state-of-the-art research on current dashboard and collaborative solutions, we present a concept for a web-based dashboarding framework with collaboration as the driving force for the design. Inspired by three highly collaborative use cases, our concept aims at innovative sharing possibilities, intuitive and powerful collaboration features, and a flexible design. We conclude with describing how our three guiding use cases can be conducted using the developed concept and give an outlook on our future work on enhancing this high-level design.

Sebastian Schöffel, Greg Weibell, Johannes Schwank
Group Characteristics and Task Accuracy in Distributed Remote User Controlled Manufacturing as Collaborative Environment

Collaborative environments today are very successful when used in multiplayer games and for meetings organizing, which gives an idea to explore its potentials in remotely controlled decentralized manufacturing. This survey is based on the experiment that involved 34 small collaborative groups including 68 students in Serbia, that have used the interface for remote collaborative control of manufacturing systems to control of CNC machine located in Portugal. Our previous surveys have shown that group work consumes less time than individual work in most working options. This paper examines influence of homogeneity of the groups. Results of statistical examination show that percentages of errors are significantly or highly significantly higher in homogeneous compared to a non-homogeneous groups. Therefore, it could be recommended to form heterogeneous groups when remotely controlling decentralized manufacturing processes.

Vesna Spasojevic Brkic, Goran Putnik, Zorica A. Veljkovic, Vaibhav Shah, Ahmed Essdai
The Use of Context Aware Pervasive Systems in the Area of Human Factors and Ergonomics

The major attempt of pervasive computing is to reduce the required user effort in using applications in their surrounding by identifying and recognizing resources, and reacting involuntarily based on the user concern. Pervasive systems are also focusing on improving efficiency, productivity and job satisfaction, with the goal of minimizing errors which are the core issue in human factors too. Spontaneous interaction of heterogeneous resources to achieve context awareness requires the identification of entities together with its description in a given environment is also the concern of Human Factors and Ergonomics as it deals with human – system interface technology in broad-spectrum. Fundamentally, context acquisition is one of the challenging and essential elements in pervasive computing; this concept is also elaborated from the aspect cognitive ergonomics standpoint. This work proposes algorithms used for context preference identification and discusses how context aggregation takes place by a range of context provider.

Beza Mamo
Learning the “Language” of Road Users - How Shall a Self-driving Car Convey Its Intention to Cooperate to Other Human Drivers?

Communication between road users is ruled by road traffic regulations, but there are also implicit laws of communication. Especially lane changes in dense traffic scenarios require not only communicating one’s intention but also cooperating with other drivers. Self-driving vehicles will need to communicate with conventional vehicles on the road during the transition period to full automation. But how does a driver show his willingness to cooperate? A driving simulator study with N = 28 drivers in a dense traffic scenario on the highway was conducted. It was assumed that different lag vehicle reaction behavior on turn signals of the ego driver would influence the ego driver in his subjective evaluation of the situation. Three main effects, deceleration, the amount of velocity reduction and reaction time concerning perceived cooperation were found. The results of the study can be used to design cooperative driving strategies between self-driving and manually driven vehicles.

Nina Kauffmann, Frederik Naujoks, Franz Winkler, Wilfried Kunde
Augmented System Verification Using Automated Testing

A verification process is an evaluation of whether or not a product satisfies its requirements, which typically includes a visual verification activity. This is sometimes referred to as acceptance testing. Minimal or no human interaction is the construct of fully automated testing, which is often not sufficient for verification process/user acceptance testing. An approach for writing automated testing is described here, which augments the human verification process while still leveraging the benefits of test automation.

Amir Schur, Mike Williams
Task Design in Human-Robot-Interaction Scenarios – Challenges from a Human Factors Perspective

The production environment is facing a constant change. New technologies emerge and the latest development in the field of direct human-robot-interaction will create new forms of hybrid working systems. The question arises on how to design tasks in these new working systems. The aim of this paper is to outline current conditions of German production work, focusing on task design characteristics. Based on that analysis conclusions are drawn on how to design hybrid work systems using light-weight robots. The paper presents task specific results of two national employee surveys and of a scoping review on job control aspects, as specific task design features. The analyses reveal that task variability, timing and method control have a strong impact on employees’ wellbeing. Based on the findings guidelines for task design in HRI scenarios in manufacturing cells with light-weight robots are presented and discussed.

Patricia H. Rosen, Sascha Wischniewski

Human Factors in Emergency Management

Interlinking Standardized OpenStreetMap Data and Citizen Science Data in the OpenData Cloud

The aim of this work is to explore the opportunities offered by semantic standardization to interlink primary “spatial data” (GI) from “OpenStreetMap” (OSM) with repositories of the “Linked Open Data Cloud” (LOD). Research in natural sciences can generate vast amounts of spatial data, where Wikidata could be considered as the central hub between more detailed natural science hubs on the spatial semantic web. Wikidata is a world readable and writable community-driven knowledge base. It offers the opportunity to collaboratively construct an open access knowledge graph that spans biology, medicine, and all other domains of knowledge. In this study we discuss the opportunities and challenges provided by exploring Wikidata as a central integration facility by interlink it with OSM, a popular, community drives collection of free geographic data. This is empowered by the reuse of terms and properties from commonly understood controlled vocabularies that represent their respective well-identified knowledge domains.

Werner Leyh, Homero Fonseca Filho
Empirical Studies in User Experience of an Emergency Management System

A system designed following usability principles, and considering users preferences and expectations ensures a high quality of user experience, which is particularly important when the system is used to support complex tasks. That is the case of emergency response operations’ coordination and execution. This work, conducted using an action research methodology, addresses challenges faced by the THEMIS project team during the conceptualization, design and implementation of an emergency management intelligent system, aiming to support disaster response operations and to improve the planning and execution efforts in disaster and crisis’ scenarios.

Mário Simões-Marques, Anacleto Correia, M. Filomena Teodoro, Isabel L. Nunes
Knowledge Management in the Development of an Intelligent System to Support Emergency Response

Intelligent systems use applied artificial intelligence techniques with the aim of reaching, in a specific domain, a level of analysis and performance comparable to human experts. Intelligent systems are able to engage in complex inference processes, necessary for evaluating alternative options, presenting high quality conclusions and advice, and to offer explanations about the rationale that led to such conclusions. Knowledge Management is a key process associated to the development of intelligent systems, since it elicits, codifies, validates and relates the knowledge elements that are stored in the system’s Knowledge Base. The paper focus on the issues involved in the design of the THEMIS intelligent system’s Knowledge Base, and of the cooperative and participatory processes applied for knowledge elicitation, referring the usage of ontologies and UML use-cases. THEMIS project purpose is to develop an intelligent system to support complex and stressful Emergency Management activities. The outcome of the described Knowledge Management process can be determinant to quality of the user experience when exploiting the system, since most of the pragmatic and hedonic qualities of the interactions of an intelligent system are closely related with the characteristics of the underlying knowledge base and inferencing process.

Anacleto Correia, Inês Severino, Isabel L. Nunes, Mário Simões-Marques
Modeling and Simulation in Support of Disaster Preparedness

Modeling and Simulation (M&S) plays a key role in exercising the decision-making process and in training the use of complex systems and procedures. Authorities, responsible to tackle complex processes in response to a plethora of types of natural and anthropogenic disasters, need tools that could support training and preparedness of teams, challenging them with scenarios as close as possible to reality. This work addresses challenges faced by the project team during the conceptualization, design and implementation of a simulation module of the THEMIS emergency management intelligent system. The aim of this intelligent system is to support disaster response operations and to improve the planning and execution efforts in disaster and crisis’ scenarios. Because the M&S module provides the incident injects to use by THEMIS, it also constitutes a key element in the toolkit considered in the usability evaluation plan of THEMIS, namely regarding the user interactions in the different types of equipment adopted.

Mário Simões-Marques, João Bica, Anacleto Correia
Visual Search Techniques and Performance in Electronic Map Display

The appropriate visual search techniques and visual display methods lead to the most effective and quickest way of extracting information during visual search tasks. Visual search time and performance in visual display terminals can be influenced by various parameters, such as an amount of the clutter objects and the screen size. This paper investigated the visual search techniques and performance using radar interface with different symbols that vary in color and features. Thirty-six subjects participated in the study and experiments were performed on separate monitors whose screen size is 7, 15 and 21 in. , the visual angles are experimentally set to be 45; 55; 65; 75 and 85 min of arc. This article took into considerations various performance variables such as completion time, fixation duration etc. to complete the visual search investigation. It was confirmed that the accuracy is highly affected by many clutter objects in the region surrounding a target.

Yan Shengyuan, Jean Luc Habiyaremye
Improving the Communication of Emergency and Disaster Information Using Visual Analytics

Technological advances in communication and the ubiquity of mobile devices have changed the role of emergency information during disasters. Information can now be easily shared between disaster managers, first responders, government agencies, and the public via websites and social media. However, is it unclear how the emergency information is accessed, understood, trusted, and used. This paper first reports on case studies of how disaster information is currently communicated in Queensland, Australia. Second, we propose concepts from visual analytics to improve the quality and effectiveness of communicating information. Third, we propose metrics and situation awareness experiments to measure the quality and effectiveness of new systems.

Chittayong Surakitbanharn, David S. Ebert

System Interaction in Mixed Reality Environments and Simulation

Augmented Reality in Support of Disaster Response

Disaster Management is a complex process, usually dealing with a large amount of uncertain, incomplete and vague information, which normally requires the coordination and collaboration among a variety of actors. THEMIS (disTributed Holistic Emergency Management Intelligent System) is designed as an intelligent system aimed at supporting real time disaster management activities of decision-makers in command posts, and responders in the field. It gathers information from multiple sources (e.g., users, sensors, crowdsourcing), and provides situational awareness based on a georeferenced common picture which is shared among system users This paper presents the preliminary work developed in the context of the THEMIS project addressing the use of Augmented Reality by first responders in a context of disasters relief operations.

Isabel L. Nunes, Raquel Lucas, Mário Simões-Marques, Nuno Correia
Virtual Environments Integrative Design – From Human-in-the-Loop to Bio-Cyber-Physical Systems

The use of technologies such as Virtual Reality (VR) and Augmented Reality (AR) is more and more widespread in our everyday life and is now mature enough to be used in critical medical or aerospace applications. The main issue is then to provide more adaptive abilities to VR/AR applications in developing them using human concerns as primary element. To that way, beyond the classical HITL concept this paper proposes an integrative point of view for virtual environment design based on the concept of Bio-CPS. The goal of this paper is to present Bio-CPS related concepts and to sketch some guidelines for future virtual environments design focusing on specific application fields.

Didier Fass, Franck Gechter
A Thermal Manikin Crus with Thermal Regulation Characteristics Research

The Manikin is a kind of standard measuring equipment that has gradually become the clothing ergonomics and environmental thermal comfort evaluation field indispensable tool. The Manikin is a heat exchange device of stable environment design, so the control model mainly by constant temperature and constant heat flux and the CE model can not reflect the characteristics of human thermal regulation. Therefore, it is difficult to apply to individual protective equipment (PPE) thermal function test. In order to realize the continuous time manikin to the changes of the environment stress adjustment process. This article carries on the transformation to a dry state manikin crus model, the human bioheat equation simplified improved prediction model, and combined with thermal manikin. In order to validate the model, we selected four subjects in a continuous heating environment (27–33 °C) in each of the two groups of tests, and compared with the predicted results. And the results showed that the average temperature change curve of human skin was consistent with the calculated results.

Lei Yun, Tian Yisheng, Tanqiu Li, Jiang Ke, Wen Lei, Ding Li
Mid-Air Hangeul Input System

Some of the traditional keyboards and their layouts are inadequate when it comes to the usability aspect of various responding devices. Even though users anticipate various interaction experiences, the ordinary mutual interaction method has lagged far behind the expectation of users. Thus, this study proposes the Mid-air Hangeul input system available in a large screen environment which direct contact by applying gesture recognition is difficult. User experiment has been conducted based on ten participants. Even though the typing speed was slower than other studies, this system is easy to use and learn. This study proposes the usability in a limited situation which users are facing from the text input viewpoint and the possibility of flexible combination with other devices.

Kyungjin Han, Jongweon Lee
A Brain Wave Research on VR (Virtual Reality) Usage: Comparison Between VR and 2D Video in EEG Measurement

Focusing on virtual reality (VR) and human factors, this study is designed to observe the differences between the receivers’ cognition of VR and 2D videos through brainwave tests. The study will examine human computer interaction (HCI) trying to understand the characteristics and effects of VR by comparing the brainwave patterns of receivers when exposed to 2D and VR contents. The main purpose of this study is to grasp the differences in the human factors that affect the cognition of stereoscopic and flat images regarding their dimensional distinction by gathering concrete empirical data and comparing the alpha (α) and beta (β) wave patterns observed when watching VR and 2D videos. The study adopts a 2 × 3 experimental research design, statistically processed from 20 subjects. The 2D and VR materials used in this study is divided into three categories: sports, news, and advertisements. The participants viewed the videos in random order and the differences in brainwaves according to the genre and dimension were recorded. The results showed that β-wave vibrations observed when subjects were exposed to VR videos were statistically significant compared to when subjects watched 2D videos. The study also tested HCI factors on subjects that showed stronger in the frontal lobe when watching images with higher degree of VR stereoscopic effect and dynamic feeling. Electroencephalography (EEG) oscillations indicated that β-waves when watching VR were statistically significant compared to the brainwaves of viewing 2D videos. It was found that there were differences in β-waves according to program genre. Videos that were fast pace and more dynamic were more likely to show stronger β-waves. There was especially high β-wave activity in the frontal lobe for the sports VR category.

Sang Hee Kweon, Hea Ji Kweon, Se-jin Kim, Xuena Li, Xin Liu, Hea Lin Kweon
Design of a Haptic Virtual System for Improving Fine Motor Skills in Children with Autism

Fine motor skills, including gripping, holding and reaching, are useful and necessary in fundamental daily activities. However, children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) show deficits and delays in fine motor skills compared to their peers. In this paper, we propose a virtual training system enabling the assessment and improvement of fine motor skills for children with ASD through haptic interaction in a low-cost and engaging virtual environment with real-time feedback (e.g., haptic, auditory and visual feedback). This system consists of a Haptic Gripper allowing users to manipulate (e.g., grip and move) virtual balls in the games and thus provides opportunities for users to improve finger and hand motor control. We present the system design, and a small usability study which verified the system functionality and indicated the potential of this system in improving fine motor skills of the users in move and grip manipulations.

Huan Zhao, Zhaobo Zheng, Amy Swanson, Amy Weitlauf, Zachary Warren, Nilanjan Sarkar

Assistive Technologies and Natural User Interaction

Research on Driver’s Visual and Psychological Characteristics Under Right-Turning Scenario for Car Head-Up Displays

Autonomous vehicles are increasingly becoming a reality, but for the driving vision information allocation is not clear enough. Driver distraction and inattention are the main causes of accidents. This paper presents experimental results of an eye tracker under real driving conditions, and analyses them from the design point of view. Clustering eye tracking data for each stage resulted in a pattern classification, as well as each type of driver’s visual and psychological characteristics, from which common eye gaze practices could be summed up. The improved concept depends on the drivers’ needs and desires and can serve as a basis for view management concepts of future HUD.

Xi Wang, Yujia Wang, Xiaoqiu Zhang, Chang Liu
Take-Over Requests Analysis in Conditional Automated Driving and Driver Visual Research Under Encountering Road Hazard of Highway

In conditional automated driving, vehicles monitor the driving environment. Simultaneously, driver can also attend to a secondary task, but also need regain driving control when vehicle requests to intervene. The collaboration of vehicle and human driver support the driving experience in this situation. From automated driving to manual driving while in highway scenario, many researchers focus on secondary task engagement, take-over time and requests. This paper evaluates human performance while regaining driving control in conditional automated driving, research investigates take-over requests under highway hazard scenario through visual scanning analysis in lane changing situation. Different obstacles cause driver visual attention mode changes and adaptations. Results show that all participants can take-over in 6 s for voice chat tasks, while in electronic reading condition, not all participants complete can take-over even in 8 s.

Fang You, Yujia Wang, Jianmin Wang, Xichan Zhu, Preben Hansen
Alexa vs. Siri vs. Cortana vs. Google Assistant: A Comparison of Speech-Based Natural User Interfaces

Natural User Interfaces (NUI) are supposed to be used by humans in a very logic way. However, the run to deploy Speech-based NUIs by the industry has had a large impact on the naturality of such interfaces. This paper presents a usability test of the most prestigious and internationally used Speech-based NUI (i.e., Alexa, Siri, Cortana and Google’s). A comparison of the services that each one provides was also performed considering: access to music services, agenda, news, weather, To-Do lists and maps or directions, among others. The test was design by two Human Computer Interaction experts and executed by eight persons. Results show that even though there are many services available, there is a lot to do to improve the usability of these systems. Specially focused on separating the traditional use of computers (based on applications that require parameters to function) and to get closer to real NUIs.

Gustavo López, Luis Quesada, Luis A. Guerrero
Human Factors Affecting the Development of Smart Device-Based Notifications

Ambient Intelligence (AmI) promotes a world in which almost every device has computational capabilities. Such devices will allow a natural user interaction with the digital world. In addition, in several contexts developers have used smart devices to gather information of the user and provide notifications. The system consists of three main modules: one for data collection, one for analysis and decision-making, and one information deploying. More importantly, we conducted a questionnaire and the used the results as basic rules for the decision-making module on the system. The questionnaire had 60 respondents.

Marcelo Guzman, Gustavo López, Luis A. Guerrero
Developing a Proxy Service to Bring Naturality to Amazon’s Personal Assistant “Alexa”

Amazon’s Alexa is an intelligent personal assistant, developed to be used jointly with a Bluetooth Speaker and microphone hardware called Amazon Echo. Even though Alexa is supposed to be a natural user interface, its use is not very natural. As a user is intending to use Amazon’s Alexa system, they must follow a very tighten and structured way to provide the commands for the system to achieve its goal. In this paper, we propose a proxy service called “Plis”. This service was developed as a Skill to be used with the Amazon Echo. Therefore, a user can say: Alexa, “plis” and our functionality will start its job. Our skill determines from the natural way in which the user speaks what they are asking for. With that information, we create a query that would be further sent to other skills already providing the functionality required.

Luis Carvajal, Luis Quesada, Gustavo López, Jose A. Brenes
A Customizable Calculator Application with 3D-Printed Cover for the Visually Impaired in China

To date, a wide variety of applications are developed and available in iTunes App Store, Google Play and Windows App Market. However, the visually impaired are still unable to enjoy most of them because of the non-optimized design of these applications for them. Though some mobile operating systems provide auditory assistive functions, slow and tedious interaction style lead to a poor user experience. Therefore, it is necessary to design specific applications for the visually impaired, providing not only basic functions, but a good user experience as well. To achieve the goal, in this research, we focused on a frequently implemented task on the mobile phones. Specifically, a Windows Phone calculator application for visually impaired has been designed. Similar to a typical calculator, it allows users to perform some basic calculations such as addition and multiplication. However, unlike typical calculators, it has a special layout and audio clues designed for the visually impaired. To complement the application, we have also designed a 3D-printed cover with holes on it, serving as the tactile interface for the application. The application is highly customizable so that users can reassign each button according to their preferences. The entire solution, including the Windows Phone calculator application and the 3D-printed cover, can provide visually impaired users the basic function of calculations as well as a rich user experience. With this solution, a considerable improvement with respect to the operational speed was found during a simulation test. A pilot experiment has been designed to test the working efficiency using blindfolded users.

Yifan He, Bo Zhu, Pinata Winoto
Impact of Cognitive Learning Disorders on Accessing Online Resources

The present document assesses the impact of learning cognitive disorders on accessing online resources. This is a thought exercise study and examines how technology, represented by online resources, is made available without discriminating against those with learning cognitive disorders. The learning impact has been assessed by the Human Factors based methods of Soft Systems Methodology (SSM), Usability Engineering (UE) and Ontology Sketch Modelling (OSM). The major finding of the study is that whilst there are tools that make access to many resources more equitable, there is still limited understanding of how those with cognitive disorders assimilate information. In addressing this aspect, the present document has examined the wider role of semantic web technology that by introducing codification of context and pragmatics can improve the presentation of knowledge such that those with cognitive learning disorders can achieve non-discriminatory access to online resources.

Alexander Cadzow
A Study on the Interface of Dashboard Camera Designed for the Elderly

One of the consequences of the global aging is an increase in the driving by the elderly. Due to their slower perception, processing and cognition, elder drivers face greater risk of traffic accidents. This study is an analysis of the color collocation and text of existing dashboard cameras. After analyzing the results of the questionnaire and interviews concerning the visibility and load of the subjects through the cognition questionnaire, this study established an experimental interface to simulate the situation where an elder driver is reading the dashboard camera in driving. Moreover, we conducted a simulation with changeable color collocation which enabled the subjects to select the best color collocation for the interface of the dashboard camera. In this way, the driver can save energy and concentration in reading the dashboard in driving and pay more attention to road safety, thus reducing the risk of traffic accidents.

Shu Yao Chang, Shuo-Fang Liu, Ming-Chyuan Lin, Ming-Hong Wang

System Interactions in Aviation and Remotely Piloted Aircraft Systems

Do Age and Experience Level Affect Views of Pilots’ Towards Cockpit Automation

Pilots trained over the last 20 years are more likely to have learned to use cockpit automation as an inherent part of their training when compared to pilots trained in earlier eras who first learned to fly and then were trained in the use of automation. Cockpit automation facilitated the elimination of the flight engineer from the crew and shifted the remaining cockpit crew member’s focus from hands on control to programmers and monitors of automated systems that can control the vertical and horizontal flight path for most of the flight. Some airline companies are accepting applicants for pilot training with no previous flight experience, this trend is unprecedented in the history of commercial flight in the US. While automation has improved the safety and efficiency of commercial flights, it has created new concerns relating to loss of manual flying skills and issues of mode confusion and the phenomenon of automation surprises. This paper analyzes the correlation between the pilots’ perspectives and their demographics. A total of 77 pilots who operate highly automated cockpit systems participated in this research. Each question was analyzed regarding correlation by using R software and the Spearman Correlation Analysis method. Some of the questions revealed there is a significant difference towards cockpit automation when we consider the pilots’ perspectives. This survey also revealed the pilots perspectives about their companies. Older pilots are more likely to think that their companies do not allow them to fly manually often enough. Although airline company policies are similar, the survey responses reflected that older pilots are not happy with those policies as well. Three demographic specifications were used for the Spearman’s Correlation Analysis. Age was one specification and the other two were Flight Time correlation and Seat correlation (Captain versus First Officer). The total number of questions for five dimensions was 37 and 9 of these questions resulted in significantly different answers when considering the demographics. The answers provided by end users (pilots) should be considered when engineers create automated systems that are to be used and monitored by humans. Airliners that are 100% autonomous are not possible in the foreseeable future. Automated aircraft control systems should be designed to exploit the best qualities of both the technology and the human operators across different demographics.

Aysen K. Taylor, T. Steven Cotter
Performance Evaluation of Numeric Keypad Layout Based on Cognitive Workload

A method for performance evaluation of numeric keypad layout based on cognitive workload is proposed and applied to model task’s cognitive processes in detail and scrutinizes human workload at a cognitive level. To conduct experiment for performance evaluation of keyboard layout, numeric keypad test software whose layout is configurable is developed. The participant’s keying behavioral data are collected during experiments. Cognitive model is constructed by using theories of ACT-R and verified by investigating the correlation coefficient between model and experiment. The cognitive workload is derived by summing the active time for each module of cognitive architecture as the model runs. The percentage of brain region’s active time during the task is used to evaluate the task’s performance with the mapping relationship between cognitive architecture and brain region. By comparing the percentage of the brain’s active time with accomplishment of similar tasks, the performances of different numeric keypad layout are evaluated.

Yanfei Liu, Shoupeng Huang, Yu Tian, Yuzhou Liu, Junsong Li, Feng Fu, Zhiqiang Tian, Jing Bian
Motor Imagery Brain–Computer Interface for RPAS Command and Control

Nowadays, technology is evolving towards the development of new controlling methods based in signals produced by our brain (Brain Computer Interfaces BCI). Applications of Brian computing Interfaces are also being explored in the field of aeronautics. This paper presents the initial steps of a work focused on the evaluation of brain patterns that occur when an individual excites the brain to perform an action. The final goal of this project is to implement this method in a real time program that is capable of filtering the signals obtained by brain measurement system; treating these signals to obtain the amplitude accumulation at the indicated frequencies and sending the control commands to a RPAS in order to be able to control it.

Rosa Arnaldo, Fernando Gómez Comendador, Luis Perez, Alvaro Rodriguez

Human-System Interactions: Practical Applications

A Comparative Analysis of Human-Mediated and System-Mediated Interruptions for Multi-user, Multitasking Interactions

When to send system-mediated interruptions within multitasking environments has been widely debated in the development of interruption management and notification systems primarily from the perspective of single-user interactions. Scholars illustrate that task structure is a useful predictor in determining when to send interruptions. However, these works do not address when to send system interruptions in multi-user, multitasking scenarios and do not address predictors of interruptibility within communication tasks. This paper addresses the issue of predicting interruptibility within multi-user, multitasking communication interactions with special attention to leveraging human interruption techniques as predictors of interruptibility. Specifically, in our project, we will be looking at how task structure and speech information influence human interruption strategies. These strategies could potentially be modeled and integrated into interruption management systems for multi-user, multitasking interactions. We will discuss human interruption strategies and juxtapose them against random interruption strategies, to reveal an intelligent technique for modeling interruptions. We argue that humans use task structure and speech cues to make more informed decisions about when to interrupt that are distinct from more random strategies. An analysis of variance showed that the effect of the interruption strategy (human versus system) on the proximity of an interruption to task boundaries was significant for start and end boundaries, F(2,5938) = 17.46, p = 0.001, F(2,5938) = 7.46, p = 0.006 respectively. This project sheds light on the use of task structure as a predictor of interruptibility within multi-user, multitasking environments via techniques used by human interrupters.

Nia Peters, Griffin Romigh, George Bradley, Bhiksha Raj
Recognition of Physiotherapeutic Exercises Through DTW and Low-Cost Vision-Based Motion Capture

Telemedicine is a current trend in healthcare. The present study is part of the ePHoRt project, which is a web-based platform for the rehabilitation of patients after hip replacement surgery. To be economically suitable the system is intended to be based on low-cost technologies, especially in terms of motion capture. This is the reason why the Kinect-based motion tracking is chosen. The paper focuses on the automatic assessment of the correctness of the exercises performed by the user. A Dynamic Time Warping (DTW) approach is used to discriminate between correct and incorrect movements. The classification of the movements through a Naïve Bayes classifier shows a very high percentage of accuracy (98.2%). Models are built for each individual and reeducation exercise with only few attributes and the same accuracy. Due to these promising results, the next step will consist of testing the algorithms on patients performing the exercises in real time.

Yves Rybarczyk, Jan Kleine Deters, Arián Aladro Gonzalo, Danilo Esparza, Mario Gonzalez, Santiago Villarreal, Isabel L. Nunes
HFE Application in Human System Interface Design of Nuclear Power Plant

Human System Interface is the medium that the operators monitor and control the Nuclear Power Plant. To improve the operating performance for plant safety, Human Factor Engineering needs to be adopted in the new plant HSI design. An implementation methodology for the application of HFE in the HSI designing is proposed here based on NUREG-0711 which is established as the review guideline for HFE in the new plant construction. The methodology mainly contains three parts as: Functional Requirements Analysis and Function Allocation, Task Analysis and Human-System Interface design. With systematic analysis of HFE, the HSI would be more scientific and rational.

Xiaoyang Ming, Guangwei Yu, Shiguang Deng
Creative Activity Mediated by Technology – Artifacts, Technology and Ideas that Could Shape Our Lives

This paper attempts to associate creativity and design thinking with the mediated technology. It represents the results from creative thinking experiences of human computer interaction (HCI) students within the design of interactive artifacts. The objective is to demonstrate how to engage students in learning by doing and to link theoretical concepts with design practices during the process of producing artifacts. Our findings suggested that creativity is not taught and students when they are not provided with the work statement, they get the opportunity to be more creative and engaged during the learning process by discovering the idea and planning its execution.

Arminda Guerra Lopes
Development of an Automated Pressure Sensitive Thermesthesiometer and Its Application in Characterizing the Thermal Response of Human Tissue with Respect to Warm Surfaces

An advanced thermesthesiometer has been developed to measure the heat flux, touch-force, and internal temperature profile of a simulated body part coming into contact with a warm surface. A suitably chosen material with properties resembling those of human tissue is used for bare skin simulation and is thermally regulated using a programmable logic controller (PLC). An automated driving mechanism provides variable touch-occurrences and pressures over specially engineered test-surfaces with varying effusivities and surface roughness. Each test-surface is thermally regulated at a specific temperature to aid in quantifying prior research on human subject testing and pain threshold measurements. This study not only emphasizes the instrument design but also demonstrates its potential use in human-subjective feedback testing with respect to steady state and transient heat transfer processes.

Paul Soldate, Jintu Fan
Apply Petri Nets to Human Performance and Workload Prediction Under Multitask

Performance and workload prediction under multitasking are one of the most important aspects to consider during system design. This paper utilized a formal tool – namely petri nets, to predict individual’s performance and workload when interacting with interfaces. The petri nets model is based on limited resources theory which indicates that certain attentional resources contribute to to several channels of perceptual, cognition and psychomotor. After interpreting the parameters and rules of a general model, a case study on Multi-Attribute Task Battery-II was investigated. Individual’s performance was predicted by simulating the petri nets model, the instantaneous workload and total workload was calculated by identifying the attentional resources.

Peng Wang, Weining Fang, Beiyuan Guo, Haifeng Bao

Systems Usability and Device Assessment

A Fuzzy Usability Assessment Methodology

Usability is multidimensional and defining a model for the assessment of design solutions is challenging, since most features depend of user perceptions. This paper discusses the features of a new usability assessment model based on Fuzzy Logic and presents its application in a case study related with the development of a web portal based on a User Centered Design approach. The output of the proposed assessment model is the Usability Index.

Bruno Lemos, Isabel L. Nunes
Psychometric Analysis of Scales for Usability Evaluation of Pointing Devices

Usability evaluation involves measuring user performance (effectiveness and efficiency) and registering the user’s perception of satisfaction related aspects. The paper reports on a method for assessing the satisfaction component, in computer handheld pointing devices, through a series of ratings related to three dimensions: comfort (discomfort), ease of use (per task performed) and effort (gripping, pointing, clicking). Cronbach’s alpha is obtained as an estimate of the reliability of the assessment method made up of the multiple attribute evaluation of discomfort, ease of use and effort, based on Likert scales. Results revealed high values of internal consistency within each subjective dimension. Increased internal consistency would be obtained by removing the shoulder discomfort attribute from the discomfort evaluation questionnaire, and gripping and clicking attributes from the effort evaluation questionnaire. These divergences indicate that participants perceived these attributes as fundamentally different from the rest of the attributes within the evaluation dimensions.

Denis A. Coelho, Miguel L. Lourenço, Isabel L. Nunes
Enhancement of User Experience by Hierarchical Task Analysis for Interaction System

This research Investigates how Task Analysis allows user to accomplish their task and obtain the information they require in an efficient and effective manner. Usability is the major factor for the use of any product or system and can be enhanced through many ways. Usability can be defined as necessity for web. If a website does not fulfill the needs of the user or it is difficult for a user to use, the user will leave the page. The research deals with the enhancement of user experience by task analysis. In this research issues related to usability of SME’s (Small and Medium Enterprise) websites would be highlighted and enlighten how Task Analysis would be helpful to remove the shortcomings or flaws of existing websites. This research will use survey method and card sorting technique along task analysis for redesigning. The proposed design would be according to the user’s need and easy for user to fulfill its goal.

Khadija Fyiaz, Shabana Tabassum, Ali Hasnain
S-EMG of Forearm Muscles Activity in Conventional PC Mouse Use

Prevalence of static muscular activity is believed to represent a higher risk for musculoskeletal health than dynamic muscular activity. PC mouse usage is a kind of activity where static muscle activation levels, while low in general, can indicate potential for musculoskeletal disorders. The study reported in this paper proposes a forearm four muscle approach to evaluation of muscular activity during mouse use, describing the rationale for selection of the muscles monitored. Additionally, signal processing is also characterized in the paper. The paper also presents results of surface electromyography assessment of 20 participants interacting with a conventional type of PC mouse. Analysis of the electromyographic signals was performed via a procedure of Amplitude Probability Distribution Function (APDF) calculation for the 90th, 50th and 10th percentiles. Average APDF90 values of muscular activity as a percentage of Maximum Voluntary Contraction found were between 7% and 21%.

Miguel L. Lourenço, Denis A. Coelho
Research Methodologies in the Ergonomic Development and Evaluation of PC Mice

Framing research within a methodology supports the planning which guides the research process. The process design defines a plan where research strategies aim collection of data and respective methods of analysis, in order to provide answers to research questions. This paper describes the research process conducted in the experimental and design work conducive to the doctoral dissertation by Lourenço [1] focusing on the development and ergonomic analysis of new PC mice. This research was framed within positivism, associated to exact sciences, adopting a structured research methodology, enabling enhanced replicability. The aim of this paper is report on research methodology, in particular in what concerns the intertwined research methodologies and associated research questions involved in the development and ergonomic evaluation of PC mice. The taxonomy of research approaches proposed by Järvinen [2] is the basis for the classification of the research methodology presented.

Miguel L. Lourenço, Denis A. Coelho
Development of a New Ergonomic Computer Mouse

Developing a new computer pointing device abiding to the requirements set out in ergonomics literature necessitates joining contributions from several areas including the systematization recommended for product design projects, ergonomic recommendations and principles and guidelines applicable to hand tools as well as anthropometric considerations. The development of new geometries for computer pointing devices constitutes a complex process as these are simultaneously hand tools, enabling the interaction with the computer, and at the same time, meant for use by people from both sexes and practically all ages, as its use today is practically ubiquitous. The paper reports on a study aimed at developing an innovative PC mouse geometry supported by literature review and an adequate design methodology. In particular, reducing forearm pronation was set as a goal for the new design.

Miguel L. Lourenço, Rui A. Pitarma, Denis A. Coelho
Advances in Human Factors and Systems Interaction
Isabel L. Nunes
Copyright Year
Electronic ISBN
Print ISBN

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