We perceive big data with massive datasets of complex and variegated structures in the modern era. Such attributes formulate hindrances while analyzing and storing the data to generate apt aftermaths. Privacy and security are the colossal perturb in the domain space of extensive data analysis. In this paper, our foremost priority is the computing technologies that focus on big data, IoT (Internet of Things), Cloud Computing, Blockchain, and fog computing. Among these, Cloud Computing follows the role of providing on-demand services to their customers by optimizing the cost factor. AWS, Azure, Google Cloud are the major cloud providers today. Fog computing offers new insights into the extension of cloud computing systems by procuring services to the edges of the network. In collaboration with multiple technologies, the Internet of Things takes this into effect, which solves the labyrinth of dealing with advanced services considering its significance in varied application domains. The Blockchain is a dataset that entertains many applications ranging from the fields of crypto-currency to smart contracts. The prospect of this research paper is to present the critical analysis and review it under the umbrella of existing extensive data systems. In this paper, we attend to critics' reviews and address the existing threats to the security of extensive data systems. Moreover, we scrutinize the security attacks on computing systems based upon Cloud, Blockchain, IoT, and fog. This paper lucidly illustrates the different threat behaviour and their impacts on complementary computational technologies. The authors have mooted a precise analysis of cloud-based technologies and discussed their defense mechanism and the security issues of mobile healthcare.