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About this book

This book constitutes the refereed proceedings of the 10th International Conference on Communication Systems and Networks, COMSNETS 2018, held in Banaglore, India, in January 2018.The 12 revised full papers presented in this book were carefully reviewed and selected from 134 submissions. They cover various topics in networking and communications systems.

Table of Contents


Improved Physical Downlink Control Channel for 3GPP Massive Machine Type Communications

To provide cellular connectivity to massive machine type communications, 3rd Generation Partnership Project (3GPP) has come up with an enhanced machine type communications (eMTC) standard. The eMTC is a low power wide area network technology. It can cater to the needs of massive MTC devices providing voice support, required data rates, low latency, wide area coverage, and mobility. The eMTC is built on LTE framework and necessary modifications are made as per the requirements of MTC. A chunk of 1.4 MHz from the LTE bandwidth is required to deploy eMTC. Similar to LTE, delivering Downlink Control Information (DCI) to end devices is crucial in eMTC. The DCI carries information about modulation and coding scheme, uplink grant, and scheduling of downlink resources. The DCI of multiple eMTC devices are multiplexed over a region of time and frequency resources. Hence, the eMTC devices have to blindly decode this control channel region. Significant computational power is required from an eMTC device to decode this region. This paper explains the processes involved in the delivery of DCI for eMTC. We propose a novel mapping of repetition and aggregation level to each eMTC device based on the available channel state information. We identify the under utilization of the time and frequency resources in the existing eMTC scheme used for rate matching the DCI information bits. We present system level simulations considering the proposed novel mapping. Further, through extensive simulations and hardware emulations, we show that the proposed rate matching scheme results in significant improvement in performance as compared to the existing scheme.
M. Pavan Reddy, G. Santosh, Abhinav Kumar, Kiran Kuchi

Implementation of Energy Efficient WBAN Using IEEE 802.15.6 Scheduled Access MAC with Fast DWT Based Backhaul Data Compression for e-Healthcare

This work describes the implementation of a complete Wireless Body Area Network (WBAN) that is capable of monitoring multiple physiological signals of a patient by means of IEEE 802.15.6 scheduled access MAC protocol. In the WBAN setup, data from multiple sensors are sent to a Body Network Controller (BNC) using low power transceivers. To this end, the BNC is designed to multiplex the data from multiple sensors, and send them to a remote server over the Internet using a backhaul cellular network, thereby enabling ubiquitous remote health monitoring. Furthermore, to facilitate an energy efficient backhaul transmission that incurs low data transfer costs to the users, we introduce the concept of data compression at the BNC. In this regard, we propose a fast Discrete Wavelet Transform (DWT) based data compression algorithm at the BNC, termed herein as B-DWT, that is implementable in real-time using the limited on-board resources. The remote server is configured to accept data from multiple patients, de-multiplex different data of a single patient and store them in a database for pervasive access. Issues related to the hardware implementation of sensor nodes and BNC, and the design of the scheduled access mechanism and B-DWT are addressed. Detailed performance analysis of the WBAN is performed in OPNET simulator to determine the optimum allocation intervals for the sensor nodes that maximizes network capacity while maintaining a frame delay constraint. Further, in order to prolong the battery life of sensor nodes, we obtain the optimal payload sizes that maximizes their energy efficiency. Additionally, through implementation of B-DWT at the BNC we determine the optimal wavelet filer and compression levels, that allow maximum data compression within acceptable limits of information loss. The resulting B-DWT algorithm is shown to outperform traditional DWT with significant gains in execution speed and low memory footprint at the BNC.
Tanumay Manna, Iti Saha Misra

Leveraging SDN for Early Detection and Mitigation of DDoS Attacks

Distributed Denial of Service (DDoS) attacks being one of the most challenging security issues in the current network requires a lot of attention from the research community. Detection and mitigation of DDoS attacks at early stages could reduce the impact of the attack on legitimate users. Software Defined Networking (SDN) has emerged as a technique to aid the resolution of DDoS attacks effectively. This paper proposes one such detection scheme that utilizes Radial Basis Function networks optimized with Particle Swarm Optimization for early detection of DDoS attacks in SDN networks. A feature set for training and testing of detection module is also proposed that allows the identification of DDoS attacks. The proposed detection scheme is efficient enough to classify the heavy load of network traffic from that of DDoS attacks. Not only detection is important in such scenario, but the mitigation technique also needs to be selected very carefully in order to meet the desired network requirements as well as to secure the legitimate users. For the purpose of identification of suitable mitigation scheme an analytical comparison of possible controller based mitigation techniques is presented. These techniques are further compared based on several parameters governing the effect of mitigation on network users and processing.
Neelam Dayal, Shashank Srivastava

Use of Facial Landmarks for Adaptive Compression of Videos on Mobile Devices

Challenges, such as requirements of resources, limited availability of storage space on devices, and mobile bandwidth spectrum, inhibit unconstrained and ubiquitous video consumption. We propose a first-of-its-kind methodology to compress videos that stream human faces. We detect facial landmarks on-the-fly and compress the video by storing a sequence of distinct frames extracted from the video, such that the facial landmarks of a pair of successively stored frames are significantly different. We use a dynamic thresholding technique to detect the significance of difference and store meta-information for reconstructing the missing frames. To reduce glitches in the decompressed video, we use morphing technique that smoothens the transition between successive frames. We measure the objective goodness of our technique by evaluating the time taken to compress, the entropy per frame, peak signal-to-noise ratio (PSNR), structural similarity index (SSIM), and compression ratio. For subjective analysis, we perform a user study observing user satisfaction at different compression ratios. We provide an extension of our technique to handle videos with multiple faces. Our approach is complementary to the existing compression techniques, e.g. JPEG. By using the complementary approach, we further improve the compression ratio without compromising on the quality.
Garima Chhikara, Ruchika Banerjee, Vinayak Naik, A. V. Subramanyam, Kuntal Dey

PKHSN: A Bilinear Pairing Based Key Management Scheme for Heterogeneous Sensor Networks

Some applications of Wireless sensor network such as military and health-care applications require high level of security. Such a level of security cannot be provided through traditional key management schemes due to resource-constrained sensor nodes. Keeping this in mind, we propose a novel key management scheme with the following design objectives: (i) reduction of computation overhead (ii) reduction of communication overhead (iii) mitigation of node capture attack and (iv) protection from clone attack and replay attack. Here, we apply Identity-based cryptography which uses bilinear pairing on elliptic curves. The security of the proposed scheme is proved through Strand Space model. The analysis and experimental results infer that the proposed scheme provides better performance as compared to other similar protocols in the literature.
Madhurima Buragohain, Nityananda Sarma

mINCARNATE: An Interference and Mobility Aware Spatial Scheme for Tightly Coupled LTE–Wi-Fi Networks

Stochastic geometry has clinched notability in the past several years. It is a robust mathematical tool for analyzing wireless systems due to its tractability in nature. In this work, a flexible and docile model has been proposed for heterogeneous wireless networks consisting of tightly coupled Long Term Evolution (LTE) Small cell eNodeBs (SeNBs) and Wireless Fidelity (Wi-Fi) Access Points (APs). By the assistance of stochastic geometry, the key performance metrics of LTE–Wi-Fi Aggregation (LWA) system have been analyzed in non co-located scenario. The positions of SeNBs and APs are modeled as two independent homogeneous Poisson Point Processes (PPPs). Enabling LWA operation with an arbitrary number of Wi-Fi APs in a given region may not ensure maximum rate and coverage for the mobile operators. A novel scheme, coined as, InterfereNCe Aware matéRN hArd-core poinT procEss (INCARNATE) has been proposed to increase the performance of LWA system by allowing LWA operation with a chosen subset of Wi-Fi APs available at the disposal. We derive Signal-to-Interference-plus-Noise Ratio (SINR) distribution of UEs which are associated with SeNB, AP or LWA node (i.e., SeNB and AP). This further helps to find out the joint coverage probability and average data rate over the network. In addition to the density of APs, the velocity of UEs plays a vital role in analyzing Key Performance Indicators (KPIs) of the system. So, INCARNATE scheme has been further extended to mINCARNATE scheme wherein mobility of UEs is introduced in the LWA system. A handover model of LWA system has been proposed by considering the mobility of the UEs. Expected number of handovers and average data rate have been analytically measured. Average number of handovers observed per UE and throughput of UEs have been empirically evaluated by varying velocity of UE. Further, cost is defined as a function of velocity of UEs, number of handovers, and density of deployment. Capital Expenditures (CAPEX) and Operational Expenditures (OPEX) can be minimized for a given user velocity by operating at minimal cost value. INCARNATE scheme outperforms the traditional MHCPP scheme by 73% and 17% in terms of data rate and coverage probability, respectively. Similarly, LWA with INCARNATE scheme excels by 51% and 6.23% as compared to regular LWA in terms of data rate and coverage probability, respectively. The proposed cost function assists to obtain the optimal deployment of LWA nodes using mINCARNATE scheme. LWA with mINCARNATE scheme improves the throughput by 53% as compared to native LWA handover scheme.
Sumanta Patro, Thomas Valerrian Pasca Santhappan, Bheemarjuna Reddy Tamma, A. Antony Franklin

A Directional Medium Access Control Protocol for 5G Millimeter-Wave Local Area Networks

The vast amount of spectrum available at millimeter-wave bands has made millimeter-wave communications one of the key enabling technologies of the fifth-generation cellular network. The high directionality of the transmitter and the receivers operating at millimeter-wave frequencies introduces certain novel challenges for medium access control. Specifically, in a scenario where there is relative motion between the transmitter and the receivers, the transmitter must keep track of the direction in which each received signal is, and the receivers must keep track of where the transmitter is, so that they can orient their antenna boresight towards each other, or in a non-line-of-sight environment, in directions that optimize the link gain, in order to establish a physical link. In this paper, we propose TrackMAC, a directional medium access control protocol for millimeter-wave local area networks, that allows an access point to efficiently track every station associated with it at small overheads. The proposed protocol can be implemented squarely within the specifications of the IEEE 802.11ad standard for millimeter-wave local area networking.
Bharadwaj Satchidanandan, Simon Yau, Siva Santosh Ganji, P. R. Kumar, Ahsan Aziz, Amal Ekbal, Nikhil Kundargi

Pricing and Commission in Two-Sided Markets with Free Upgrades

We address the problem of optimal pricing in two-sided markets with platforms that facilitate the exchange of services between freelance workers and customers. Often, such platforms offer multiple variants of the same service and in cases when the cheaper service variant witnesses a shortage of supply and the more expensive variant sees a surplus, the platform offers free upgrades to the customers of the cheaper service variant. In this work, we explore the impact of such free upgrades on the platform’s revenue and throughput. In addition, for the setting where the demand and supply are unknown to the platform and the platform has to perform the joint task of supply/demand estimation and pricing, we devise an algorithm based on a strategic division of the search space that enables the platform to efficiently determine throughput and revenue optimal prices. Further, we ascertain the optimal value of the commission retained by the platform per transaction to maximize its revenue.
Mansi Sood, Sharayu Moharir, Ankur A. Kulkarni

On the Impact of Duty Cycled LTE-U on Wi-Fi Users: An Experimental Study

The deployment of LTE in unlicensed spectrum is a plausible solution to meet explosive traffic demand from mobile users. However, fair coexistence with the existing unlicensed technologies, mainly Wi-Fi, needs to be ensured before any such deployment. Duty cycled LTE (LTE-U) is a simple and an easily adaptable scheme which helps in fair coexistence with the Wi-Fi. Nonetheless, the immense deployment of Wi-Fi necessitates a user-oriented study to find the effects of LTE-U operation, primarily in scenarios where the LTE-U eNB remains hidden from Wi-Fi Access Point. To delineate these effects, we perform a user-level Transmission Control Protocol (TCP) and User Datagram Protocol (UDP) throughputs study of Wi-Fi in the presence of LTE-U using a testbed. Since, TCP is a more complicated protocol, we analyzed the Congestion Window and Round Trip Time data to comprehend the throughput results. This further explains the unfairness in throughput distribution among Wi-Fi users. Furthermore, we also notice inability among the disadvantaged users to receive the periodic Wi-Fi beacon frames successfully. The reasons and the subsequent consequences of throughput unfairness and beacon losses, are carefully elaborated. Also, to validate the beacon loss results, we present a beacon loss analysis which provides a mathematical expression to find the beacon loss percentage. Finally, we examine the results and highlight a need for incorporating additional functionalities in either LTE-U or Wi-Fi to overcome the present challenges.
Anand M. Baswade, Touheed Anwar Atif, Bheemarjuna Reddy Tamma, A. Antony Franklin

NeMoI: Network Mobility in ICN

With the advancement in technology mobility has become a norm. Recent trend towards 5G and increasing popularity of IoT is expected to demand increased mobility support in the network. Information Centric Networking (ICN) treats content as the first class entity and nodes exchange information based on the identity of the content rather than the location of the content. ICN inherently supports consumer mobility and there are many recent works on producer mobility. However, an untouched area of work is ICN’s support for network mobility. Network-segments/domains comprising of various networking nodes, consumers and producers can also experience mobility and can aggravate the problems associated with supporting mobility.
In this paper, we propose NeMoI: Network Mobility in ICN, a full fledged ICN based mobility solution with a special focus on network mobility including the case of producers and consumers present within such mobile networks. With evaluations using the RocketFuel1221 topology we show that NeMoI significantly reduces the amount of signalling traffic, routing updates and path inflation compared to existing solutions while ensuring connectivity for mobile nodes with minimum packet loss for users during mobility.
Sripriya Adhatarao, Mayutan Arumaithurai, Dirk Kutscher, Xiaoming Fu

Game Theory Based Network Partitioning Approaches for Controller Placement in SDN

Software Defined Networking decouples the control plane from the data plane and shifts the control plane to an external entity known as the controller. In large networks, the control plane is distributed among multiple controllers to satisfy fault tolerant and response time requirements. The network is divided into multiple domains, and one or more controllers are deployed in each of these domains. The naive approach for partitioning the network using the k-means algorithm with random initialization results in solutions that are far from optimal. In this paper, we propose a network partition based controller placement strategy by leveraging k-means algorithm with cooperative game theory initialization. The partitioning of the network into subnetworks is modeled as a cooperative game with the set of all switches as the players of the game. The switches try to form coalitions with other switches to maximize their value. It is referred as cooperative k-means for brevity. We also propose a variant of cooperative k-means strategy that tries to produce partitions that are balanced in size. Further, we propose a two step network partitioning strategy that considers both the load and latency. The performance of our proposed strategies are evaluated on networks from Internet 2 OS3E and Internet Topology Zoo. Results demonstrate that our cooperative k-means strategy generates solutions that are close to optimal in terms of the worst case switch to controller latency and outperforms the standard k-means algorithm. Evaluations also demonstrate that the variant of cooperative k-means produces balanced partitions. Furthermore, the load and latency aware partitioning approach reduces both partition imbalance and worst case latency.
Bala Prakasa Rao Killi, Ellore Akhil Reddy, Seela Veerabhadreswara Rao

User Response Based Recommendations

In a recommendation system, users provide description of their interests through initial search keywords and the system recommends items based on these keywords. A user is satisfied if it finds the item of its choice and the system benefits, otherwise the user explores an item from the recommended list. Usually when the user explores an item, it picks an item that is nearest to its interest from the list. While the user explores an item, the system recommends new set of items. This continues till either the user finds the item of its interest or quits. In all, the user provides ample chances and feedback for the system to learn its interest. The aim of this paper is to efficiently utilize user responses to recommend items and find the item of user’s interest quickly.
We first derive optimal policies in the continuous Euclidean space and adapt the same to the space of discrete items. We propose the notion of local angle in the space of discrete items and develop user response-local angle (UR-LA) based recommendation policies. We compare the performance of UR-LA with widely used collaborative filtering (CF) based policies on two real datasets and show that UR-LA performs better in majority of the test cases. We propose a hybrid scheme that combines the best features of both UR-LA and CF (and history) based policies, which outperforms them in most of the cases.
Towards the end, we propose alternate recommendation policies again utilizing the user responses, based on clustering techniques. These policies outperform the previous ones, and are computationally less intensive. Further, the clustering based policies perform close to theoretical limits.
Salman Memon, Veeraruna Kavitha, Manjesh K. Hanawal, Eitan Altman, R. Devanand

Correction to: Implementation of Energy Efficient WBAN Using IEEE 802.15.6 Scheduled Access MAC with Fast DWT Based Backhaul Data Compression for e-Healthcare

Tanumay Manna, Iti Saha Misra


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