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2017 | Book

Cooperative Synchronization in Distributed Microgrid Control

Authors: Ali Bidram, Vahidreza Nasirian, Ali Davoudi, Frank L. Lewis

Publisher: Springer International Publishing

Book Series : Advances in Industrial Control


About this book

This book brings together emerging objectives and paradigms in the control of both AC and DC microgrids; further, it facilitates the integration of renewable-energy and distribution systems through localization of generation, storage and consumption. The control objectives in a microgrid are addressed through the hierarchical control structure.

After providing a comprehensive survey on the state of the art in microgrid control, the book goes on to address the most recent control schemes for both AC and DC microgrids, which are based on the distributed cooperative control of multi-agent systems. The cooperative control structure discussed distributes the co-ordination and optimization tasks across all distributed generators. This does away with the need for a central controller, and the control system will not collapse in response to the outage of a single unit. This avoids adverse effects on system flexibility and configurability, as well as the reliability concerns in connection with single points of failure that arise in traditional, centralized microgrid control schemes.

Rigorous proofs develop each control methodology covered in the book, and simulation examples are provided to justify all of the proposed algorithms. Given its extensive yet self-contained content, the book offers a comprehensive source of information for graduate students, academic researchers, and practicing engineers working in the field of microgrid control and optimization.

Table of Contents

Chapter 1. Introduction
Deregulation of the electric power industry imposes requirements for more responsive economic dispatch for dynamic balance between energy generation and loads. Concern about environmental impacts and shortages of fossil fuels have increased interest in clean and renewable energy generation, including wind power, photovoltaic, hydroelectric power, fuel cells, and microturbines. Wind energy and photovoltaic are among the most promising renewable energy resources, yet these sources are intermittent and unpredictable and cannot be used for reliable economic dispatch; they have low inertias and cannot provide power quality support for the grid. Microgrids are small-scale power networks that are exploited to supply local loads in small geographical spans.
Ali Bidram, Vahidreza Nasirian, Ali Davoudi, Frank L. Lewis
Chapter 2. Control and Modeling of Microgrids
In this chapter, the control objectives in AC and DC microgrids are discussed separately. This chapter brings together the existing AC and DC microgrid control schemes. Based on the desired control objectives, mathematical models are presented for DGs. These mathematical models are the key elements in designing control schemes for microgrids.
Ali Bidram, Vahidreza Nasirian, Ali Davoudi, Frank L. Lewis
Chapter 3. Introduction to Multi-agent Cooperative Control
This book applies techniques from distributed cooperative control of multi-agent dynamical systems to synchronization, power sharing, and load balancing problems arising in electric power microgrids.
Ali Bidram, Vahidreza Nasirian, Ali Davoudi, Frank L. Lewis
Chapter 4. Distributed Control of AC Microgrids
The traditional secondary control of microgrids discussed in Chap. 2 exploits a centralized control structure.
Ali Bidram, Vahidreza Nasirian, Ali Davoudi, Frank L. Lewis
Chapter 5. Multi-objective and Adaptive Distributed Control of AC Microgrids
This chapter discusses the advanced methods for distributed control of AC microgrids. First, a two-layer control framework that implements the secondary control for an islanded microgrid containing both VCVSIs and CCVSIs is discussed. The first control layer deals with the voltage and frequency control of VCVSIs. The second control layer objectives are to control the active and reactive powers of CCVSIs. Each control layer is implemented through the distributed control of multi-agent systems. Then, a distributed and adaptive secondary voltage control method is discussed. The proposed controller compensates for the nonlinear and uncertain dynamics of DGs and, hence, obviates the control design challenges caused by the nonlinear dynamics of DGs. The controller is fully independent of the DG parameters. Therefore, the controller can be deployed on any DG regardless of the DG parameters and the connector specifications, and its performance does not deteriorate by the change in DG parameters (e.g., due to aging and thermal effects). The discussed controller appropriately responds to the changes in the system operating condition, without any manual intervention, and adjusts its control parameters in real time.
Ali Bidram, Vahidreza Nasirian, Ali Davoudi, Frank L. Lewis
Chapter 6. Droop-Free Distributed Control of AC Microgrids
The droop mechanism, or its variations [19], is a common decentralized approach to realize the primary control, although alternative methods (e.g., virtual oscillator control [1013]) are emerging. It emulates virtual inertia for AC systems and mimics the role of governors in traditional synchronous generators [14].
Ali Bidram, Vahidreza Nasirian, Ali Davoudi, Frank L. Lewis
Chapter 7. Cooperative Control for DC Microgrids
Similar to the control hierarchy of the AC systems, a hierarchical control structure is conventionally adopted for DC microgrid operation. The highest hierarchy, the tertiary control, is in charge of economical operation and coordination with the distribution system operator. It assigns the microgrid voltage to carry out the scheduled power exchange between the microgrid and the main grid.
Ali Bidram, Vahidreza Nasirian, Ali Davoudi, Frank L. Lewis
Chapter 8. Distributed Assistive Control of DC Microgrids
Proliferation of power electronics loads in DC distribution networks shifts the load consumption profiles from the traditional constant impedance loads to electronically driven loads with potentially volatile power profiles.
Ali Bidram, Vahidreza Nasirian, Ali Davoudi, Frank L. Lewis
Cooperative Synchronization in Distributed Microgrid Control
Ali Bidram
Vahidreza Nasirian
Ali Davoudi
Frank L. Lewis
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