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2018 | Book

Ecology of Marine Ports of the Black and Azov Sea Basin

Authors: Prof. Dr. A. K. Vinogradov, Prof. Dr. Yu. I. Bogatova, Dr. I. A. Synegub

Publisher: Springer International Publishing


About this book

This work examines the waters of marine ports as unique integrated aquatic ecosystems. It regards marine ports as entities comprising components of natural and anthropogenic origin, including pelagic, periphytal and benthal subsystems. Using selected Black and Azov Sea ports as examples, the book discusses the hydrodynamics and water exchange, which are weakened in ports compared with open coastal zones. It reflects consequences of the presence of hydrobionts and the accumulation of organic matter, which are promoted by the variety of hard substrata and the absence of fishery.
The book is divided into five main chapters. The first chapter describes the general characteristics of the marine ports at the northern coast of the Black and Azov Seas and their shipping channels. Chapters 2 to 4 discuss the main abiotic and biotic peculiarities of the pelagial, periphytal and benthal subsystems of those marine ports, and chapter 5 deals with tropho-dynamic processes in their ecosystems. A concluding section reflects recommendations how the ecosystems of ports in non-tidal seas may be ameliorated.

Table of Contents

Chapter 1. Main Characteristics of Marine Ports of the Northern Coast of the Black and Azov Seas and of Their Access Channels
In the Black–Azov Sea basin, natural sheltered areas (gulfs, bays, limans, and estuaries) served as ports already B.C. In the seventeenth–eighteenth centuries, under the Russian Empire, the MPs were called “marine shelters”. Construction of commercial harbours on the Russian coast of the Black Sea started in the nineteenth century when the creation, in 1857, of the Russian Steam Navigation and Trading Company (ROPiT) gave a huge input to commercial navigation in the Black Sea.
A. K. Vinogradov, Yu. I. Bogatova, I. A. Synegub
Chapter 2. Pelagic Zone Subsystem of the Marine Ports Aquatories
In MPs aquatories ecosystems, the water mass is not only an environment in which the transport ways (waterways) for ships are built but also the biggest (by volume) and most dynamic biotope. The water column connects the main subsystems of ports ecosystems (pelagial, benthal and periphytal zones) and creates similar living conditions for the ecosystems’ biotic components of MPs. The water volume in the Black Sea ports reaches dozens of million cubic metres and the thickness of the water layer can be 20 m and more.
A. K. Vinogradov, Yu. I. Bogatova, I. A. Synegub
Chapter 3. Periphytal Zone Subsystem of the Marine Ports Aquatories
E. Hentschel was one of the first who used the quantitative methods of calculation for the study of fouling or periphytal community in 1916 in Hamburg MP.
A. K. Vinogradov, Yu. I. Bogatova, I. A. Synegub
Chapter 4. Benthal Zone Subsystem of Marine Port Aquatories
The benthal zone of marine ports comprises the bottom sediments, overlying waters and interstitial waters of the harbours’ seabed and access channel. It is populated by microorganisms, fungi, plants and animals inhabiting the surface or the inner layers of the sediments. Benthos is divided into bacteriobenthos, micro- and macrophythobenthos, micro-, meio- and macrozoobenthos according to the type and size of the organisms. Some benthic organisms inhabit the surface of sediments (epifauna), while others live within their different layers (infauna). Among them there are mobile (vagile) and non-motile (sessile) species.
A. K. Vinogradov, Yu. I. Bogatova, I. A. Synegub
Chapter 5. Main Structure and Peculiarities of the Functioning of Marine Ports Aquatories Ecosystems
Kommoner [54, 55] stated in a simple and understandable form the following “laws of ecology”: 1—everything is connected to everything else, 2—everything must go somewhere, 3—there is no such thing as a free lunch, i.e. energy expenses are necessary, 4—nature “knows” better, i.e. natural ecosystems are very complex and consists of dynamic components so that it is impossible to foresee and predict all consequences of anthropogenic interference. These laws are also valid in MPs aquatories ecosystems.
A. K. Vinogradov, Yu. I. Bogatova, I. A. Synegub
Ecology of Marine Ports of the Black and Azov Sea Basin
Prof. Dr. A. K. Vinogradov
Prof. Dr. Yu. I. Bogatova
Dr. I. A. Synegub
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