Skip to main content

2022 | Book

Engineering Design Applications IV

Structures, Materials and Processes

Editors: Prof. Dr. Andreas Öchsner, Univ.-Prof. Holm Altenbach

Publisher: Springer International Publishing

Book Series : Advanced Structured Materials


About this book

This book presents the developments in engineering design application. The chapters on mechanical, materials, computer and process engineering provide the foundation for the design and development of improved structures, materials and processes. They present alternatives with cost reduction and environmental demands. The book content links the interaction of classical engineering with the health, medical and environmental sector.

Table of Contents

Chapter 1. Biomechanical Study of the Distal Fibula Plate in Isolated Fractures
In the present study, a real clinical case of a distal fibula fracture is approached, which was instrumented by means of an LCP plate, which was evaluated at various operating loads to determine its structural mechanical behavior. Using the anatomical and biomechanical data, the process of making a distal fibula plate was replicated and a satisfactory design was achieved that met the functional qualities to arrive at the optimal solution. The theoretical hypothesis given by the theoretical calculations was correct in the sense that the biocompatible titanium alloy plate was the material that was least susceptible to tensile and bending stresses. The tests carried out through the Ansys program showed that the deformation pattern with the models presented corresponds to the case of fractured bone and assembled with the plate. It was observed that the efforts exerted on the healthy fibula are justified since the plate fulfills a similar function to carry the weight of the patient and even double this weight assuming a fall. Therefore, it is assumed that the plate fulfills without problem the function of supporting its own weight without deforming the device, even allowing it to remain stable until bone regeneration is achieved.
Juan Alfonso Beltrán-Fernández, Milton Alfredo Pérez-Reyes, Juan Luis Cuevas-Andrade, Luis Héctor Hernández-Gómez, Alejandro González Rebattú y González
Chapter 2. Front Impact Simulation of Urban Bus
A recurring accident that involves buses is the frontal impact against vehicles or obstacles; because of this, injuries and deaths take place in occupants and drivers. Most bus safety regulations are fundamentally concerned with rollover safety; therefore, frontal impact safety is relegated. Several works focus on cabin occupants of the bus like the international regulation ECE R 66, and in the absence of a specific standard for a frontal crash; it has been chosen to make a frontal simulation to evaluate the structure. The research is based on the nonlinear explicit dynamic simulation of a frontal impact of the frontal section of a bus using the finite element method to analyze the resistance of the structure configuration and verify that no component of the bus is exposed or has contact with the driver’s survival space. The geometry of the main body components was generated. The mechanical properties of the material and the boundary conditions, to recreate the event, were assigned the closest to reality. Then, it was established that the structure had not affected the driver’s survival space during the crash and that it is appropriate to perform models that can be evaluated under different test conditions.
Mijail A. Rivera-Hernández, Octavio Ramírez-Juárez, Alejandro Cuautle-Estrada, Victor M. Cantor-Mexquititla, Christopher R. Torres-SanMiguel
Chapter 3. Mechanical Behavior of an Interspinous Spacer Using the Finite Element Method
This paper presents the numerical results of a functional unit integrated by L3 and L4 vertebrae under compression loads and instrumented by a vertebral separator installed between the spinous apophysis. Three experimental tests in a healthy vertebral porcine model of the same region (L3–L4) were considered as a point of start.
Luis Manuel Valverde Cedillo, Juan Alfonso Beltrán-Ferndández, Alejandro González Rebatú
Chapter 4. Electrochemical Behavior of SnO2 Layer Deposited on Biomaterials Used in Bone Surgery
Rutile tin dioxide (SnO2) layers have been used in many industrial applications due to their electrical, optical, electrochemical properties, and high-chemical stability. Moreover, they can find application for coating in biomedical devices due to their antimicrobial effect and high biocompatibility. So far, for such applications, researchers have attempted to fabricate SnO2 nanorods as reinforcing fillers for biopolymer implants as scaffolds for tissue engineering. The biocidal activity of such structures against gram-positive bacteria S. aureus and gram-negative bacteria E. coli has been demonstrated, as well as their non-toxicity. Applying SnO2 using the solgel method, on the other hand, showed an increase in the corrosion resistance of A36 steel. In this study, SnO2 films were grown on 316LVM steel, commonly used for implants as biocompatible and antibacterial layer. A number of different deposition techniques can be used to produce such a layer, however, the authors have chosen the atomic layer deposition (ALD) technique, which ensures high-layer uniformity, low density of defects, and high smoothness. The ALD method allows for even coverage of the component with a thin film. By controlling the process parameters, such as the number of cycles and temperature, we can obtain different layer thicknesses with various properties. Studies included chemical composition (AES), pitting corrosion resistance, potentiodynamic tests, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), ion permeability, and scanning electron microscope (SEM) surface observations. According to the obtained data, it was found that the results strictly depend on the parameters of the process.
Marcin Basiaga, Witold Walke, Anna Taratuta, Julia Lisoń, Agata Sambok-Kiełbowicz, Wojciech Kajzer, Magdalena Szindler, Klaudiusz Gołombek, Alina Domanowska
Chapter 5. Integrating the Lean System Concepts and the Theory of Constraints in a Medical Emergency
There is a high demand for care in the health area, especially in hospital emergencies, causing problems such as overcrowding, long waiting times, and, in some cases, even the closing of the units. This work uses the concepts of lean system and theory of constraints (TOC) to propose improvements in the care process, focusing on reducing patients’ waiting time. The object of study was the emergence department of a large hospital located in the south of Brazil. A literature review was carried out to conduct the study, looking for the main tools used in the methodologies. Subsequently, a case study was conducted, suggesting the integrated application of the lean system’s tools and the five steps of focusing the TOC in this environment to minimize waiting times. As a result, it is expected, after the reallocation of the doctors’ scale framework together with the application of these tools, more than 11% reduction in waiting time, contributing to improving the efficiency of care.
Jocieli Francisco da Silva, Flávia Luana da Silva, Pedro Paulo Barbosa Feitosa, Luiz Alberto Oliveira Rocha, Ágata Maitê Ritter
Chapter 6. Numerical-Experimental Study of the Behavior of an Implant for the Stabilization of Radius and Cubit Fractures
In the present work, an ideal implant was designed to reduce most distal radius fractures. This implant, which is placed with a RAFI technique by a flying approach, allows managing the interfragmentary separation according to the convenience and experience of the hand specialist. First, it was necessary to study the clinical case, including the causes and sequelae and the techniques used to stabilize this type of fracture. In turn, with the help of programs such as ScanIP it was possible to parameterize the study area and create a distal radius biomodel. With this base, the components that the board should contain were designed to create compression between fragments. A radius dorsal fracture with an angle of 30° was simulated and pins corresponding to the holes where the screws of 3.5 mm and 2.4 mm were placed. The implant was analyzed by simulating a radial dorsal fracture in the biomodel in four different types of postoperative load recommended by clinical studies and in optimal and exaggerated positions, this in order to know the numerical - experimental behavior of the plate subjected to different biomechanical conditions. The results and clinical evaluation showed that the proposed implant is suitable for stabilizing radio fractures using the RAFI technique.
Juan Alfonso Beltrán-Fernández, Luis Héctor Hernández-Gómez, Jesús Efraín Domínguez-Ramírez, Juan Carlos Hermida-Ochoa, Cesar Antonio Pérez-Trujillo, Alejandro González Rebattú y González
Chapter 7. A Numerical Evaluation of the Structural Integrity of the Primary Containment of a BWR-5 Under LOCA Condition
In the first, the structural integrity of the primary containment was analyzed. The mechanical behaviour of the concrete and the reinforced concrete was evaluated with an equivalent modulus of elasticity. This is a simplified procedure. In a second alternative, the interaction between both materials was introduced in the evaluation. A sub-model was developed. A great number of elements was required. As a result, the computing resources increased. In the third procedure, beam elements were used in a sub-model of the zone of interest. The computing time was reduced. However, the development of the finite element mesh demands the skill of the designer. In all the cases, the results were in agreement.
Jesús I. E. Palacios-Hernández, Luis A. Arenas-Magos, Yunuén López-Grijalba, Luis H. Hernández-Gómez, Juan Cruz-Castro, Israel A. Alarcón-Sanchez, Juan A. Beltrán-Fernández
8. Quasi-Static Ropeway Simulation Using Parallel Computing
In this work, we present the results of a quasi-static simulation of a ropeway. The mathematical background is sketched, and the system of equations is solved numerically for a typical example. The whole computational problem is immediately parallelizable and therefore fast executable. It represents the first approximation of an exact time-dependent calculation.
Markus Wenin, Maria Letizia Bertotti, Giovanni Modanese
Chapter 9. Exploring the Contact FEA Functionalities in Catia v5™
The contact capabilities in the Catia program are not fully explained in the software documentation and therefore not quite accessible to the novice users such as the undergraduate students. This paper considers a simple geometry, the axially loaded bar, and explores in an elementary and heuristic fashion the different functionalities associated with “contact” feature within the software. This assists the users/students in planning their strategy when solving certain assembly problems with finite elements.
Nader G. Zamani
Chapter 10. Design and Manufacturing of an IC and Electrical Engine Race Car
As the oil crisis started to appear, hybrid cars became the main trend in technology and started taking all the headlines in the car industry and also for providing help to reduce environmental pollution. The claim is to manufacture a hybrid racing tricycle with the lowest cost available in the market. The automobile body was designed in a unique way that can be nicely balanced and it is roomy for the driver. Also, a cockpit was added in order to protect the driver from front impact injuries. Moreover, the wind shield was fabricated from E-type glass. The chassis was manufactured from tubes that have a lightweight and can bear excessive torsion and strain; the IC engine was mounted at the back of the vehicle where it is connected to a differential and a four-speed gearbox and connected to the rear wheels. Furthermore, an extension has been added and welded to the chassis so that the electrical engine was mounted on. The AC engine was a three-phase motor, and it is connected to an inverter in order to invert it into a two-phase motor and also to convert it to be able to work with two 12 V DC batteries. A custom pulley and belt system was manufactured in order to translate the motion from the AC engine to the wheels. Throughout the whole project, the designing and the implementing of the experimental procedure was done by using the computer aided engineering techniques that has been a transitional step for fulfilling the achievement of designing a lightweight and a safe race car; moreover, the safety precaution has been taken into consideration for the driver. Furthermore, air dynamic testing using Ansys was taken into consideration, and the choice of the car body material and its wind shield was also tested, and every aspect of these was accomplished using the help of CAE.
Marco Magdy, Omar Abdelhamed, Mahmoud A. Essam, Noha M. Abdeltawab, Ahmed Yehia Shash
Chapter 11. Visualization Approach to Presentation of New Referral Dataset for Maritime Zone Video Surveillance in Various Weather Conditions
This chapter discusses problems in the creation of datasets for maritime surveillance. The chapter also deals with visualization of the dataset and previewing it over the Internet. This is a part of research in creating a new dataset. Three videos are presented first. The dataset deals with the video monitoring of the sea area in different weather conditions. Three conditions are presented: cloudy, snowing, and sunny. The ground truth is generated in Matlab Ground Truth Labeler.
Igor Vujović, Miro Petković, Ivica Kuzmanić, Joško Šoda
Chapter 12. Design of a Neuro-Fuzzy System in the Characterization of Wear Images of Rotor Blades of a Gas Turbine
It is reported in this paper, the case of a turbine, which was operating on an offshore platform. The intake air flow had solid particles. Therefore, the blades of the compressor of the gas turbine were analyzed. Such blades were impacted by particles and environmental pollutants such as salts, sands, and sulfurs. Under these conditions, wear and friction reduced the useful life of the mechanical equipment. The loss of a relatively small amount of material in certain zones of the blades can affect the performance of a gas turbine. As a result, this research characterized images of the seventh stage of a compressor of a gas turbine. Deterministic and non-deterministic variables were considered. The proposed evaluation focused on the early detection of any mechanical failure. It prevents the total loss of the gas turbine in operation. The objectives set out in this research were obtained with techniques and tools considered in a systematic approach. It allowed the characterization and interpretation of images of gas turbine blades by means of artificial intelligence techniques. The neuro-fuzzy system was designed with a backpropagation neural network of five layers of neurons and a Takagi–Sugeno fuzzy system with two inputs and one output. The last one is a set of images with areas of wear.
Luz Yazmin Villagrán-Villegas, Luis Héctor Hernández-Gómez, Miguel Patiño-Ortiz, Miguel Ángel Martínez-Cruz, Julián Patiño-Ortiz, Juan Alfonso Beltrán-Fernández, José de Jesús García-Mejía
Chapter 13. Integration of ISO 45001 for Health and Safety Applications in the L’Oréal Cairo Plant
One of the L’Oréal’s Cairo plant intentions is to acquire the international standard certificate of “occupational health and safety management systems” which is the ISO 45001:2018 certificate. Therefore, to obtain such a certificate, ISO requirements must be fulfilled. In correspondence to a specified clause in the ISO 45001 standard, stating that all the performed procedures in the factory must be documented. During this study, the documentation process of the occupational health and safety procedures concerning the general life risks, maintenance, packaging, and processing lines is documented in accordance to the previously mentioned ISO. By writing down these procedures, the foundation of a reliable occupational health and safety system is established.
Mirna Osama, Nader Nishan, Ahmed Y. Shash
Chapter 14. The Role of NGOs, Associations, and Certification Foundations in the Development and Awareness of Producers and Consumers: A Case Study in the Field of Organic Products
This article aimed to identify the challenges and actions that NGOs, associations, and foundations facing regulating the organic production face to promote the production and sale of organic products. The research was carried out with NGOs, associations, and nonprofit foundations and certifiers of organic products from Brazil's South and Southeast regions. The data were analyzed through content analysis to identify the challenges and actions taken about the practice of regulation, the economic development of producers, and consumers’ awareness. The results suggest that the migration of producers to organic production is hampered by the fall in revenues of these producers. Consumers are afraid of the credibility of the certificates of organic producers due to corruption scandals in Brazil. NGOs, associations, and foundations promote consumer awareness events, seek to make organic products available at the points where their customers are, and follow international standards for organic certification, aiming at exporting their products in the future. This research becomes relevant because it identifies the challenges and actions taken to promote the production and sale of organic products, a culture that is growing today.
Ágata Maitê Ritter, Flávia Luana da Silva, Luiz Alberto Oliveira Rocha, Jocieli Francisco da Silva
Chapter 15. Impact of the Encyclical Laudato Si on the Transition to a Green Economy
The article deals with the impact of the Encyclical Laudato Si by Pope Francis on the various dimensions of economic and social transitions aimed at a better future, but especially on the transition to a Green Economy in respect of mitigating climate change and reducing greenhouse gas emissions. The pandemic associated with the coronavirus disease outbreak in 2019 is also expected to accelerate the Encyclical’s impact in a post-pandemic world striving for greater environmental and social justice as well as inclusion and equality. The paper reports on a research survey and text analysis conducted to ascertain whether the Encyclical will have the enduring impact anticipated and whether that would accelerate achievement of the United Nations Sustainable Development Goals, fulfilment of the undertakings in the Paris Agreement on mitigating climate change and support for the Fridays for Future school strikes as well as other political and civil society events aimed at protecting the environment. The research results demonstrate society is ready to accept a new economic system based on greater equality and social justice—much like the notion of Inclusive Capitalism proposed by Pope Francis in 2016, based on the Laudato Si and that this will provide momentum in transitioning to the Green Economy.
Angele Kedaitiene, Maja Micevska Scharf
Engineering Design Applications IV
Prof. Dr. Andreas Öchsner
Univ.-Prof. Holm Altenbach
Copyright Year
Electronic ISBN
Print ISBN

Premium Partners