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2024 | Book

Life Cycle Assessment in Aviation

Theory and Applications


About this book

Life Cycle Assessment in Aviation: Theory and Applications provides readers with a comprehensive analysis that examines various elements within the aviation sector, including aircraft operations, maintenance and repair activities, aircraft gas turbine engine processes, airport auxiliary vehicles, airport operations, airport construction, airport access traffic, and airport wastes. The book’s content has been meticulously crafted to address the specific needs and interests of a diverse audience encompassing researchers, engineering students, and civil aviation organization officials. Readers will find valuable insights and up-to-date information about the latest developments in the aviation field, serving as a valuable resource for their investigations and studies.

Table of Contents

Chapter 1. Life Cycle Analysis (LCA): A Retrospective Overview
Life cycle analysis (LCA), which is becoming popular as the environmental concerns arise and sustainability becomes a key factor in our life, is an analysis to quantify the potential environmental impacts of product or services. First LCA studies are backed to the 1960s which were mainly aiming the energy analyses in packaging industry. We can define the period between 1970 and 1990 as the concept development of LCA with different approaches and terminologies with a lack of commonality. Following decade experienced an exceptional interest and expansion standardization activities including standards, practices and handbooks. Finally, beginning with the twenty-first century till today, several approaches like Life Cycle Costing (LCC), Social Life Cycle Assessment (SLCA) and Life Cycle Sustainability Analysis (LCSA) have been proposed. This paper aims to review the historical process through which LCA methodology has passed.
Kahraman Coban, Selçuk Ekici, T. Hikmet Karakoc
Chapter 2. Life Cycle Assessment: A Brief Definition and Overview
Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) is a phased approach for evaluating the environmental effects of a product and process. It is a detailed analysis since all the aspects of an impact of a process are to be assessed. LCA covers how materials are extracted and used energy during manufacturing, distribution and environmental impacts from use of product and waste. It has become one of the proven tools for environmental impact evaluation. LCA today is used by many industries, researchers and policymakers in order to assess the environmental performance and issue environmental claims. This chapter covers a comprehensive description of LCA methodology explaining the main futures and the related standards.
Kahraman Coban, Selçuk Ekici, T. Hikmet Karakoc
Chapter 3. Application of LCA to Aviation
Given the increasing environmental concerns accompanying technological advancements, there is a growing need for more effective, efficient and sustainable development. Recent studies in aviation are focused on environmental sensitivity and sustainable development, with Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) being one of the most effective methods for determining and comparing environmental impacts. This article is significant for its insights into designing environmentally friendly aircraft, comparing different aircraft types using LCA and highlighting the need for sustainable practices in the aviation industry. In the review, several studies related to the subject are summarized, and it provides insights into the vehicles covered in the studies, the extent to which the life cycle process is considered, the functional unit, the databases used, the software employed, the environmental effects analyzed and the corresponding results.
D. Çalışır, Selçuk Ekici, A. Midilli, T. Hikmet Karakoc
Chapter 4. Application of LCA to Aviation Fuels
This comprehensive study examines the utilization of Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) in the context of aviation fuels, offering a critical evaluation of their influence on greenhouse gas (CHG) emissions. The research emphasizes the crucial significance of biofuels in effectively reducing CHG emissions across their entire lifecycle. This statement highlights the negative consequences of utilizing alternative fuels derived from fossil feedstocks on CHG emissions, even in cases where carbon capture and storage techniques are implemented. The aforementioned impacts are juxtaposed with conventional kerosene, thereby emphasizing the ecological ramifications associated with diverse fuel selections. The research identifies Biomass to Liquid (BTL) as the most favorable strategy in terms of mitigating CHG emissions, as it aligns with the Renewable Energy Directive’s mandate of achieving a 60% reduction in life cycle emissions. Additionally, it is worth mentioning that these technologies have already been widely adopted and implemented, enabling the diversification of fuel supply in response to the growing demand. The study additionally suggests that market dynamics, which can be influenced by escalating crude oil expenses or conditions of oil scarcity, may inherently drive the adoption of these fuels. This study not only offers substantial contributions to the ongoing discussion on the sustainability and environmental implications of aviation fuels but also establishes a foundation for further investigation in this crucial field of inquiry.
Enes Gunaltili, Selçuk Ekici, Zeki Yilmazoglu, T. Hikmet Karakoc
Chapter 5. Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) Applications in Airports
Life cycle assessment (LCA) is a tool employed to assess the environmental implications of a product’s life cycle, including its inputs, outputs, and potential impacts. It assists decision-makers in evaluating major environmental impacts while selecting among various alternatives. This study aims to investigate the current practical resolutions in the airport industry using LCA. There are 20 papers examined under ISO 14040, ReCiPe, CML-IA, TRACI, and Eco-Indicator 99 methods. Due to the limited literature on Airport LCA, we have classified them into six categories: energy usage, infrastructure, building, waste management, transportation, and the overall system. There is a significant gap in studies, with energy generation and operational LCA in airports being promising fields. Given the critical role of the LCA method in comprehending airport environmental impact and promoting sustainable expansion; it is expected that the future research will focus on integrating renewable energy technologies, circular economy principles, and climate change resilience. LCA could be even more effective for guiding environmentally responsible airport construction if future factors are considered.
Alper Dalkiran, M. Ziya Sogut, T. Hikmet Karakoc
Chapter 6. Exergoenvironmental Analysis of Medium-Size Turboprop Engine (m-TPE)-Based Life Cycle Analysis (LCA) and Exergy
The exergoenvironmental analysis of a medium-size turboprop engine (m-TPE) is researched based on Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) and exergy analysis for maximum take-off power. The m-TPE has the 29.235 mPts/h component-related environmental impact rate, while the gas turbine section between the components has the maximum component-related environmental impact rate with 9.144 mPts/h. The environmental impact rate of jet fuel is determined as 125,280 mPts/h, while the m-TPE consumes 522 kg/h jet fuel in maximum operation mode. Maximum specific environmental impact value is estimated as 12296.41 mPts/GJ in air compressor outlet, while the minimum specific environmental impact is found to be 5224.91 mPts/GJ for the fuel inlet stream of combustion chamber. Additionally, air compressor and combustion chamber units have highest waste exergy environmental impact rates with 9546.94 mPts/h and 56,302 mPts/h, respectively. The waste exergy rates dominate the environmental impacts for m-TPE and its all components excepting gas turbine and power turbine units.
Ozgur Balli
Life Cycle Assessment in Aviation
T. Hikmet Karakoc
Selçuk Ekici
Alper Dalkiran
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