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About this book

This book focuses on spatial planning of megacities that are growing in Asia, Africa, and America. These cities are not be seen in isolation from their respective influence regions. They complement each other. Most of the solutions to the problems of such cities are found in their respective regions, and, on the other hand, the regions derive their strength from their respective megacities. There is a need for promoting integrated spatial planning of megacity regions. The five chapters in this book highlight the spatial planning of such regions.

Table of Contents

Frontmatter

Chapter 1. Evolution of Megacities and Megacity Regions

Abstract
Large cities have always been there, in the world, for thousands of years. However, there have been ups and downs in their growth and decay and regional distribution. An understanding of dynamics of growth and characteristics of large cities is necessary for megacity regional planning. This Chapter presents the dynamics of growth and geographic distribution of such cities in the world in general and Asia and India in particular. Due to advancement of agriculture practices, large cities were concentrated in Asia and with advancement of navigation, industrialisation and communication technology, their concentration shifted to Europe and America. Currently (2018) a majority (82%) of megacities are concentrated in less advanced countries. In future (2030) India will have 7 megacities and Delhi will be the largest city in the world. Discussing the characteristics of million-plus cities and megacities in India it highlights that, in 2011, there were 53 million-plus cities accommodating about 43% of total urban population of the country. This Chapter also presents the processes of merging of megacities and evolution of neo-regional spatial configurations such as city regions, mega regions, urban corridors, and polycentric regions which are likely to impact the pattern of regional development in future.
S. K. Kulshrestha

Chapter 2. Megacity Region Spatial Model

Abstract
In regional spatial panning, configuration of space is an important basic task. Theoretically a megacity region comprises the regional core and its periphery further divided into regional spatial units. This chapter presents a megacity region spatial model which provides a tool for configuration of a megacity region into a hierarchy of regional spatial units like sub-regions, micro-regions and clusters of villages. It also indicates the functional hierarchy of settlements and polarisation of a variety and order of socio-economic, administrative and political activities. For better governance and effective implementation of megacity regional plan, this spatial model has incorporated the governance and planning system provided by the Indian Constitution (73rd & 74th Amendment) Acts 1992. Megacity region spatial model can serve as a descriptive, prescriptive and also normative tool as demonstrated through case study of Delhi-NCR. The model is flexible and can be applied to a variety of situations like coastal megacity region, urban corridor, and any sub-component of a megacity region like cluster of villages, micro-region (blocks), or sub-region (districts). This model is applicable to other countries also with/without modifications.
S. K. Kulshrestha

Chapter 3. Dynamics of Megacity Regional Development

Abstract
The dynamics of megacity regional development refers to the forces and instruments that stimulate temporal changes in the spatial and socio-economic development of a region. These forces and instruments include various policies, plans, acts, and institutional framework. The pattern of concentration of the various activities in different settlements, for a period of time, results in evolution of regional spatial pattern which comprise settlement pattern, hierarchy of settlements, hierarchy of regional spatial units, land utilisation, and road pattern. The dynamics of socio-economic development refers to the forces that cause temporal transformation in social quality and economic opportunities in an area. In most of the cases, policies are the driving forces that cause socio-economic changes in a region. Policies provide basis for planning and development and, in the regional planning context, some of the policies could be those pertaining to population, industries, trade and commerce, transportation, communication, environmental conservation and others. This Chapter discusses the various forces of change and their impact on both spatial and socio-economic transformation in megacity regions supported by examples from the National Capital Regional Plan (Delhi) and Mumbai Metropolitan Regional Plan.
S. K. Kulshrestha

Chapter 4. Megacity Regional Governance and Plan Implementation

Abstract
The effect of a megacity regional plan is that it initiates the process of further detailing for its governance and implementation. Megacity regional governance refers to institutional mechanisms, that defines, for all stakeholders, the norms, jurisdiction, authority, powers, processes, and devolution of functions, functionaries and funds for plan formulation, approval, execution and monitoring. Governance of megacity regions becomes a challenging task particularly for provision of power, communication and transportation network—the lifeline of a megacity region in twenty-first century—that requires meticulous planning and management. Governance system could be autonomous, mixed or unified. This chapter discusses these systems and also the Indian Constitution (73rd and 74th Amendment) Acts, 1992 which provide governance system for decentralised planning in India covering spatio-economic planning of both urban and rural areas for various administrative units ranging from metropolitan area, districts, sub-districts, municipalities, rurban centres to villages and recommends a suitable system for integrated regional planning in India. A megacity regional plan may be implemented through a variety of strategies including modifications to the sub-regional plans, application of statutory provisions, formulation of projects/schemes, seeking government interventions, motivating stakeholders through advocacy and mobilisation of resource through innovative approaches/methods as discussed.
S. K. Kulshrestha

Chapter 5. Emerging Advances in Regional Spatial Planning

Abstract
There is change occurring everywhere. Pace of urbanisation is transforming the world community from a rural to an urban society. This chapter discusses emerging advances that will impact regional spatial planning in future. It highlights the transformations occurring in global urban geography which indicates that now (2018) more than a-half (55%) to the total population of the world lives in urban areas. New tools, for spatial planning, have emerged and include GIS, spatial data infrastructure blockchain, and megacity region spatial model. There are advances in spatial planning approaches like Transit Oriented Development, Zero Waste City, Eco-industrial Parks, Integrated Townships, Theme Cities, and Rurban Clusters. New regional spatial configurations such as mega-regions, urban corridors, and polycentric regions are evolving. These innovations will impact the methods of spatial planning and informed decision making for preparation and implementation of plans and also governance. It advocates integrated, collaborative, and proactive regional spatial planning approach that promotes sustainable, inclusive and resilient development capable of adapting to technological innovations and climate change. It recommends that proactive planning of metropolitan and megacity regions need to be promoted as these are the places where most of the major activities will be happening in the urbanising future.
S. K. Kulshrestha
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