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About this book

This book contains the proceedings of the 3rd International Conference on Sustainability in Civil Engineering, ICSCE 2020, held on 26–27 November 2020, in Hanoi, Vietnam. It presents the expertise of scientists and engineers in academia and industry in the field of bridge and highway engineering, construction materials, environmental engineering, engineering in industry 4.0, geotechnical engineering, structural damage detection and health monitoring, structural engineering, geographic information system engineering, traffic, transportation and logistics engineering, water resources, estuary and coastal engineering.

Table of Contents




An Effective Stress Framework for Bearing Capacity of Shallow Foundations in Unsaturated Soils

This manuscript presents a theoretical framework to model the bearing capacity of shallow foundations on partially saturated soils. The conventional Vesić bearing capacity equations for shallow foundations are modified to include the effects of matric suction and varying water contents and unit weights within the effective stress framework. Suction and water content are related through the familiar van Genuchten constitutive model, thus linking suction stress to density for a homogenous soil skeleton. A closed-form solution that modifies the overburden, unit weight, and cohesion terms in the conventional Vesić equation is proposed. Bearing capacity predictions from the modified equation for shallow foundations are compared to results from model- and full-scale load tests in partially saturated soils presented in the literature, showing good agreement with observed response.

T. Matthew Evans, Josiah D. Baker

Dynamical Motifs in Temporal Networks

In this paper, we explain the connection between information processing by complex systems and recurrent activity sequences in their dynamics. We argue that an understanding of information processing pathways in terms of these dynamical motifs is important for designing effective interventions. We then describe a recently completed study, where we video recorded 37 shared book reading (SBR) sessions, and thereafter annotated each of these sessions for 26 activities (reading the book, comments and questions, management talk by the teacher, and responses from the children). For all SBR sessions, the annotations consisted of sequences of one activity followed by another (transitions). We tested the empirical data against a null model where activities occur randomly, to identify 34 transitions that occur more frequently than by chance, and visualize these transitions that are statistically significant at the confidence level of p < 10−3 in the form of a static network. We then chose six significant transitions, and tested their extensions against the same null model to identify statistically significant length-3 sequences. This extension procedure was repeated to obtain length-4, length-5, and longer sequences until no further statistically significant extensions can be found. Finally, we organized the longest significant sequences into five families of dynamical motifs, and discuss their implications on the effectiveness of SBR.

He Sun, Siew Ann Cheong

Field Measurements of Fine Sediment Transport Processes in Japanese Estuaries

This paper presents some case studies of field measurements for better understanding of fine sediment transport processes in Japanese estuarine environments, including the inner Tokyo bay and the mouth of Shinanno river. The study at the Tokyo bay focused on the near bed transport processes of muddy bottom sediments and the monitoring has been captured a storm event with resuspension of muddy bottom sediments during a passage of Typhoon. The results of the sediment budget analysis with the monitored data shows the importance of the fluid mud flow near the bed. The other field study at the mouth of the Shinano river also demonstrates an importance of the fluid mud formation and their transport for the shoaling process of a dredged navigation channel in the water area. The area shows a specific flow system during a flood event with vertical three-layered stratification, where a discharged fresh turbid water flows over the sea water and the fluid mud layer formed in the lowest on the bottom.

Yasuyuki Nakagawa

Bridge-Structural Engineering, Structural Damage Detection and Health Monitoring


Damaged Detection in Structures Using Artificial Neural Networks and Genetic Algorithms

Recently, Structural Health Monitoring (SHM) has emerged to be one of the most effective tools for the diagnosis of damages in structures. Early identification and localization of damage not only help to reduce the maintenance cost but also extend the life cycle of the structures. In this paper, a novel approach using Artificial Neural Networks (ANNs) combined with Genetic Algorithms (GA) is proposed to increase the capacity of damage detection in SHM system. ANNs can make use of different algorithms such as recognition algorithms and regression algorithms to classify, detect, localize and evaluate the severity of the damage. Meanwhile, GA can be applied to identify training parameters as well as to solve the local minima problems from ANNs. To demonstrate the method, an analysis of a bridge is performed. Finite Element (FE) model of the bridge is created using measured vibration data and it is employed as training data for the combined ANN-GA method in the model updating process. The updated model will then be used as a baseline model for damage identification. The result shows that the proposed ANN-GA algorithm provides a high level of accuracy and efficiency in detecting damage in the considered structure.

Lan Nguyen-Ngoc, Hoa Tran-Ngoc, Hieu Nguyen-Tran, Binh Nguyen-Duc, Dang Nguyen-Le-Minh, Thanh Bui-Tien, Magd Abdel Wahab

Effect of Metal Corrosion on the Structural Reliability of the 3D Steel Frames

The worldwide design standards only consider safety or reliability at the beginning not concerning the deterioration of the material strength under the corrosive environment. This research presents an assessment method for reliability and durability of the 3D steel frame connections considering corrosion effects. A metal corrosion model which is proposed in previous studies was adopted to apply for this study. Monte Carlo simulation method is proposed and utilized to assess the reliability and durability of the 3D steel frames under corrosion. The random variables including the corrosion phenomenon, and applied load, have been considered. The safety deterioration of the steel structures due to the corrosion phenomenon until 100 years is investigated. Additionally, the effects of input parameters, which are safety factors and coefficient of variation, on the reliability of structures are examined in the present study. Finally, a verification of this study and previous results are performed, highlighting the capability of the proposed method.

Ngoc-Long Tran, Trong-Ha Nguyen

Global Sensitivity Analysis of the Buckling Strength for Battened Built-up Columns Steel Considering Shear Deformations

The Battened built-up steel columns are widely used in civil engineering and industrial structures. The response of this structure depends on the material properties, geometric dimensions, shear stiffness, and also boundary conditions that are potentially random sources. The objective of this study is to perform the global sensitivity analysis, and then to assess the influence of input random parameters on the elastic critical column load of the battened built-up steel columns. The elastic critical column load of the battened built-up steel columns proposed in previous studies is adopted. The influence of the input random variables of the structure is evaluated using Sobol’s global sensitivity analysis. Monte Carlo simulation is also employed to rank the influence of input random variables.

Ngoc-Long Tran, Trong-Ha Nguyen

Simulations of Local Scour Depth at Piers of the Ben Thuy Bridge, Nghe an Province

This study presents a numerical model based on the one-dimensional lateral distribution method and four classic formulae that can be used to simulate local scour depth at bridge piers. In order to accurate predictions of flow velocity, gravity, bed shear stress and turbulent diffusion forces are taken into account in hydrodynamic calculations. Four formulae are implemented and applied to evaluate local scour depth at bridge piers. Ben Thuy bridge located in Nghe An province is selected as an example. The results show that the local scour depth varied between 0.80 and 8.0 m at piers of this bridge. The maximum value of the local scour depth appeared at piers in the deep region (from 415 to 675 m) of the bridge river section, while small values occurred at piers in the shallow areas. Among four selected formulae, three formulae proposed by Laratslasev (1953), Zuravlev (1978), and Nguyen and Nguyen (1982) predicted similar trend and value of the local scour depth at piers in the shallow areas.

Chien Pham Van

Load Carrying Capacity Old Steel Girder with Considering Corrosion Effect of Steel Material

There are many steel girder bridges that have been operated for a long time, particularly on the national railway system. These structures have not been maintained and repaired with a reasonable level which led to rust of steel girder. Corrosion has made a decrease of a cross-section along with the length or at local areas of steel girder; A significant degradation of the loading capacity of steel girder which could seriously affect the safety of these bridges. Rely on verification for structures, parameters of material, rust condition and detailed dimensions of the girder, service load is determined. Analyzing and summarizing these parameters have estimated the general condition of rust and loading capacity of operative constructions. Additionally, numerical simulations according to the finite element method to investigate the loading capacity of steel girder with relevant parameters of rust condition such as depth of rust layers, rust position and rust area have been implemented as well. Non-linear analyses have also been performed to determine the behavior of steel girders under loading. Results of investigation would assist to induct regulation of the operation, solution of repairmen.

Pham Van Hung, Nguyen Duc Hieu, Bui Thanh Tung, Tran The Truyen

Research on Monitoring Technology of Cable-Stayed Bridge

Monitoring of cable stayed bridge during service is the key to ensure the safety of the bridge. To improve the monitoring technologies, this paper summarized the relevant research and application, including Stay cable monitoring, tower column monitoring. The results show that the method of monitoring has changed from manual to machine. The principles of monitoring are more abundant, such as image analysis, acceleration analysis, magnetic flux analysis, temperature analysis and so on. This paper can provide reference for the further research on the monitoring technology of cable-stayed bridge.

Jiabao Du, Zhao Hong, Yuan Chen, Yahui Li, Jinzhu Song, Qiang Tang

Geotechnical Engineering


A Consolidation Solution of Soft Soil Deposits Improved with Prefabricated Vertical Drains and Deep Cement Mixing Columns

Recently, a new technique method has been developed in ground improvement field, namely the combined method. This method involving the utilization of both prefabricated vertical drains (PVDs) and deep cement mixing (DCM) columns was applied to improve shear strength and accelerate consolidation rate. The goal of this study is to propose a simple analytical solution for consolidation of soft soil improved by PVDs-DCM columns, in which effects of smear zone due to drains installation and nonlinear behavior of permeability and compressibility during consolidation process are considered. Subsequently, the proposed method was applied to a test embankment in China, which used the combined method for ground stabilization. The axisymmetric model of composite ground in finite element method (FEM) is also implemented to analyze the consolidation behavior of soft soil improved by the combined method under test embankment. The proposed solution provided a good result with the monitoring data and FEM results.

Ba-Phu Nguyen, Phuong Chau Ngo, Quang Dung Nguyen, Trong Thach Le, Nhat-Phi Doan

Effect of Grain Size on Shear Strength of Coral Gravel Sand

In the study, a series of triaxial tests were carried out on coral gravel sand to investigate the shear strength behaviour of the sand. The coral material were collected from Truong Sa island of Vietnam. To examine the effect of grain-size distribution on the shear strength behaviour, six kinds of coral gravel sand samples with different grain size distributions were used in the experiments. The experimental results indicate that the coral gravel sand contains not only internal friction angle, φ, as other granular materials but also apparent cohesion, c, and these parameters depends on the grain-size distribution. The results show that the strength parameters increase with the increase of the grain size of the coral.

Cao Van Hoa, Vu Anh Tuan, Nguyen Thanh Sang, Nguyen Tuong Lai, Pham Duc Tiep

Landslide Susceptibility Mapping for the Thao River Catchment with High Spatial Resolution Rainfall Data

Geological disasters occur more and more frequently in mountainous regions causing considerable damage to lives and properties. As a tropical country, rainfall is often considered to be the most common triggering factor for the occurrence of landslides in Vietnam. This study used a high-resolution rainfall map of the extreme 1-day precipitation derived from a combined dynamical-statistical downscaling model outputs in the period 1981–2010, and eight other terrain factors to construct the landslide susceptibility map (LSM) for the Vietnam portion of Thao river catchment. The Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP) was applied to determine the weights of every causative factor and their classes. Validation of the susceptible map was verified with existing landslide locations using the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve that comparing the actual and predicted landslide locations. The result shows that the predicted susceptibility map has good agreement with the past landslide occurrences. Therefore, the LSM predicted by the AHP method is useful for preventing potential landslides in the future for the study area.

The Viet Tran, Manh Cuong Nguyen, Quang Toan Trinh, Hoai Nam Do, Trung Kien Nguyen, Kien-Trinh Thi Bui, Quoc Thanh Nguyen, Duc Ha Nguyen

Investigation of Anchor Load During the Construction of an Excavation in Hanoi

This study investigates the development of anchor load during the constrcution of an excavation in Hanoi. The adopted excavation was a case study, which was modelled using PLAXIS 3D. The final excavation depth was 10.3 m. Behavior of soil was simulated with the elastic-perfectly plastic Mohr-Coulomb model. Results showed that when the d/L ratio decreased (d is the distance between the examined point to the nearest excavation corner and L is the excavation length), the maximum wall deformation was firstly unchanged as d/L = 1/2–1/8 and then reduced as d/L = 1/8–0 due to the corner effect. For each of the anchor layers, at the excavation stage right after preloading, the anchor load would increase because the wall deformation at the anchor head increased. However, at the other proceeding excavation stages, the anchor load would reduced owing to the deep inward movement of the wall. For a given excavation stage, the variation of anchor load was compatible with that of the maximum wall deformation at the examined points. In particular, the anchor load was constant as d/L = 1/2–1/8 and reduced as d/L = 1/8–0.

Tuan-Nghia Do

Potential Using Municipal Solid Bottom Ash for Road Construction

There is a limited treatment method for municipal solid waste in Vietnam and dumping in a landfill site is still the main solutions for big cities such as Hanoi and Ho Chi Minh city. Recently, incinerator plants are applied in Hanoi and municipal solid waste bottom ash (MSWIBA) is generated. However, in Vietnam, there is a lack of research on the mechanical properties of MSWIBA for recycling this material. Thus, this paper focuses on static and cyclic behaviors of MSWIBA. Static mechanical tests such as the direct shear test showed that the internal friction angle for MSWIBA was varied from 31° to 44°. For cyclic triaxial tests, the observed value of resilient modulus was high. In conclusion, MSWIBA can be used for road material such as fill embankment and subbase.

Chau Lan Nguyen, Anh Tuan Nguyen, Hai Ha Nguyen, Anh-Tuan Vu

Performance of a New Low-Cost GPS Sensor with an Average Process for Slope Displacement Monitoring

The Global Positioning System (GPS) has been widely used for monitoring displacements of civil engineering structures. The second author and his colleagues developed an automatic GPS system to continuously monitor 3-dimensional displacements with millimeter accuracies. The system has been used to hundreds of fields in Japan, e.g., landslides, dams, etc. However, the cost of the sensor and the monitoring system are still quite expensive compared to standard geotechnical instruments. In this paper, the performance of a new low-cost GPS sensor with an average process is investigated to verify the applicability and reliability for displacement monitoring. This is done by performing experiments in which data are processed by the kinematic method. The standard deviations are improved by taking the average of the kinematic results.

Nguyen Trung Kien, Norikazu Shimizu

Study on the Change of Deformation Modulus of Ho Chi Minh City’ Soft Soil Under the Extension Stress Paths for Deep Excavation Calculation

To predict the displacement and deformation of the deep excavation, it is necessary to determine the ground characteristics of the soil surrounding the deep excavation to include in the soil models. However, geological data for the design of the deep excavation is mainly obtained from conventional geological experiments, which have not yet described the behavior of the soil surrounding the excavation. Therefore, the problem is to use an experimental model with a reasonable stress path to determine the input parameters that match the behavior of the ground around the excavation pit, which is manifested by the changes in soil stiffness during the excavation work. This is what the current experimental protocol considers unchanged. This paper uses a triaxial test device to analyze the stiffness behavior of soft soil in Ho Chi Minh City (HCMC) according to the stress paths of extension in calculating deep excavation.

Trung Ngo Duc

The Shapes of Collapsed Sinkholes at Limiting Equilibrium

Experiments show that the sinkholes’ sizes and shapes are related to their stability. After a sinkhole has been created, its geometry continually evolves towards a more stable form. This process is governed by characteristics of the surrounding geomaterials, and various physical interactions, such as weathering, stress variations caused by cycles of wetting-drying. Buried, dropout and suffosion sinkholes are formed in the soil layer overlying bedrock. Dropout sinkholes (i.e. those with overhanging arches) are more likely to form in cohesive soil; suffosion sinkholes (i.e. those without overhanging arches) are more likely to form in non-cohesive soil. In the literature, most mechanistic analyses focus on dropout sinkhole. Few researchers conduct stability analysis of suffosion sinkhole. The geometry of a sinkhole is an input into most stability analyses, but it is often idealised or back-calculated from post-failure data. There is a need to know the geometry of a sinkhole approaching the point of failure (i.e. the limiting equilibrium). This paper reports on the geometry of collapsed suffosion sinkholes at limiting equilibrium obtained by the slip line theory. Analyses consider nonhomogeneous soils satisfying static equilibrium with soil strength governed by the Mohr-Coulomb failure criterion. The limiting sinkhole geometry is shown to be governed by dimensionless parameters. Exemplary charts are presented for determining this critical geometry given different combinations of soil parameters. Applications are illustrated via an example.

Rengifo Arakaki Kimiko, Vo Thanh, R. Adrian Russell

Construction Materials


A Study on Tunnel Lining Concrete with Crushed Aggregate from NATM Muck

The reduction of the waste products, and the waste recycling as alternative construction materials is essential in the practice of sustainable development in civil engineering. The utilization of excavated muck after rock tunnelling has been executed worldwide but not always in propitious circumstances in countries where the legal backbone of the waste recycling is not strong enough against the conventional use of raw materials. The study and publication of such application cases is considered as an effort for the propagation of sustainability in tunnel projects. With that aim, the paper focused on a case study in Vietnam where the muck after the NATM tunnelling had been used as coarse aggregate for the C25 tunnel lining concrete. Compared with an equivalent lining concrete using raw material, through the analysis of the test results at construction site, the possibility of using recycled muck for tunnel lining was proven.

Thu-Hang Tran

Effect of Nano-Silica Content on Compressive Strength and Modulus of Elasticity of High-Performance Concrete

The nano-silica (NS) particles trigger hydration reactions reduce the less stable components (Calcium hydroxide), and produce better quality pozzolan gel products in concrete. This process gives the concrete have a dense structure, early strength growth, increase compressive strength, flexural strength, splitting strength, water anti-permeability, and corrosion resistance. This article aims to research the influence of NS on compressive strength and modulus of elasticity of high-performance concrete. Nano-silica particles are added into high-performance concrete mixture with the contents 0.5, 1, 1.5, 2, 2.5 and 3% by weight of the binder. The addition of NS resulted in enhancing compressive strength and modulus of elasticity up to 1.5% replacement level. When the NS content is 2–3%, the compressive strength and modulus of elasticity increases nonsignificantly and tends to decrease compared to NS’s rate using 1.5%. The experiment results will build a relationship function between the modulus of elasticity and nano-silica content.

Van Thuc Ngo, Tien Thanh Bui, Thi Cam Nhung Nguyen, Thi Thu Nga Nguyen, Thanh Quang Khai Lam

Experimental Investigation of Fatigue Behavior for Polymer Modified Asphalt and Epoxy Asphalt Mixtures

Fatigue cracking is one of the main failures of the pavement structures. This paper presents the experimental investigation of the fatigue behavior for polymer modified asphalt and epoxy asphalt mixtures. One polymer modified asphalt mixture and epoxy asphalt mixtures at two different epoxy content in the binder are used in this study. The four point bending fatigue tests are conducted in strain-controlled mode at 10°C and 10 Hz. For each type of mixture, three levels of strain amplitude are applied in the test: 200, 300 and 400 µm/m. The test results allow determining the Wöhler curve for each tested mixture. The experimental results show a better fatigue resistance of epoxy asphalt mixtures in comparison with polymer modified asphalt mixture. The slope of the Wöhler curve is then obtained to evaluate the fatigue sensibility of each mixture. The nonlinearity phenomenon is also observed when analyzing the complex modulus and the phase angle at the beginning of the test.

Quang Tuan Nguyen, Thi Cam Ha Tran

Effect of Steel Fiber Content on the Shrinkage of Steel Fiber Reinforced Concrete in the Tropical Environment in Vietnam

Concrete shrinkage is one of the main causes of cracks occurred in reinforced concrete structures in the hot tropical environment. In this study, a series of test specimens was made of plain concrete and steel fiber reinforced concrete of strength grade C45 and with various contents of Dramix fibers ranging from 25 to 100 kg/m3. The shrinkage measurements were carried out on these specimens for more than 120 days. The experimental results show the total shrinkage of concretes tested and the effect of steel fiber content on the shrinkage.

Ngoc Tan Nguyen, Vinh An Le

Research on Using Polymer Concrete for Portland Cement Concrete Airfield Pavement Repair—An Experimental Application of Noi Bai International Airport of Vietnam

After long and effective exploitation time, the portland cement concrete (PCC) pavement, or rigid pavement area of Noi Bai International Airport (NIA) has been deteriorated, leading to the appearance of pavement distresses. Consequently, the maintenance activities have been intensively conducted for ensuring the safety and smooth conditions for airplane movements on airfield system. However, under the high dense air traffic conditions, strict regulations of activities including maintenance works on airfield area, and very high quality for repaired pavement area, there are lots of difficulties and specific requirements raising for maintenance work in practice. The paper presents the status of air transport development, PCC airfield pavement condition, typical distresses, causes analysis, and finally present primary result of pilot application of new material for PCC airfield pavement treatment of NIA.

Pham Huy Khang, Nguyen Trong Hiep

Strength, Water Porosity and the Shrinkage of Self-Compacting Concrete in Hot Climate

This paper presents an experimental program for assessing several physical and mechanical properties of self-compacting concrete (SCC) that was manufactured and cured in hot climate conditions. Two SCC mixtures were tested incorporating either OPC or slag cement. The slump-flow which was maintained constant whatever the initial temperature to be 20 or 50 °C by the addition of water at the end of mixing. SCC properties such as compressive strength, water porosity and shrinkage were determined on the cylindrical specimens of 11 × 22 cm. The obtained results on SCC mixed in hot temperature (50 °C) and relative to the control mixture (20 °C) showed that (i) concrete compressive strength is not altered with increasing the initial temperature, (ii) SCC with OPC/filler/slag presents better performances than OPC/filler based SCC.

Vinh An Le, Ngoc Tan Nguyen, Xuan Cay Bui, Tuan Anh Bui

The Influence of Aggregate Size and Blocking Materials to the Water Infiltration Rates of Pervious Concrete

The purpose of this study is to identify the differences in porosity and infiltration rates when the mixing ratio of aggregates is different and to present the mixing ratio satisfying the compressive strength requirement specified in Korean standard for sidewalks, bicycle roads and other civil facilities without consider the traffic loads. Three mix ratios were suggested by considering various aggregate sizes and three cylinders were made for each ratio. The porosities of those cylinders were evaluated through compression and water infiltration rate test, measuring the weight of specimens in underwater and analysis of pictured Computed Tomography (CT) image. Experiments have shown that it is best to mix 50% for 5–10 mm aggregates, 45% for 2–5 mm aggregates and 5% for sand in terms of strength and infiltration rates. In addition, as the proportion of fine aggregates increased, the porosity and infiltration rates decreased. Moreover, the effectiveness of maintenance method was also examined in this study.

Hung Viet Vu, Soo Yeon Seo

Research on the Reinforcement of Basalt Soil Using Natural Pozzolan, Cement, and Lime for Building Rural Roads in Dak Nong Province, Vietnam

The paper presents the utilization of local natural pozzolan in combination with cement and lime to reinforce local basalt soil for building rural road structure in Dak Nong province. The research results showed that it is necessary to use lime in combination with cement and pozzolan for soil reinforcement. With the cement content ranging from 0 to 12% and 4% lime, the compressive strength of the reinforced soil reached the maximum value when the pozzolan content was 10%. The test results of a mixture of 10% pozzolan, 4% cement, and 4% lime indicated that the mechanical parameters (compressive strength, tensile strength, and elastic modulus) increase rapidly in the first 28 days and tends to grow slowly after 28 days. Additionally, the research results also found that the strength properties of reinforced soil after submerging in water insignificantly decreased.

Truong Son Bui, Ba Thao Vu, Thi Nu Nguyen, Thanh Duong Nguyen

Pavement and Construction Management


Evaluation and Recommendation for Management and Maintenance Specification of Rural Bridge in Vietnam

Vietnam area is more than 320,000 km2 and three—forth are mountainous area. In order to connect people between mountainous areas, Vietnamese Government has been investing fund for building and improving the infrastructure for these areas. Due to the mountainous geography, geotechnical and hydraulic conditions, the road, and bridge were designed at low level (A, B, C and D level according to TCVN 10380:2014 of Vietnamese specification. However, during the service life of those infrastructure system, there is a lack of management and maintenance specification for those road and bridge in the rural area. In this paper, the existing specification of exploitation and maintenance will be evaluated and the suggestion for exploitation and maintenance specification of rural bridge will be recommended.

Xuan Tung Nguyen, Tuan Dung Pham

Low Traffic Road Pavement Deterioration in Vietnam

Low traffic road understood as district and commune roads take 82.61% of total road network and 94.4% local road network length. Road data bank for low traffic road were developed during Rural Transport Project No. 3 for pilot provinces namely VPROMPs includes major data of pavement age, traffic range, and condition of pavement, of shoulder, and of drainage. Roughness was collected in one pilot province using MERLIN equipment. The paper discusses on the low traffic road pavement deterioration using data from VPROMPs

Thi Kim Dang Tran

Numerical Analysis of the Influence of Shield-Gap Pressure on the Volume Loss and Surface Settlement of the TBM Tunneling

Safely tunneling in the urban area by Tunnel Boring Machine (TBM) is assuring by maintaining the front face pressure and a suitable grout backfilling method to minimize the volume loss due mainly to the effects of over cutting and lining assembling inside the shield. However, the phenomenon is a three dimensional and complex interaction problem which seems could be solved only by a numerical approach. This paper presents a simplified 2D numerical model to analysis the effects of the balanced and compensated pressures of TBM to the volume loss and surface settlement. The numerical simulation was applied for the typical cross section of the Ho Chi Minh metro Line 1 and the results were confronted to the monitoring data during the construction. The simple numerical assessment allows a deeper understanding of the complex interaction between the face pressure, backfill grout injection pressure and the shield gap pressure and consequently the surface settlement.

Thach Bich Nguyen, Thanh Le Le, Phuong Duy Nguyen

Developing the Success Index of Public-Private Partnership Transportation Projects in Vietnam

Like other construction projects, project success has always been the ultimate goal in Public-Private Partnership projects. However, it will be difficult for private and public sectors to define whether their projects have been successful or not if the success index is not considered. Thus, this study aims to construct a success indicator for Public-Private Partnership transportation projects in Vietnam via a case study. 15 success criteria were identified from a literature review and expert interview. Using factor analysis, four principal factors were grouped based on 15 identified success criteria, namely project objectives, reliable and quality service, effective output, and project management. Finally, the fuzzy synthetic evaluation (FSE) method computed the success index for Rach Mieu Bridge project is 4.15 which is considered as highly successful. This study might provide decision-makers with a quantitative tool to make the decision for implementing PPP projects effectively and assuring sustainable infrastructure development in Vietnam.

Thac Quang Nguyen, Dinh Thuc Le, Duy Liem Nguyen

River, Coastal, Environmental and Water Resources Engineering


Applicability of Duct-Type Devices to Erosion Tests of Sediments

Methods of determining sedimentary bed shear stress in duct-type erosion testing devices were investigated by a series of erosion threshold tests. Results show that the smooth-wall assumption method under-estimates the actual shear stress. The Colebrook equation method can be applied to estimate the shear stress provided a suitable overall roughness height is applied. The side-wall correction method over-estimates the actual shear stresses for rough samples, but accurately estimates the shear stress for relatively smooth samples. A modified side-wall correction method proposed in this study accurately estimates the shear stress for both rough and smooth samples. It provides a universal approach to determining bed shear stress on sediment samples for different duct-type erosion testing devices.

Dake Chen, Jinhai Zheng, Chi Zhang, Yigang Wang, Yuan Li

Experimental Measurements of Wave Transformation on Coral Reefs

Extensive laboratory experiments were carried out to investigate the wave transformation on coral reefs in the East Sea of Vietnam. These coral reefs usually have very high fore-reef slopes and followed by a wide coral platform which is very different from gently-sloping beaches. The process takes place in two parts including from deep water to the reef edge and from the edge to the submerged reefs. The experiments were designed into measure wave spectrum, broken waveforms, and wave attenuation on the shallow reef part. Remarkably, extreme wave scenarios were generated to confirms the broadening of wave spectrum and the appearance of low-frequency waves during propagation. The wave spectrum shape in the platform is similar to those after undergoing repeated wave break, changing from sharp to obtuse.

Pham Thi Thuy, Le Hai Trung, Nguyen Manh Linh

Investigation the Influence of Cua Tien Urban Area on Flood Drainage Capacity of Vinh River, Vinh City, Nghe an Province by Numerical Model

Cua Tien urban area is located in Vinh riverside, Vinh City, Nghe An province. The New urban area was constructed in flood plain of Vinh river may reduce the flood drainage capacity. This research used numerical model to investigate the flood distribution, water depth change and current speed during history flood based on the bathymetries measured in May 2005 and November 2019 in the Vinh river. The results show that, the highest water depth before and after construction of Cua Tien urban area increased only 7.5 cm and the largest current speed reached to 1.58 m/s. These results indicated that the construction of Cua Tien urban area only causes a very small impact on the increasing of water level in upstream and does not change the flood drainage capacity of Vinh River in the rainy season.

Nguyen Viet Thanh, Hoang Nam Binh, Bui Vinh Phuc

Field Measurement of Wave Overtopping Frequency and Intensity at Sea Dike Using Shore-Based Video Images

A tentative flied measurement of wave overtopping over a rubble mound sea dike using video images was carried out during two storms in the summer of 2018 at Rizhao Coast, Shandong Province, China. A shore-based video monitoring system was mounted at the top of a lighthouse behind the sea dike to collect coastal images with a sample frequency of 1 Hz in the beginning 10 min of each hour during daylight. Image georectification, describing the transformation from the pixel coordinates to world coordinates, was calibrated following the two-step calibration methodology. The number, location, width and duration of overtopping events were extracted in the rectified time-stack images and the process of extraction was performed automatically using 150 virtual pixel sensors distributed along the sea dike crest. Finally, a total of 7120 individual overtopping events were detected. Temporal and spatial variations of overtopping intensity, defined as the product of width and duration to estimate the dimension of an individual overtopping event, were analyzed. Using the EurOtop 2018 and JTS 145-2015 formulas, overtopping volume was also calculated based on the measured offshore wave parameters and tidal level at the nearby Rizhao ocean station. The correlation coefficient between the calculated results and the observation was 0.66 and 0.64, respectively. During storm AMPIL, the alongshore variation of overtopping intensity was revealed to be dominated by the alongshore variation of surf zone width. While during the moderate storm JONGDARI, it was affected by the surrounding coastal structures. The present study suggests the feasibility of shore-based video monitoring technique to capture the main features of wave overtopping at coastal dikes, providing new possibilities to monitor wave overtopping in the field and to improve our calculation method and tools.

Shanhang Chi, Chi Zhang, Zhubin Cao, Jinhai Zheng

Designing the Paradigm that Treats the Wastewater of Concrete Batching Plants

The paper presents the technological scheme to treat wastewater of concrete batching plants, design calculation the paradigm with 1:5 scale. Using physical and chemical technology combined biology, wastewater goes through oil separating tanks, clarifiers, mixing tanks, contact tanks to remove grease, insoluble substances, suspensions, etc. The performance results show stable TSS (Turbidity and Suspended Solids) performance, COD (Chemical Oxidation Demand), BOD5 (Biological Oxygen Demand) processing and other pollution indicators are standard follow National Technical Regulation on Industrial Wastewater, coded QCVN 40: 2011/BTNMT. This proves that the model works well and perfectly suitable to propose the construction of a treatment system for wastewater from concrete mixing stations in the future.

Vu Phuong Thao

Research on Automated Monitoring to Access the Port Structure Inspection in Operating Offloading Vessel Test

Nowadays, the fleet structure has a significant change in deadweight, size and age in the world and in Vietnam. This significantly affects port infrastructure and equipment. The policy of the Ministry of Transport, the Vietnam Maritime Administration and relevant state management agencies shall consider, create conditions and allow ports to receive larger ships than the designed (large deadweight vessels are reduced) to improve and develop sustainable the capacity of Vietnamese seaports. In order to implement this policy, the port structure assessment, evaluation of stability conditions and transposition of the must be conducted fully and accurately. In particular, the automatic monitoring of the stability of the port during the test operation process take on large vessel offloading is very important and necessary. The paper goes into GPS/RTK application research of this automatic monitoring work in the port structure inspection.

Duong Thi Bach Nguyen, Van Hien Le, Duc Cong Tran

Sand-Spit Evolution and Inlet Dynamics Derived from Satellite Images: A Case Study for Tien Chau Inlet, Vietnam

The Tien Chau inlet, where the Ky Lo river discharges into the southern part of Xuan Dai Bay, belongs to the An Ninh Dong ward, Tuy An district. This place has been a shelter area for over 400 vessels of Tuy An and other districts of Phu Yen province. The inlet is frequently accreted and shifted, causing difficult and unsafe navigation of vessels on their routes to seek for shelter and sell fishing products. This paper presents the results of a research on the evolution patterns of a sand-spit to the north of Tien Chau inlet as well as the analysis on the linkage between river dynamic factors to the past evolutions of the sand-spit and the inlet, using collected Landsat images from 1988 to 2019 and Sentinel images from 2016 to 2020. The results highlight strong relationships between geometries of both the Tien Chau inlet and the northern sand-spit, and the peak discharge Qmax of the Ky Lo river.

Tran Thanh Tung, Nguyen Quang Chien, Do Xuan Tinh

Wave Energy Assessment Along Chinese Coasts Based on a 40-Year Hindcast

A wave database has been built over the period of 1979–2018 using the third-generation wave model TOMAWAC. This database can provide wave parameters with high spatial (1 km along Chinese coast) and temporal (1 h) resolutions, which can be used to estimate wave power potential along Chinese coast areas. To better use of wave energy, appropriate wave energy collection devices and collection points need to be determined. The working costs of three types of wave energy collection devices: AquaBuOY, Pelamis, and Wave Dragon, are analyzed based on the wave energy density, annual average coefficient of variation, and extreme wave event. The most promising areas of wave energy harvesting are located at the southern part of the East China Sea and the northern part of the South China Sea near Taiwan Island. In addition, the Pelamis device is most suitable for the collection of wave energy in China offshore than the AquaBuOY and Wave Dragon.

Jiali Xu, Jian Shi, Chi Zhang

A Framework to Develop Intensity-Duration-Frequency Curves for Ungauged Sites in Vietnam: The Case of Hoa Binh Province

The Intensity-Duration-Frequency (IDF) curves play especially important role in water resources engineering or design of infrastructure. It is widely applied to quantify the probability of occurrence of extreme precipitation events. The IDF curves often based on the long-term historical precipitation observation at high spatial temporal resolution. However, it is difficult to gather the long records of short duration precipitation in most areas of developing countries like Vietnam. It is note-worthy that the satellite-based or reanalysis precipitation products are recently becoming available, providing the high-resolution estimations at regional or even global scales. Therefore, this study provides a framework to develop IDF curves based on the different precipitation data for ungauged sites in Vietnam and taking Hoa Binh province as a pilot. The products of satellite-based and reanalysis precipitation are investigated and evaluated. More importantly, the station-based precipitation is used to evaluate and correct the different products. The results illustrate an agreement, to a good extent, of IDF curves derived from the considered precipitation products.

Noi Thi Doan, Thanh Tien Nguyen, Son Hoang Nguyen

Assessment of Hydrodynamic Regime and Inundation Mode After Construction of Hydraulic Project in Quang Ngai Province

Before the construction of any hydraulic project, the flow regime should be ensured to have little effect on the banks and on the civil constructions downstream. From the data of nearby projects, the authors have carried out the numerical simulation of a low-head dam project on Tra Khuc river using the International River Interface Cooperative (IRIC). The calibration is conducted by comparing the simulation of the river in its natural state with actual measurement from surrounding stations and the results are shown to be acceptable. The model is tested on several scenarios of flooding, with a combined spillway (piano-key weir and gated ones) or without the structure. It is shown that the flow regime behind the piano key is very complicated, however, after a certain distance, flow streams of various directions and velocities combine into a considerably stable and uniform stream. Furthermore, compared to the natural state of the river, the water level after the construction of the low-head dam does not rise significantly and at the same time, the task of increasing the upstream water level is fulfilled.

Nguyen Phuong Dung, Nguyen Thai Binh, Tran Thi Hoai Phuong

River Water Level Prediction Based on Deep Learning: Case Study on the Geum River, South Korea

At present, deep learning models have been widely applied in many studies related to the field of water resource management. In this study, several deep learning neural network models based on the Gated Recurrent Unit (GRU) architectures have been applied to the river water level prediction for a short-time period, from one hour to nine hours ahead. The input data of these models are hourly water levels which are observed at four hydrological stations on the Geum River, South Korea. Though the model does not require data such as topography, land cover, or precipitation data, the forecasted results indicate significant stability and performance. Compared to the observed water level data, the correlation coefficient NSE (Nash-Sutcliffe efficiency) is up to more than 99% in the case of a 1-hour forecast. The results of this study prove the potential of deep learning models in predicting water level and applicable to other river basins.

Xuan-Hien Le, Sungho Jung, Minho Yeon, Giha Lee

Validation of Some Empirical Equations to Estimate Bridge Abutment Scour in Non-cohesive Soil Using Field Data

The scour under the bridge can cause very serious economic and social damages. The prediction of the maximum scour depth at the abutment is very important when assessing and warning the safety of the bridge. Recently, there have been many equations to predict local scour depth at bridge abutments. Most of them have been developed based on laboratory data. Validation of these equations using field data is necessary to make recommendations for the proper application of these equations. In this article, four design equations for the estimation of the equilibrium maximum scour depth at an abutment in non-cohesive soil were selected for validation by using field data in the United States. Based on the results of this analysis would allow to promote the highly accurate design of the abutment foundation to reduce construction and maintenance costs.

Huy Quang Mai, Phong Dang Nguyen, Tuan Anh Tong

Transportation in General


A Neural Network Approach for Solving Traffic-Flow Forecasting Based on the Historical Voyage Datasets: A Case Study on Hai Phong Roads

Traffic congestion is one of the most common issues in big cities in the world. Therefore, traffic warning and forecasting always play a vital role for traffic participants. Currently, in Vietnam, drivers only know the information and level of congestion through experience and some traffic information channels. Meanwhile, the journey data of vehicles participating in traffic has been stored and transmitted to a management center continuously. These data play an integral part but they are not fully exploited to provide useful information for road users such as average velocity information at each time interval or at each road. In this paper, the authors propose an approach to address this problem. There are two main steps: the first one is to convert raw data to a time series dataset that can provide moving status on each road section. The next step is to use neural networks to make a forecast of average velocity on each road at different times. Experimental results with data on Le Hong Phong and Nguyen Binh Khiem streets (Ngo Quyen District, Hai Phong City, Vietnam) show that the proposed approach gives feasible results that can be applied to many different areas in Vietnam.

Quang Hoc Tran, Van Truong VU, Quang LE, Thi Lan Huong HO, Van Hien LE

ICD Concept: An Overview of the Development from an Original Purpose to a Global Viewpoint

The shortage of space, congestions in seaports and inland connectivity have primarily resulted in establishment of original ICDs as nodes in a multimodal transport. Progressively, the concept of ICD has been required to develop through new generations due to international logistics and global supply chain. This article focuses on analysing the development of ICD from its initial purpose to broader perspectives via numerous studies in literature. Moreover, the classification of ICDs based on relative distance from a seaport including near ICD (below 150 km), middle ICD (from 150 to 500 km) and distant ICD (above 500 km) to be appropriate for intermodal transports as an outcome of this research Finally, a combination of these types of ICDs could be an alternative solution for their distributions in logistics transport.

Vu Quoc Hung, Vu Minh Tuan, Nguyen Viet Phuong

Fatigue Life Evaluation of Bogie Frame of Railway Covered Goods Wagons Using a Combined FEA/MDS Approach

In this study, a combined method of the finite element analysis (FEA) and the multi-body dynamic simulation (MDS) was proposed to estimate the fatigue life of bogie frame of railway covered goods wagons. The multi-body dynamic (MBD) model of the wagon was built with the bogie frame body could be converted from the modal neutral file of FE model, which is obtained by using the ANSYS–ADAMS interface feature. The dynamic loads were obtained from the results of the MDS before being served as inputs in the structural dynamic analysis of bogie frame. From the results of structural dynamic analysis, the stress histories were determined and then used in the fatigue life analysis. The fatigue analysis model of the bogie frame was established based on the stress-life method. In addition, the effects of percentage probability of survival and reduction coefficient of material strength of were considered. The fatigue life of the bogie frame was estimated, then evaluated according to QCVN 87:2015/BGTVT.

Tuan Duc Do, Dat Tuan Vu, Toan Duc Nguyen, Tu Anh Do

Maximum Likelihood Estimation Method for Speed Prediction of Vehicles in Mixed Traffic Condition

Overall objective of this study is to develop a traffic simulation model to realistically present the traffic flow in mixed traffic conditions. The simulation model can be used as applications in the fields of traffic operation and safety. This paper as a stage of the overall study presents a method to estimate speed of vehicles in mixed traffic condition in Ha Noi, Viet Nam. Several straight street segments in Ha Noi, Viet Nam were selected for observation. The traffic data includes vehicle types, speed that were extracted by using an image processing tool and other necessary data such as geometric conditions of streets. The result shows that there is a significant difference between free-flow speed of motorbikes and cars in different geometric conditions of the streets. The Maximum Likelihood Estimation method was used to develop a model for speed prediction of vehicles that takes into account types of vehicles and street geometric conditions. A Monte Carlo simulation method was also used to verify the developed speed model. It is concluded that the model can realistically represent the speed behavior of vehicles in the mixed traffic condition.

Dang Minh Tan, Nguyen Hoang Tung, Bui Xuan Cay

Transportation Development Strategy in Coordinating with Urban Dynamics: Case Study in Hanoi

The future cities will not be the same like today - cities will and have to change. For the urban development it requires on the one hand to consider and identify needs of the future and on the other hand to exploit upcoming opportunities. New social challenges owing to climate change, urbanization, globalization but also cultural and technical developments impose great challenges for city planners. Technical developments and new innovative systems enable new directions and changes of conventional considerations. These ongoing developments will also substantially increase the demands of future solutions in the urban transport, mobility and logistics environment. Therefore, new, innovative and future-oriented concepts are essential for sustainable, environmentally friendly and efficient transport, mobility and logistics. They will and have to become much more an integrated, networked and shaping component of modern urban development. The paper covers key issues, aiming at introducing the strategy for Hanoi sustainable development as the orientation for integrating urban dynamics and transportation development.

Le Thu Huyen
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