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About this book

This book discusses advanced technologies for applications in renewable energy and power systems. The topics covered include neural network applications in power electronics, deep learning applications in power systems, design and simulation of multilevel inverters, solid state transformers, neural network applications for fault detection in power electronics, etc. The book also discusses the important role of artificial intelligence in power systems, and machine learning for renewable energy. This book will be of interest to researchers, professionals, and technocrats looking at power systems, power distribution, and grid operations.

Table of Contents

Frontmatter

Renewable Energy and Economic Dispatch Integration Within the Honduras Electricity Market

Abstract
A critical aspect of power systems is the generation cost of plants in producing the electrical energy required by consumers, this cost will be finally reflected in the monthly consumption bill. A nonoptimal dispatch will produce high tariffs while a well-designed dispatch will result in the lowest generation costs and, therefore, the lowest possible tariffs. The purpose of the present study is precisely to design a strategy to find the generation plan that produces the lowest possible costs and then make a comparison between an optimal economic dispatch that considers generation and transmission without energy contracts versus the dispatch that includes the 2017 energy purchase contracts signed by the state of Honduras. To achieve this goal, this study formulates the cost equation, capacity, and transmission line constraints, and then applies the nonlinear programming techniques to solve it.
Pablo Meraz, Wilfredo C. Flores, Harold R. Chamorro, Jacobo Aguillon-Garcia, Alireza Soroudi, Francisco Gonzalez-Longatt, Vijay K. Sood, Wilmar Martinez

Converter/Inverter Topologies for Standalone and Grid-Connected PV Systems

Abstract
Selection of a suitable power electronic converter to meet the desired outcome for any sort of application is a major step. In the case of solar photovoltaic (PV) systems, the right selection of a converter has a significant impact on its efficiency. Over the past few decades, scholars have carried out a great deal of analysis to satisfy load specifications. The electronic power converters produced vary from several milliwatts to megawatts of power depending on requirements. A thorough analysis of these topologies is addressed considering the essential role of converter topologies in standalone and grid-based solar systems in improving efficiency of output power. In this paper, the authors examined control strategies of the converters, designs considered for the development of maximum power under various irradiation conditions, comparative study of various converter and inverter topologies. The comparative study presented should serve as a reference for choosing the precise power converter for a given set of PV system requirements.
Sudhakar Babu Thanikanti, Dalia Yousri, Dalia Allam, M. B. Etebia, Karthik Balasubramanian

Mission Profile Oriented Reliability Evaluation of Grid-Connected PV Inverter Considering Panel Degradation and Uncertainties at Indian Location

Abstract
Solar PV energy system has the ability to become the best alternative source of renewable energy in the nearby future and will contribute significantly to the growing demand of electricity. Recent advancements in the PV system technologies lead to increase in their grid penetrations. Nevertheless, to enable the large grid penetrations, several technological and economic issues still need to be addressed. Among that the reliability of PV inverter is a major concern. Environmental factors like mission profile (solar irradiance, ambient temperature), panel degradation affect the reliability performance of PV inverter. In this chapter, reliability evaluation of PV inverter considering mission profile, panel degradation, and uncertainties is proposed. A test case of 3-kW single-phase grid-connected PV inverter is considered. Real-time mission profile data for one year, panel degradation rate at India location is considered. Two-parameter Weibull distribution based reliability evaluation is carried out, both component-level and system-level PV inverter reliabilities are analyzed. Results reveal that mission profile, panel degradation rate, and uncertainties significantly impact the reliability performance of PV inverter.
Sainadh Singh Kshatri, Javed Dhillon, Sachin Mishra

Performance Analysis of PI and PR Controller for a Single-Phase PV Grid System with Effective Active and Reactive Power Compensation

Abstract
Nowadays, single-phase PV grid system and its controlling methods to regulate the continuous changes in operational requirements and deregulation problems are the need of the hour to be addressed effectively. In addition to that, the distribution energy systems play an important role in maintaining the power system reliability and stability in distribution domain. This paper targets the effects of controlling active and reactive power PV grid system at various load conditions. In order to validate the proposed concept, the chosen PV grid system is controlled by different current regulated controllers such as conventional PI controller and PR controller in MATLAB Simulink environment and comparative analysis has been carried out. The obtained results prove that proposed PR controller provides faster compensation to the PV grid system)
Srikanth Sattenapalli, V. Joshi Manohar

Design and Analysis of Fifth-Order Bi-Directional Charger with Vehicle to Grid Application

Abstract
In this chapter, a fifth-order Bidirectional converter configuration with low-current ripple on either sides, as well as good voltage conversion range having three switches is used for vehicle-to-grid (V2G) application. State-space modeling techniques (SSMT) and discrete-time modeling techniques (DTMT) are used for finding the stability and robustness of the converter for charging and discharging operations with time-domain analysis. Direct digital design method (DDDM) is used for controller design and digital compensators are designed. The design controller simulated on PSIM simulator and steady-state and dynamic performance evaluation were carried out to verify current and voltage ripple for sudden changes in supply or load test to check battery voltage regulation and stability.
Ashish Kumar Singhal, Narendra S. Beniwal, Rajesh Kumar

Photovoltaic Inverter Model in Simulink

Abstract
This chapter introduces the modeling of the power inverter of the photovoltaic system. The modeling step considered the first step of the control, where a detailed Simulink model has been introduced. Mainly, the control point is summarized as the tuning of the PI controller, where the Simulink introduces many types of the PI controller. Through this model, many aspects have been studied such as the power efficiency, total harmonic distortion, and the thermal performance of the power inverter. This model has been tested in many categories of the loads in order to ensure the accuracy of the built one.
Mostafa Al-Gabalawy

Smart Power Management System for Charging Plug-in Hybrid/Electric Vehicles Using Solar PV for Software Technology Park

Abstract
E-vehicle technology will bear future transport demand in rural and urban sectors. The design and development of a vehicle for the respective application and corresponding charging devices are on the cards. Charging systems for mass transport will be highly challenging while involving renewable energy as a source. This study evolves the idea of setting up plug-in charging stations for hybrid & electric Vehicles at software parks in India powered by the solar photovoltaic (PV) system. The methodology ascertains the use of parking lot space available around the building for solar PV installation. Henceforth, this study aims to carry out MATLAB Simulink simulation to understand the power generation capability at Chennai, India. The results of the simulation discuss the Smart Power management strategies by including micro-controllers for the charging station, which help in deciding the appropriate charging scheme for the vehicles. The simulation studies report on the amount of energy from the PV system that would be required to be able to meet the power requirement of the charging station for a specific case study. Also, discussion on the number of PV modules necessary, configuration of their installation, the number of batteries required for energy storage along with an estimate for the cost of installation of the whole system are mentioned.
Kartik Virmani, Y. Raja Sekhar, Akshat H. Mutta, Tarun Sharma, Naushad Ali

Enhancement of IEEE 802.11 Based Network Performance Using Combined Optimization of Parameters for Smart Grid Network

Abstract
Wireless communication is the most resourceful invention of contemporaneous era. Communication standards are designed and engineered on the basis of layered methodology in a vertical hierarchical method. Communication standards and technologies are integral part of smart grid networks such as home, neighborhood and wide area network. These network layers use various communication standards. In this paper, IEEE 802.11 standard is considered. In the network protocol stack of IEEEE 802.11, each layer is envisioned to serve a particular functionality in collaboration with all other layers. Therefore, various functions such as transmission features, error and flow control, sequencing of data packets, synchronization, routing of data, framing, congestion control, application specific services etc. are combined by interfacing between different network layers for execution of various protocols. The primitive layered approach can be replaced by cross layer or joint optimization method using combined optimization of layers. In this approach, synergy of various layers is explored for performance enhancement. This paper includes joint optimization of PHY and MAC layer parameters for IEEE 802.11 standard using simulation approach. In this paper, home area network of smart grid technology is taken into consideration for optimization. It is anticipated to serve as a fundamental research for various applications based on IEEE 802.11 communication standard.
Lipi Chhaya

Wind Turbines in Energy Conversion System: Types & Techniques

Abstract
This paper highlights on the design, operation and comparative analysis of different types of Wind Turbine system with respect to steady state and transient phenomenal activities under rapid wind speed variations. Here Type I which is fixed speed induction generator based and Type II which is DFIG based variable speed operated system are initially compared. In the next part Type III wind turbine system presented which uses DFIG; later it is compared with the Type IV WT system which uses Permanent Magnet Synchronous Generator. This chapter provides a comparative overview on existing wind power systems including an analytic discussion of key principles and innovations for wind turbines. In this energy conversion system various designs of wind turbines, pitch angle controlled based variable speed wind turbines governed by help of electronic power converters were preferred. This scope of dynamic simulation based study is implemented using MATLAB Simulink to convey the feasibility of the proposed Wind Turbine models.
Bibhu Prasad Ganthia, Subrat Kumar Barik, Byamakesh Nayak

Optimal Planning of Reactive Power in Power Transmission System Ensuring System Security Using Probabilistic-CSAJAYA

Abstract
This chapter introduces a techno-economic planning strategy of reactive power (VAr) in power transmission systems. This planning strategy primarily has been focused on reactive power planning (RPP) through operating cost minimization ensuring cost-oriented system security. The objective function (operating cost) is blended with four different components, viz., cost due to real power loss, VAr generation cost, additional reactive power compensation devices cost, and line charging cost. Flexible AC transmission system (FACTS) devices are installed at weak positions through different echelon to improve the system voltage stability. Authors also implement probabilistic hybridization of crow search algorithm (CSA) and JAYA to find out the optimal set of controlling parameters-related reactive power. Finally, a sharp and minute analysis of the results has been done to validate the proposed strategy. To understand the efficiency and efficacy, the code profiling and simulation has been rendered on IEEE 30 bus and UPSEB 75 bus test system.
Nihar Karmakar, Biplab Bhattacharyya

An Architectural and Control Overview of DC-Microgrid for Sustainable Remote Electrification

Abstract
The power crises in remote locations can be overcome by the deployment of DC microgrid (DcMG) that optimizes the efficiency of locally generated solar power while offering more reliable, safe, cost-effective architecture compare with AC microgrid (AcMG) as conventional power generation cannot meet the demand. There is a huge scope of rural implementation of DcMG in the Indian context due to high cost associated with grid expansion in these regions. An overview of different architecture, control, and potential of DcMG is addressed in this paper. Finally, it highlights the state of art architectures, control schemes, and recent trends in DcMG research.
Yugal Kishor, C. H. Kamesh Rao, R. N. Patel, Lalit Kumar Sahu
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