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2024 | Book

Shaping Automated Driving to Achieve Societal Mobility Needs

A Human-Systems Integration Approach


About this book

This edited book describes novel human-systems integration approaches to improve acceptance, safety, and comfort of automated vehicles. Each chapter analyses different aspects in the development of automated driving systems such as: assessing needs and opportunities of specific user populations i.e. elderly drivers and truck drivers; creating fluid human-systems interactions in the vehicle to answer specific driver needs; developing an automated driving tutoring application; and identifying benefits of including road infrastructure sensors to support automated driving predictability. A detailed description of the assessment of the above-described solutions in real-world situations is also included. Written by both researchers and professionals, this book offers timely and practice-oriented information concerning the development of automated driving systems that better adapt to the users’ needs.

Table of Contents

Shaping Automated Driving to Meet Societal Mobility Needs: The HADRIAN Project
Research and development of high levels of automated driving (AD) vehicles has received considerable attention in recent years. Thereby, for the time being, humans will remain actively involved to assure overall safety, whether as drivers, safety drivers, or tele-operators. This effectively shifts human tasks and responsibilities compared to manual driving. To make these shifts as safe and comfortable as possible and also reliable and predictable to use, the Horizon Europe research and innovation project HADRIAN (Holistic Approach for DRiver role IntegrAtioN) investigated and evaluated holistic, user-centered solutions. Thereby, the HADRIAN consortium envisioned a larger eco-structure from which it would be possible to reconceptualize what is part of driving automation and how it works. This meant to include parts of the roadside information infrastructure as well as to directly include the human driver in two specific ways: first by designing AD solutions that directly support their mobility needs and constraints. And secondly, by shaping the AD solutions that allow drivers to perform their new tasks and responsibilities more safely and comfortably. In this volume we describe how such holistic, user centered approach allows to derive better and more powerful solutions than those that are merely focused around the vehicle. For this we report the results of a series of innovations and their evaluations and demonstrations in the field. We conclude with how such approach also requires more tightly connected and inter-disciplinary team collaborations than are often found in current research and development organizations. In this first chapter we introduce the underlying human factors problems of currently available levels of AD and thereby motivate the starting point for the holistic user-centered approach and solutions that are then described to greater extent in the following chapters.
Peter Moertl, Bernhard Brandstaetter
User-Centered Design of Automated Driving to Meet European Mobility Needs
Automated Driving (AD) technologies are transforming the mobility sector, promising enhancements in efficiency and safety as well as user experience tailored to diverse user needs. As the sector moves toward a more automated ecosystem, it's essential to recognize the varied expectations and requirements of its users. Elderly drivers, for instance, have distinct needs, from functional transportation to the aesthetic pleasure of driving. As age-associated impairments affect their driving capabilities, Advanced Driving Assistance Systems (ADAS) present an opportunity to augment their safety and confidence. Truck drivers or business people on the other hand have different sets of needs and expectations. The article emphasizes the role of User-Centered Design (UCD) in the HADRIAN project with the intent to fulfill the promise of AD. Through the iterative creation of personas, like Harold, representing the elderly, Sven, the seasoned truck driver, and Florence, the business woman, the project brings to light the requirements for AD from a user-centric focus. Such personas, backed by comprehensive research and expert insights, steer in the HADRIAN project not only the design of interfaces but influence the development of AD systems ensuring broader acceptance and inclusivity. As the landscape of urbanization and digitalization expands, coupled with the emergence of smart cities and shared mobility solutions, the integration of AD with these broader trends becomes imperative. This will require a larger ecosystem that allows to steer vehicle development processes increasingly toward the specific needs of its user groups, moving away from one-for-all vehicles. In the HADRIAN project we envisioned such an ecosystem to be able to step beyond currently prevailing vehicle development approaches and show how with a user-focused approach, the future of transportation can become a harmonious blend of safety, efficiency, and inclusivity, resonating with the real-world needs of diverse commuters.
Carolin Zachäus, Sandra Trösterer, Cyril Marx, Peter Moertl
An Integrated Display of Fluid Human Systems Interactions
Supporting drivers in different levels of automation was one of the key goals in the HADRIAN project. Following the approach of a “fluid interface”, i.e., an interface that considers the state of the driver, vehicle, and environment, and which uses different modalities to support the driver, a human–machine interface (HMI) was developed and compared to a baseline HMI in a simulator study (n = 39). The integrated fluid HMI aimed at supporting the driver in automated driving in SAE level 2 and 3 by providing mode relevant information, supporting the driver during take-over requests by the system, and supporting engagement in non-driving related tasks when allowed. The fluid HMI consisted of several components (head-up display, LEDs, haptic icons, sound, tablet) and featured driver monitoring and adaptive tutoring. Study results did not show significant differences between the HMIs regarding subjective measures such as user experience, usability, acceptance, or safety feeling. The various factors contributing to this conclusion are thoroughly discussed. However, objective measures in terms of eye movements and a safety analysis including driving data showed a significant benefit of the integrated fluid HMI over the baseline HMI. Participants had better mode awareness and a higher safety score with the integrated fluid HMI. Furthermore, valuable insights on how to further improve the HMI could be gained during the study.
Sandra Trösterer, Cyril Marx, Nikolai Ebinger, Alexander Mirnig, Grega Jakus, Jaka Sodnik, Joseba Sarabia Lezamiz, Marios Sekadakis, Peter Moertl
Automated Driving Vehicle Functionality as Guardian Angel
The concept of the Guardian Angel system represents a pivotal advancement in vehicular safety, with a focus on enhancing the driving experience for individuals with diminished driving skills, particularly elderly drivers seeking to retain their mobility. This system functions as an unobtrusive co-pilot, intervening only when necessary, and empowering drivers to maintain control while ensuring their safety. By actively monitoring both the external environment and the interior of the vehicle, the Guardian Angel system adeptly identifies potential hazards and triggers interventions in response to imminent collisions, road departures, or internal factors such as driver distraction or drowsiness. Through a comprehensive array of Human–Machine Interfaces (HMIs), the Guardian Angel system communicates critical information to the driver, enhancing situational awareness and facilitating seamless cooperation between humans and machine. The holistic design ensures that the system operates unobtrusively in the background, engaging only in safety–critical situations and providing clear explanations for its interventions. This paper presents a detailed exposition of the Guardian Angel system's architecture, its controller design, and the diverse range of HMIs employed to relay information to the driver. The focus here lies in articulating the system's conceptual foundation, design principles, and the potential it holds for transforming the driving experience into a safer and more empowering endeavor for drivers of varying skills.
Joseba Sarabia, Sergio Diaz, Mauricio Marcano, Alexander Mirnig, Bharat Krishna Venkitachalam
Results of Two Demonstrations of Holistic Solutions for Automated Vehicles to Increase Usefulness and Safety
In this chapter we describe the conduct and results of two field-demonstration studies where the HADRIAN innovations were integrated into real vehicles and their effectiveness in terms of the human driver role were evaluated. In the first field-demonstration, twelve participants evaluated HADRIAN innovations that were intended to improve the safety and comfort of using automated driving at SAE L2 and L3. The study was performed in a passenger vehicle in an open road environment where participants compared interactions with a baseline automated vehicle with the HADRIAN innovations. In the second field-demonstration, ten participants experienced HADRIAN innovations that were intended to facilitate older drivers in a small passenger vehicle while driving on a test track in Spain. The results of both studies confirmed the key assumptions of the HADRIAN approach and identified limits and opportunities. We discuss these main lessons learned and conclude with what these findings tell us about the benefits and problems of adopting a holistic, user-centered approach for automated driving solutions.
Peter Moertl, Nikolai Ebinger, Cyril Marx, Selim Solmaz, Christoph Pilz, Joseba Sarabia, Sergio Diaz, Mauricio Sandoval, Marios Sekadakis, Srdan Letina
Shaping Automated Driving to Achieve Societal Mobility Needs
Peter Moertl
Bernhard Brandstaetter
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