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About this book

This book gives a thorough explanation of standardization, its processes, its life cycle, and its related organization on a national, regional and global level. The book provides readers with an insight in the interaction cycle between standardization organizations, government, industry, and consumers. The readers can gain a clear insight to standardization and innovation process, standards, and innovations life-cycle and the related organizations with all presented material in the field of information and communications technologies. The book introduces the reader to understand perpetual play of standards and innovation cycle, as the basis for the modern world.

Table of Contents

Frontmatter

Chapter 1. Introduction

Abstract
Technical standards are the founding pillars of the current human development era: information era. In this revolutionary era, Information and Communications Technology (ICT) did not only get developed, literally from scratch, but it also changed the functioning concept of the whole human society. Innovation in the ICT field is quite strong; however, the ICT development would not come as far in such a short time if innovations were progressing in small increments. Exactly this would have been the case if there were no standards. Only completely organized structures like standards, adopted by multilateral consensus, could give such a strong push to the innovations in the ICT field.
Dina Šimunić, Ivica Pavić

Chapter 2. Innovation and Standards Geography

Abstract
Even though it can appear to an independent observer, who is not deeply involved in the standardization and innovation processes that standards are contributing only to a very static, quite predictable and maybe even boring, part of the community life, the real situation is quite different. As it will be shown later in the book, the standardization is a perpetual, never-ending “refreshing” process and, at the same time, an indispensable basis for the innovations. The innovation is known to be an exciting process that brings a lot of benefit and enjoyable time to the inventors. If the innovation is of a transformational (radical) type, it brings also a lot of benefits to society. The chapter will lead us to understand the real relationship between standards and innovation, and that is a perpetual interactive and closed loop.
Dina Šimunić, Ivica Pavić

Chapter 3. Innovation and Standardization Stakeholders

Abstract
Stakeholders in the processes of innovation and standardization are interrelated due to the strong interrelation and perpetual interaction of both. Four main stakeholders are playing important roles in the innovation process: inventors, entrepreneurs, marketers, and users. The fifth stakeholder is a Standards Developing Organization, SDO. By taking part in the innovation process, the SDO avoids efforts in relation to a crucial standardization deliverable, given directly by an Intellectual Property Right owner. This also serves to avoid so-called island solutions. The stakeholders in the standardization process are discussed using an example of a supranational SDO: the European Union.
Dina Šimunić, Ivica Pavić

Chapter 4. Innovation and Technical Standardization Documents

Abstract
Digital technologies have radically changed the life of the average citizen over the last 50 years. These technologies also changed substantially our approach to innovation. Before the digital or, as it was sometimes called, the information era, products were more or less physical entities (goods). Nowadays, the product spectrum is much wider, including also nonphysical entities (e.g., software), processes, and services. Therefore, innovation processes also have changed substantially. Standards are open access documents with free participation of experts in standards development. Standards support regulations but also innovation. This chapter presents an overview of innovation and technical standardization documents.
Dina Šimunić, Ivica Pavić

Chapter 5. Innovation and Technical Standards Life Cycles

Abstract
Since the innovation and standard are mutually interconnected, their life cycles are interconnected, too. When one process stops (e.g., innovation), the other starts (standardization). The innovation life cycle starts with an idea about an innovation, be it a goods, service, or process improvement or a completely new product. The innovation consists of four important parts: the exploration, also called identification part; the design of the invention; the standardization to final prototype; and the implementation. Technical standard life cycle is based on the procedures of recognized Standards Body. The most important part of it is a consensus, after which follows an approval of that Standards Body. The Standards Body can operate on national, transnational, or global level. The chapter discusses innovation and standardization life cycles for the three global (international) and the three transnational European standard bodies.
Dina Šimunić, Ivica Pavić

Chapter 6. Global Innovation and Standards Circles

Abstract
This chapter discusses global innovation and standardization ecosystems, or Global Innovation Circle, GIC, and Global Standards Circle, GSC. GIC consists of the same stakeholders as in Chap. 3 but with an organization on the global level. Various numbers of stakeholders can be a basis for GIC. GIC’s most important configuration types are discussed. Within the GSC three biggest and the most recognized global standardization organizations are discussed: International Organization for Standardization, ISO; International Electrotechnical Commission, IEC; and International Telecommunication Union, ITU.
Dina Šimunić, Ivica Pavić

Chapter 7. Supranational Innovation and Standards Circles

Abstract
Supranational innovation circle (SIC) involves four main stakeholders on the supranational level: Research and Education Institutions, or Industry as a nurturing place of inventors; Governmental and private organizations funding, forming the entrepreneurial level; Marketing Organizations, as organized places of marketers and users; and – most often represented by – Users Organizations of a nongovernmental type. The participation of inventors in the standardization process makes SIC add one more stakeholder: Supranational Standardization Organization (SSO). If inventors are holders of Intellectual Property Right, SIC grows one more stakeholder: supranational IP organization. The four important configuration types of supranational innovation circle are discussed. Supranational Standards Body (SSB) has a central position in the supranational standard circle, consisting of the other three stakeholders: authority, industry, and societal stakeholders. The central position of enabling the standardization process explains why so much attention was given to explanation of SSB. The most important three supranational standards bodies on the European Standards Organizations (ESOs), CEN, CENELEC, and ETSI, are discussed.
Dina Šimunić, Ivica Pavić

Chapter 8. National Innovation and Standards Circles

Abstract
This chapter discusses the national innovation ecosystem via the defined National Innovation Circle, NIC. It also discusses the ecosystem of a National Standardization Organization via the defined National Standards Circle, NSC. NIC consists of the same stakeholders as in Chapters 3, 6, and 7, but with an organization on the national level. The most important configurations of NIC are discussed. Related to the NSC, different configurations, i.e., possibilities of organizations that are related to the aimed activities of a National Standards Body, NSB, are discussed, namely: passive, half-active, and active.
Dina Šimunić, Ivica Pavić

Backmatter

Additional information