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About this book

This book explores the application of breakthrough technologies to improve transportation performance. Transportation systems represent the “blood vessels” of a society, in which people and goods travel. They also influence people’s lives and affect the liveability and sustainability of our cities. The book shows how emergent technologies are able to monitor the condition of the structure in real time in order to schedule the right moment for maintenance activities an so reduce the disturbance to users.

This book is a valuable resource for those involved in research and development in this field. Part I discusses the context of transportation systems, highlighting the major issues and challenges, the importance of understating human factors that could affect the maintenance operations and the main goals in terms of safety standards. Part II focuses on process-oriented innovations in transportation systems; this section stresses the importance of including design parameters in the planning, offering a comparison between risk-based and condition-based maintenance and, lastly, showing applications of emergent technologies. Part III goes on to reflect on the technical-oriented innovations, discussing the importance of studying the physical phenomena that are behind transportation system failures and problems. It then introduces the general trend of collecting and analyzing big data using real-world cases to evaluate the positive and negative aspects of adopting extensive smart sensors for gathering information on the health of the assets. The last part (IV) explores cultural and behavioural changes, and new knowledge management methods, proposing novel forms of maintenance and vocational training, and introduces the need for radical new visions in transportation for managing unexpected events.

The continuous evolution of maintenance fields suggests that this compendium of “state-of-the-art” applications will not be the only one; the authors are planning a collection of cutting-edge examples of transportation systems that can assist researchers and practitioners as well as students in the process of understanding the complex and multidisciplinary environment of maintenance engineering applied to the transport sector.

Table of Contents


Understanding the Context


Chapter 1. Issues and Challenges in Transportation

Dynamics of society directly influence the demands for transportation. This paper elaborates this subject for the rail industry in the Netherlands. The paper explains how the market needs to continuously change the rail industry in the Netherlands and describes the current challenges for delivering world-class services for the rail operation.
Leo A. M. van Dongen, Lex Frunt, Mohammad Rajabalinejad

Chapter 2. Human Factors in Maintenance of Complex Transportation Systems

Maintenance is a major component of complex transportation systems safe and undisturbed operation. Despite technological advancements, maintenance tasks and procedures rely heavily on the performance of maintenance personnel. Alas, due to the complexity and often limited time to perform and complete maintenance tasks, as well as the usually difficult working conditions, maintenance personnel is prone to error. Attention to human factors can, therefore, strengthen the performance of the personnel and minimise the likelihood of maintenance related incidents and accidents. This chapter contributes to the discourse of maintenance considerations in transportation systems by concisely discussing the human factors involvement in the maintenance procedures, offering a systematic approach to address human factors in maintenance operations, and presenting the factors that affect the performance of maintenance personnel. We expect our view to be instrumental for all stakeholders involved with maintenance of transportation systems.
Miltos Kyriakidis, Sarbjeet Singh

Chapter 3. Systems Integration for Railways Advancement

Systems integration is a widely recognised challenge. Different industries need to upgrade their systems and integrate new technologies. For example, the European rail sector faces a huge challenge to upgrade its fragmented rail network and make it interoperable. The railways in the Netherlands, managed by different stakeholders, have also experienced integration challenges. The Dutch High-Speed Line (HSL), FYRA, ERTMS, and the introduction of new commuter trains are examples of these challenges. The article describes this principal challenge for the rail sector to properly upgrade its interoperable services and smoothly integrate new technologies into currently operating infrastructures by including the technical and non-technical factors.
Mohammad Rajabalinejad, Lex Frunt, Jeroen Klinkers, Leo A. M. van Dongen

Process Oriented Innovations


Chapter 4. Design for Maintenance of Infrastructures: The Lesson of the Morandi Bridge

Design for Maintenance (DfM) is an important aspect to consider during planning phases of an infrastructure. Despite its importance in ensuring, for instance, reliability and safety during all the life of an asset, last decades show how it has been often neglected in order to save time, money, materials, resources, etc. The chapter aims to navigate through the most important aspects to consider for a proper DfM. Firstly, an introduction on DfM and transportation infrastructures will be offered. Secondly, a reflection on a major accident occurred to a motorway infrastructure in Italy (Morandi bridge) caused by an apparent lack of maintenance and DfM will be proposed. Lastly, the chapter will discuss the findings and will look into future actions and researches to take in order to prevent disruptions with the adoption of valuable maintenance operations.
Alberto Martinetti, Sarbjeet Singh

Chapter 5. Risk- and Condition-Based Maintenance

Condition-based maintenance (CBM) strategies have increased in recognition over the last decades, and continues to do so with an internationalized market and cheaper sensor technology. CBM is in many cases the most effective approach to maintenance, considering risk, resource use, sustainability, safety and cost. Thus, CBM is often feasible both from a life-cycle cost (LCC) perspective and a life cycle analysis (LCA) perspective. In this chapter, we will study risk-based and condition-based maintenance from a maintenance and reliability perspective. After a brief background, we will discuss the necessary conditions for CBM to be a feasible strategy for optimized usage of equipment. On the operational level, CBM can be on schedule, on request or on a continuous monitoring basis. Thus, the technologies used for CBM can broadly be divided into continuous monitoring, which often is simply called condition monitoring, and into non-destructive testing (NDT), for periodic inspections. Therefore, two sections are dedicated to condition monitoring and NDT. Additional techniques for CBM and risk assessment will be discussed in the section thereafter. Lastly, we will look briefly into the continuously growing topic of prognostics.
Christer Stenström, Sarbjeet Singh

Chapter 6. Big Data Analytics for Maintaining Transportation Systems

Big Data Analytics (BDA) is becoming a research focus in transportation systems, which can be seen from many projects within the world. By using sensor and Internet of Things (IoT) technology in transportation system, huge amount of data is been generated from different sources. This data can be integrated, analyzed and visualized for efficient and effective decision-making for maintaining transportation systems. The key challenges that exist in managing Big Data are the designing of the systems, which would be able to handle huge amount of data efficiently and effectively and to filter the most significant information from all the collected data. This chapter will draw attention towards the present scenario and future projections of big data in transportation systems. It also presents big data tools and techniques and then presents one brief case study of BDA in each type of transportation system. In this chapter, a broad overview of Big Data definitions, its history, present, and future prospects are briefed. Several tools and technologies especially for transportation are pointed out for maintaining transportation systems. At the end of the chapter, a definitive case studies on each transportation area is demonstrated.
Ravdeep Kour, Adithya Thaduri, Sarbjeet Singh, Alberto Martinetti

Smart Asset Transportation Management


Chapter 7. Introduction and Need for Maintenance in Transportation: A Way Towards Smart Maintenance

A smart technology can sense its environment and perform tasks through complex non-conventional reasoning. This leads to subjective and fashionable classifications of technologies as “smart” or “not smart”. Undoubtedly, technologies such as vehicle cruise controllers could have been considered as smart in the past but are now too conventional to be considered as such (Santacana and Rackliffe in Power and Energy, 41–48, 2010). A smart parking technology using RFID technology to check in and check out vehicles (Pala and Inanç in Smart parking applications using RFID technology. 2007 1st Annual RFID Eurasia, 2007) is now very conventional. Complex reasoning is subjective to evaluate, and a general requirement is that smart technology should be able to perform its task which is thought to require human intelligence.
Miguel Castaño Arranz

Chapter 8. Smart Asset Management or Smart Operation Management? The Netherlands Railways Case

Asset Management represents a key factor in the transportation sector, especially in the railway domain. The proper interaction between asset owner, user, asset manager and operator determines the success of the daily operations and of the long-term strategy as well. Through the years, this balance has been often neglected causing situations where the service was not reliable enough or not safe enough. In this context, maintenance operations play a significant role. The chapter introduces how smart asset management and smart operations management have been implemented in the last two decades within Netherlands Railways. First, an introduction on the company and on the methodology based on ISO 55000: 2014 Standard is offered. Second, an overview of the fleet management and development is discussed. Thirdly, a full reflection on the different levels of performance management is highlighted for underlining all the principles used for reaching short, medium and long-term strategy results. Lastly, the chapter will pinpoint the benefit of introducing dynamic maintenance planning and prognostics and health monitoring as future step to take in order to facilitate a continuous improvement.
Leo A. M. van Dongen, Lex Frunt, Alberto Martinetti

Chapter 9. Innovation Management in Outsourced Railway Maintenance: The Case of a Dutch Railway Service Provider

Despite a complex, fragmented and from origin conservative environment, railway service provider organizations in the Dutch railways are innovating at a high pace. Therefore, the Dutch railway sector is a rich environment for studying innovations. To understand how this is achieved, an innovation management framework is developed and used to analyze innovation factors in this context. Based on a literature review on conceptual frameworks for innovation management of the last five years, a holistic innovation management framework is constructed, using an inductive coding methodology. The holistic innovation management framework is used to analyze the case study organization, based on interviews and desk research. The analysis indicates that various market, organization, process, and product/service factors and their interaction contribute to a high pace of innovations. The coding methodology used in this study can be influenced by researcher’s bias. In addition, the selected documentation received from the case study may not be representative for the case study organization. The presented research shows that the Dutch railway sector is a sector which deserves further research to learn from their innovative maintenance practices on a more detailed process level. In addition, the presented framework is a step towards a holistic innovation management framework which can be used to analyze innovations on a sectoral level. The research results give practitioners insights on how to develop innovation management practices in the railway sector. This research presents an in-depth analysis on the innovation management practices that have been applied in the successful Dutch railway sector from the perspective of a railway service provider.
S. K. Wu, A. J. J. Braaksma, Leo A. M. van Dongen

Cultural Changes and Knowledge Management in Transportation


Chapter 10. Vocational Education and Training in Transportation Maintenance 4.0: A Note

Vocational Education and Training (VET) represents a key factor for the development of countries and society. Due to radical changes and new challenges in technology and in societal needs, VET has to re-think its position in the education field as well for better fitting within the new job requirements. The chapter will focus on the relations between VET and Maintenance 4.0 environments analysing opportunities with particular attention to works in transportation systems. First, the work will discuss the actual context in comparison with the past decades focusing on the European situation. Second, the main points of VET and Transportation Maintenance 4.0 will be pinpointed. After that, a reflection on how those concepts can be combined in transportation systems will be offered. Finally, discussion and conclusion will reflect on how to move forwards for taking advantages of VET on a long-term horizon.
Alberto Martinetti

Chapter 11. Knowledge Transfer

This chapter aims to showcase the knowledge transfer from research into practice taking aviation as the case study. Aviation is well-known for its matured safety management systems and it is frequently used as the exemplar of the successful application of safety management across aviation activities. The application of the research is presented with respect to the enhancement of investigation and monitoring of safety incidents, the support of evidence-based safety risk assessment and the mitigation actions. These applications follow on the research in on a persistent safety issue in air traffic management that of the unauthorised entry of aircraft into controlled and restricted airspace.
Elena Psyllou

Chapter 12. Assessing the Potential for Resilient Performance in Rolling Stock Maintenance: The Pitstop Case

Unexpected failures of physical assets are a primary operational risk to asset-intensive organisations. Managing these unexpected failures is essential for reliable performance. The main railway operator in the Netherlands expects more unexpected failures as a result of the introduction of new rolling stock in an already highly utilised railway system. One of the challenges of maintenance management is to determine if the current corrective maintenance system has the capabilities to cope with an increase of unexpected defects of rolling stock in the upcoming years or that further improvements are required. In the last decade, Resilience Engineering has emerged as a new paradigm in a number of high-risk sectors to detect and respond to unexpected events effectively. Attempts to apply this concept outside these sectors have so far been limited. The main purpose of this study is to explore the applicability of Resilience Engineering in the field of rolling stock maintenance by assessing the potential for resilient performance using an in-depth case study. A comparison between the characteristics of corrective maintenance and emergency healthcare showed that the studied contexts are highly comparable which suggests that the concept of Resilience Engineering may also apply to corrective maintenance of rolling stock. This study contributes to theory by replicating and adapting Resilience Engineering for corrective maintenance of rolling stock and provides maintenance practitioners guidance on how to measure current resilience and identify improvement areas.
Jan-Jaap Moerman, A. J. J. Braaksma, Leo A. M. van Dongen


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