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2023 | Book

Applications of Computation in Mechanical Engineering

Select Proceedings of 3rd International Conference on Computing in Mechanical Engineering (ICCME 2021)

Editors: Dean Vučinić, Vidya Chandran, Alam Md. Mahbub, C. B. Sobhan

Publisher: Springer Nature Singapore

Book Series : Lecture Notes in Mechanical Engineering

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About this book

This volume includes select peer reviewed proceedings from the 3rd International Conference on Computing in Mechanical Engineering (ICCME 2021) discussing the application of computer based simulations in mechanical and allied engineering disciplines. The book shows advanced applications of numerical techniques in different areas of mechanical engineering. The topics covered include numerical modelling, simulations and optimization best practices in various challenging domains like fluid dynamics, combustion in IC engines, heat transfer analysis, vibration damping and control, chemical and process engineering, mechanics of machining, nano fluidics and material science. This book will be a useful resource to students, researchers and engineers working on multidisciplinary engineering problems, specially focusing on mechanical engineering and applied mathematics issues, with hope that it will impact future developments in engineering disciplines and motivate advancements and innovations in technical sciences.

Table of Contents

Frontmatter
Conceptual Design of Zero-Emission Sailing Ship Renewable Energy Challenges
Abstract
The paper describes the conceptual design of the project: “Development of zero-emission passenger sailing ship”, as the breakthrough approach to use renewable energy sources (RES) for ship propulsion and other on-board operations. The project is co-financed by the European Union from the European Regional Development Operational Program “Competitiveness and Cohesion 2014–2020” and fully in line with the ongoing Horizon Europe Framework Programme for Green Maritime Transport. The electricity for the electric ship propulsion is stored in rechargeable batteries. The important research challenge is the recharging of batteries, applying the hybrid process of converting wind and solar energy using different technological solutions: propellers operating in the turbine mode as drive motors operate in generator mode, auxiliary hydrokinetic turbines, wind turbines, photovoltaic system, and connection to coastal power sources. These hybrid energy conversion options are promising, as they provide energy for the ship’s electrical propulsion motors and power all other on-board equipment. The project consortium is entirely Croatian consisting of shipbuilding industry members and academic partners, adopting a very “shipbuilding approach” by reusing the results from the already built sailing ship Klara, as a reference design with ICE drives, to design and build the new sailing ship LeDA with zero-emission propulsion. LeDA will be the full-scale prototype of a 3-masted cruising sailing ship for a maximum of 36 passengers, to be built in the Croatian shipyard Brodosplit, and expected to empower the Croatian shipbuilding industry with such new products and their commercialization for the world waterborne transportation market.
Željko Hederić, Dean Vučinić, Mislav Brlić, Mislav Bezovnik, Ivan Rutnik, Marko Cuković, Mario Čačić, Antonio Hmura, Dina Jukić, Miljenko Švarcmajer, Bojan Vučinić

Modeling and Simulation in Materials and Manufacturing

Frontmatter
Simulation Analysis of Composite Materials for Divergence Elimination
Abstract
The forward swept-wing aircraft is one of the most superior aircrafts in terms of both aerodynamics and structural configurations. This design has been consistently frustrated by the divergence problem. The divergence in the wing can be reduced by increasing the wing bending stiffness which in turn increases the weight of the wing. So, to accomplish both, composite materials are being employed in this analysis. The alteration of the fiber angle orientation enables the material to improve mechanical properties. This research has been conducted to analyze the buckling behavior of different materials with the various fiber angle orientation so that the material would be sufficient to alleviate divergence. A laminate of three different materials, carbon fiber, graphite epoxy and Kevlar epoxy for 20 different stacking sequences, each sequence consisting of 24 plies have been analyzed by using Fortran and Abaqus. The analysis results showed that the graphite epoxy has better mechanical property comparing to the other two materials, and it can be used for divergence elimination.
Kalaivanan, Ganesh Karthic, Vyas Jatinkumar Manubhai, N. P. Pavai, V. Aravinth, S. Poornachandran, Naveen Velmurugan
Effect of Fiber Drawing on Tensile Strength of UHMWPE Single Fibers: Simulation via Von Mises Stress Criterion
Abstract
Ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene (UHMWPE) is an exceedingly strong and lightweight polymer owing to its extremely long-chain molecules and a very high average molecular weight. Consequently, it is the material of choice for lightweight high-performance fibers. In this study, the tensile strength of single UHMWPE fibers, i.e., undrawn, drawn and Dyneema® SK75, has been determined experimentally as well as through simulation using finite element analysis (FEA) via von Mises stress criterion to study the effect of fiber drawing on tensile properties. The requisite material properties of UHMWPE were fed in the simulation software (SolidWorks and ANSYS), and the tensile properties were extracted using linear elastic isotropic model. The simulation results agree with the experimental results and illustrate that the percentage error between the simulated and experimentally determined results reduces with the extent of fiber drawing which can be ascribed to the better alignment and close packing of polymer chains during fiber drawing. This observation has been complemented by relative crystallinity through X-ray diffraction studies and also through morphological studies of the fiber specimens examined through scanning electron microscopy.
Shubhanker Singh, Vishal Das, D. N. Tripathi, N. Eswara Prasad
Prediction of In-Process Forces and Tool Durability in Stationary Shoulder Friction Stir Welding: A Process Modeling Approach
Abstract
The conventional friction stir welding (FSW) of aluminum alloys is reasonably matured and most of the transportation industries integrated FSW in their production lines. The novel stationary shoulder friction stir welding (SSFSW) is a sister process of FSW, in which only tool probe rotates and linearly translates along the original weld joint interface to form a weld seam under much lesser heat input and lower peak temperature. The spindle torque and traverse force on the tool during SSFSW of a topical AA7075-T6 is important for the prior estimation of tool fracture but rarely reported in literature. An absolute comparison is made here between the SSFSW and FSW under the identical welding conditions using a finite element-based process model. The computed 3D temperature field, thermal cycle, spindle torque, traverse force, and tool durability index are reported here, and the model is thoroughly validated with the independent experimental results.
Vikash Kumar, Buchibabu Vicharapu
Wire Arc Additive Manufacturing of ATI 718PLUS®: A Process Modeling Approach
Abstract
The wire arc additive manufacturing (WAAM) process is an emerging metal printing technique. The WAAM uses a typical arc welding power source for melting and deposition of metal wires as per the computer aided design model. The existing investigations highlight several critical issues in WAAM, which include deterioration of mechanical properties and excess distortion. These two problems can be addressed by a thorough understanding of the heat flow during the WAAM process. An attempt is made here for the development of a finite element-based 3D heat conduction process model for WAAM to analyze the heat transfer in the 3D domain. The effect of interlayer cooling time and substrate preheating temperature during the metal printing of ATI 718Plus®, a derivative of Inconel 718, is studied as part of the current investigations. The computed thermal history from the model is in good agreement with the independently published experimental results. The thoroughly validated process model is extended further for the in-depth analysis of WAAM at different process conditions.
Mohammad Shabbar, Buchibabu Vicharapu
A Review on Computational Techniques for Nanostructured Polymer Composite Materials
Abstract
This paper summarizes recent advancements in computational analysis of nanoparticle/nanofibers reinforced polymer matrix composites. The reinforcements vary from particle to fibers of varying shapes and sizes. In this review, various computational techniques such as computational micromechanics, integrated computational materials engineering (ICME) framework, and algorithms are discussed in detail. The multiscale modeling of polymer composites which includes mesoscale, microscale, nanoscale, and electronic scale modeling techniques can be carried out using various software packages available in the market. This review aims to explore the various research activities in polymer matrix composites using computational techniques for studying the microstructures and other mechanical behaviors which enables the readers for further exploration in this field.
G. R. Raghav, Gibin George, R. Sujith, Nikhil Ashok
Design and Computational Analysis of DeusCell—A Piston Actuated Modular Reconfigurable Robot
Abstract
Modular Reconfigurable Robotics deals with the design and building of robots that can come together in versatile configurations to form a lattice shape to adapt to the task at hand. DeusCell is an MRR unit that runs on command to self-assemble into a desired structure or design with real-time adaptability and the capability to reconfigure themselves if an external deformation occurs. The paper will discuss the system’s design, the new locomotion concept and its implementation, the actuation algorithm, and the analysis of the cube design. It reports on the hardware for locomotion.
Aaditya Radhakrishnan, Abel P. Johnson, Nikhil Roy, Ruben Geo Ribu, B. Deepak
Structural Design of Ultimate Terrain Electric Vehicle Suspension System
Abstract
The ultimate terrain vehicle (UTV) is a unique type of all-terrain vehicle (ATV) that can accommodate four passengers with enough storage spaces and is utilized for expeditions across tough terrain. Such vehicles are ideal for military surveillance, but they must be quiet during operation and have high initial torque. Both of these requirements are met by the UTV with an electric power train, resulting in the ultimate terrain electric vehicle (UTEV). This study explores the process of designing and analyzing a suspension system for a UTEV. This paper comprises objectives and different methodologies used for the calculation and design of the suspension components. For the simulation, designing, and analysis, software such as LOTUS, CATIA, and ANSYS was used. Necessary corrections in the designs were done after the analysis, and final evaluation of the outcomes of each component has been specified.
Jerin Joseph, Justine Joseph, Karthik S. Rajendran, M. S. Anoop
Modal Analysis of Motorcycle Handlebar
Abstract
India is the largest motorcycle manufacturers in the world, where majority of the population prefer motorcycles for their daily commutation. As a motorcycle is an open type vehicle, the riders are exposed to many uncomfortable conditions. The vibrations in the motorcycle are one of such concern. This project focuses on the vibration analysis of a motorcycle handlebar. Vibrations are induced from engine and road surface. A modal analysis simulation is performed in ANSYS to find natural frequencies and then handlebar is subjected to a free vibration test (impact hammer test) using MEscope visual SDM software to verify the natural frequencies. The 3D model required for modal analysis is created by reverse engineering tools like hexagon portable 3D scanner and GOM 3D software. From an article published on Academic Press, London, it is found that most hand arm vibrations come in the range of 50–150 Hz frequency range. The modification of the handlebar is made so that the natural frequencies coming in this range will be bypassed. To validate the modifications, modal analysis is repeated for these modifications.
T. G. Ajay Krishnan, R. Ajay Krishna, S. Akash, Akhildev K. Vasudevan, B. Rajesh Menon

Computing in Medicine and Biology

Frontmatter
CFD Analysis to Minimize the Spread of COVID-19 Virus in Air-Conditioned Classroom
Abstract
The COVID-19 which is a respiratory disease spread by a virus of the coronavirus family has become a big problem leading to the closure of all academic as well as economic activities due to its capability to spread fast. In this study, we have investigated the effect to mix a disinfectant in aerosol form with air coming out from the air conditioning machine so it can reach all parts of the room to remove the virus and prevent the closure of certain necessary teaching–learning activities in the classroom. For this, the k-ε model which consists of two equations is used to numerically model the turbulent flow in the classroom. From the analysis, it can be found that high turbulent zones are formed in the room which can be an effective way of distributing the aerosol-based disinfectant in the classroom and from the particle tracker we can see the aerosol-based disinfectant reaching every corner.
Adnan Memon, Balkrushna Shah
A Viable Approach to Medical Image Processing for CFD Simulations of the Upper Respiratory Tract
Abstract
We discuss a fast and easy approach to create the upper airway geometry of human lungs from medical images to perform Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) simulations. We have employed a combination of open-source and commercial image processing and CFD applications. From Computed Tomographic (CT) images of lungs available in the public medical repository, we were able to recreate the 3D structure of the upper airways up to 6 generations, which after postprocessing was used to investigate the flow pattern during respiration. The uneven surface of the real geometry, the curvature of the flow paths and asymmetric bifurcations lead to definite and distinguishable variation in flow pattern unlike that in studies with idealized lung geometries, such as that with the Weibel model. The nature of flow at various positions along the airways was investigated employing simple boundary conditions of constant inlet velocity at the truncated trachea and constant outlet pressure at the truncated bronchi (fourth generation). For the preliminary simulations, we could observe the presence of counter-rotating vortices (Dean flow) as well as asymmetric flow rate across the left and right lung (a 50% more flow toward the right bronchus).
Akash James, Joshua Mathew Jacob, Liza Mathew, Ajith Kumar Arumugham-Achari
Evaluation of Hemodynamics Parameters in Carotid Bifurcation System using Numerical Simulation
Abstract
Hemodynamics plays a major role in the development of numerous diseases and disorders, including atherosclerosis and stroke. Hemodynamic forces must be adequately mapped to precisely predict and avoid various illnesses and disorders. Blood is a complicated biological fluid that contains constituents, such as erythrocytes that cause it to behave in a non-Newtonian manner. This component is usually overlooked while studying carotid blood flow, and blood is modeled as a Newtonian fluid with constant viscosity. In the present study comparison of hemodynamics in carotid artery for Newtonian viscosity model and non-Newtonian Carreau-Yasuda (CY) viscosity model is done. Computational fluid dynamics analysis is carried out for four patient-specific healthy carotid artery models. The geometry of the carotid artery is obtained from a CT scan and a 3D model is generated using MIMICS. Blood enters the carotid artery through a common carotid artery (CCA) and splits into two arteries named internal carotid artery (ICA) and external carotid artery (ECA). The pulsatile velocity boundary condition is considered at CCA, and the pulsatile pressure boundary condition is considered for both ICA and ECA. The results obtained for both Newtonian and Carreau Yasuda's viscosity models are studied and compared. Wall shear stress is calculated and when compared, results obtained from the Newtonian viscosity model overestimates WSS in certain regions like CCA, ICA, and ECA.
H. N. Abhilash, S. M. Abdul Khader, Raghuvir Pai, Nitesh Kumar, Mohammad Zuber, John Corda, Masaaki Tamagawa
Comparison of Newtonian and Non-Newtonian Flow in Abdominal Aorta and Renal Artery Using Numerical Simulation
Abstract
Numerical simulations of cardiovascular flows have emphasized investigating the mechanics of blood flow in arteries. The objective of the current study is to examine the effect of Newtonian and non-Newtonian flow models in flow simulation to analyze for hemodynamic behavior. CFD analysis was performed on an idealized healthy abdominal aorta with renal branching using ANSYS Fluent solver. The discretized mesh was obtained having polyhedral and hexahedral grid ensured the capture of gradients with a sufficient number of grids. Transient analysis was performed using pulsatile flow boundary conditions. Velocity plots obtained from the analysis predict the recirculation zone in the Ostia of the renal artery. TAWSS observed to be maximum at the infrarenal aorta. And Newtonian model predicted higher TAWSS. Oscillatory shearing index calculated to be maximum at the bifurcation. The result of this analysis will be helping in understanding the flow behavior in idealized cases and further extended to stenosed cases.
B. Gowrava Shenoy, Nitesh Kumar, A. B. V. Barbouza, S. M. Abdul Khader, A. Ravindra Prabhu, Masaaki Tamagawa, B. Raghuvir Pai
Analysis and Prediction of COVID-19 Spread in Ernakulam District, Kerala
Abstract
The world is witnessing a pandemic of SARS-CoV2 infection since the first quarter of the twenty-first century. Ever since the first case was reported in Wuhan city of China in December 2019, the virus has spread over 223 countries. Understanding and predicting the dynamics of COVID-19 spread through data analysis will empower our administrations with insights for better planning and response against the burden inflicted on our health care infrastructure and economy. The aim of the study was to analyze and predict COVID-19 spread in Ernakulam district of Kerala. Data was extracted from lab data management system (LDMS), a government portal to enter all the COVID-19 testing details. Using the EpiModel package of R-mathematical modeling of infectious disease dynamics, the predictive analysis for hospitalization rate, percentage of patients requiring oxygen and ICU admission, percentage of patients getting admitted, duration of hospital stay, case fatality rate, age group and gender-wise fatality rate, and hospitalization rate were computed. While calculating the above-said variables, the percentage of vaccinated population, breakthrough infections, and percentage of hospitalization among the vaccinated was also taken into consideration. The time trend of patients in ICU showed men outnumbered women. Positive cases were more among 20–30 years, while 61–70 years age group had more risk for ICU admission. An increase in CFR with advancing age and also a higher CFR among males were seen. Conclusions: Analyzing and predicting the trend of COVID-19 would help the governments to better utilize their limited healthcare resources and adopt timely measures to contain the virus.
Serin Kuriakose, Zarin Pilakkadavath, C. Rohini, S. Sreedevi

Optimization Techniques

Frontmatter
Solar Water Pumping System Design and Analysis-A Numerical Study at Dum Dum, Kolkata
Abstract
Solar water pumping system is one of the engineering marvels, which uses solar energy to pump underground water for irrigation, agricultural and drinking purposes in India and most importantly it does not utilize the traditional fuels which are responsible for polluting the environment. In the following research article, we carry out a technical analysis of pumping water by utilizing solar systems for agricultural irrigation needs and fresh drinking water supply for a project located at Dum Dum, Kolkata (chosen as per the nearest location available in software) by execution of simulations utilizing photovoltaic system software. Accordingly in the research paper, we present the results in terms of water delivered for human uses, the water volume which is absent or missing, the additional (underutilized) solar energy, and the entire calendar yearly generated photovoltaic system efficiency. The results of the simulations display that investment in photovoltaic solar technologies could be highly beneficial for this site location, as the amount of pump operation energy was found to be maximum in the month of June (6454 Kwh), while the monthly performance ratio was found to be 55.3% and the efficiency of the system was found to be 15.22%.
A. Kr. Roy, S. Dutta
A Model for Prediction of Water Level and Pressure in an Industrial Boiler Using Multivariate Regression
Abstract
During the operation of an industrial boiler, it is subjected to huge variations in pressure as well as water level which lead to a decrease in the performance of a boiler. This decline in performance can be avoided by minimizing these variations with the help of a control system. However, the conventional control system used by a boiler accounts for a significant time lag which in turn affects the performance negatively. Hence, in this study, predictive models of water level and pressure developed using mass and energy balance equations of the boiler are presented, which can be utilized in minimizing these variations by determining the fluctuations beforehand. The predictions made by these models can be used in adjusting the inputs such as feedwater rate and fuel input rate to avoid the impending changes in pressure and water level. The concept of multivariate regression has been implemented in developing these models that have an average error of 0.0243% in water level predictions and 8.0525% in pressure predictions. This regression algorithm deals with a water level range of 64.525%, pressure range of 0.467 MPa, and steam load range of 70%.
V. K. Haribhakta, R. S. Jha, A. K. Kelkar, A. N. Khairnar, H. S. Khade
Optimisation of Parameters in Numerical Simulation of Hot Forging Using Taguchi Approach
Abstract
Finite element analysis (FEA) is performed on the hot forging of a sample using DEFORM™ 3D in this research. The Taguchi method and Deform 3D simulation software was used to optimize the forging process. The responses to die stress in the hot forging process are investigated using Taguchi’s L9 orthogonal array to find the interactions and influences on the design parameters and process parameters such as die temperature, sliding velocity, and friction coefficient. For the simulations in Deform 3D, a design of experiment based on Taguchi’s three-level, the three-parameter approach was used and was carried out on AISI 1025 steel, which is commonly used in making bolts. To ascertain the significant parameters of this operation, the Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) is utilized, and it was seen that the optimal factor settings for each performance characteristic were different. The results show that die temperature and die speed has the highest contribution in reducing die stress.
Sam Joshy, T. M. Anup Kumar, N. Nikhil Asok, R. Suraj, Koshy P. Joseph
Selecting the Optimum Tool for Driving Performance Evaluation by Assessing the Ergonomic Methods—An Overview
Abstract
Ergonomic analysis of the driving environment is very essential for enhancing productivity and reducing musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs) of drivers. The proposed driver distraction model for heavy vehicles examines the influence of environmental, psychological, and vehicle design factors on driver performance. The main ergonomic risk factors include long driving hours, poor human–machine interface, incorrect driving posture, vibration due to bad road conditions, driver sleepiness and age. To evaluate the effect of these factors on driving performance which leads to MSDs, different ergonomic methods/techniques are available. Selecting a single tool from these methods is quite difficult due to the heterogeneity of driver ergonomic parameters. To find the optimum tool, different features of the ergonomic methods were identified and compared. Integration of these tools used for ergonomic analysis was an outcome of the advancements in machine learning technology which resulted in digital human modelling (DHM). DHM combines computer-aided design, human factors management, and risk evaluation.
Arun Chand, H. Mannikandan, A. B. Bhasi
Optimization of Geometrical Parameters in Magnetorheological Dampers Using Finite Element Modeling
Abstract
Magnetorheological (MR) dampers is widely used in semiactive vibration control in automobile suspension systems. The vibration control depends on the electromagnetic circuit used in these damping systems. To achieve the maximum damping performance, the geometric parameters of the piston is optimized. In the present work, a compact design of MR damper is presented, and optimization of geometric dimensions of the electromagnetic circuit is performed using design of experiments techniques. The pole length, inner radius and MR fluid gap are selected as factors, and the magnetic field density is taken as the response parameter. Amongst these factors, pole length has the highest contribution of 74.34 requires lower values of MR gap to produce highest damping characteristics.
N. Nikhil Asok, Sam Joshy, R. Suraj, Anjana Viswanath, A. Rakesh
Academic Performance Prediction of Postgraduate Students Using Artificial Neural Networks
Abstract
Institutions of higher learning operate in a highly competitive environment. To compete with world-class institutions, institutes must adapt their strategy to increase overall performance. Academic achievement of students is one of the most important factors in improving an institution's ranking and recognition. Performance of students in an academic program depends upon several aspects of their previous academic performance and family background. In the present study, an artificial neural network (ANN) is developed using Python programming language to predict students’ performance and to determine the outcome of students’ performance. Students’ data were collected through a questionnaire-based survey from postgraduate students of technical education institutions all over India. The appropriate ANN model is identified, and the Python code for the same is developed with the help of Keras library. The developed model did not have the expected accuracy due to lack of adequate number of responses required for deep learning techniques, but still valuable results are obtained such as that of identifying some crucial factors.
M. Varun, R. Sridharan, K. K. Eldose
Internet of Things-Based Attendance Management System
Abstract
The project’s purpose is to develop biometrics and facial detection-based attendance register for educational institution such as colleges and schools. This project combines engineering techniques of both hardware component and software skills to create a product that alternate the present method of attendance recording. This project makes use of Internet of Things for data transport, storage, and presentation. Face detection and fingerprint detection were integrated into a gateway with a Wi-Fi module that is connected to a cloud server to construct the system. The output can be received using a mobile application that is available whenever the faculty needed also faculty can have the provision to enter attendance manually if there is any mismatch.
J. Anoj, R. Sridharan, V. Karthikeyan
Patient Flow Optimization in an Emergency Department Using SimPy-Based Simulation Modeling and Analysis: A Case Study
Abstract
Long waiting times and patient congestion are common problems faced by emergency departments (EDs) worldwide. During pandemics like COVID-19, EDs worldwide start to be flooded with patients and hospitals find it very challenging to provide good treatment to the large number of patients visiting the EDs with their current allocation of resources. Hospitals are in need of a decision support system (DSS) which can predict the excess demand and suggest the appropriate quantity of resources to be allocated at each point of care. The present research focuses on an ED of a large public hospital in India and explores in finding a solution for the long patient waiting time problem experienced by the hospital. This study extends the application domain of SimPy-based simulation modeling with integrated metamodeling and optimization to optimally allocate the resources in the ED. This can be used as a novel DSS which is relatively faster and needs less human interaction by the hospital management compared to the existing methods. The proposed resource allocation by this model reduced the patient waiting time by 44% in the case hospital being studied. Hospitals may use the proposed methodology to appropriately allocate their resources in times of excess demand.
Anudeep Battu, S. Venkataramanaiah, R. Sridharan

Computation in Fluid Flow and Heat Transfer

Frontmatter
Comparison of Simple Probabilistic Approach with Deterministic Model for Predicting Surge and Leakage in Water Pipelines
Abstract
Pipe flows are highly nonlinear and the related structural failure and leakage thereafter may arise from fluid pressures of various nature. Burst leakage may result from high local pressure heads causing circumferential (hoop) stress or longitudinal (axial) stress being larger than the material yield stress. Boiling or cavitation effect in regions of fluid pressure drops below its vapor pressure, which in turn develop as air bubbles and get transported through the pipeline may also cause burst at remote locations. In a multiple pipeline network, such information may be available as an overlapping set of noisy signals. This calls for advanced signal processing, and a reduction in complexity of deducing the signals to be processed would be favorable in a computational environment. Hence as a preliminary step, we investigate the extent to which a simple probabilistic model would better a purely deterministic hydraulic model when employed for the same. We initially developed a purely deterministic hydraulic model with method of characteristics to simulate burst failure and leakage in a pipeline, and further extended it with a simple probabilistic model coupledinto the scheme. A detailed investigation of the influence of successive over relaxation (SOR) on the simulated transients revealed that the use of variable local relaxation techniques could alleviate false numerical oscillations at the interior nodes. We also observed that the simple probabilistic model was only marginally different in its prediction of the transients when compared with the fully deterministic hydraulic model.
C. D. John Paul, P. Radhika, Ajith Kumar Arumugham-Achari, Anu Mol Joy, Abraham Thomas, Dominic Mathew
Design and Analysis of Liquid-Cooled Battery Thermal Management System of Electric Vehicles
Abstract
The thermal management of lithium-ion batteries plays an indispensable role in preventing thermal runaway and cold start in battery-powered electric (BEV) and hybrid electric vehicles (HEV) during on-road or fast charging conditions. The functioning of a battery depends on its thermal behavior. The life cycle and charging speeds are the optimizing factors of an EV battery pack. Higher charge rates translate to higher heat generation. At higher temperatures, it delivers an increased charge capacity but reduced longevity. But at lower temperatures, there is a higher electric resistance leading to lower efficiency and reduced total capacity of the battery. So the battery must be run at an optimal temperature range of 22–30 ℃ to improve performance and maintain its state of health (SOH). With the current battery technology, a battery pack is incomparable to gasoline in terms of energy density. So for an equivalent battery pack, the packing efficiency of the cylindrical battery assembly must be high, while preventing heat accumulation during high charge–discharge operations. Asymmetric thermal distribution can cause variation in the current discharge and the cell operating behavior, so a BTMS based on the thermal nature of the cells is designed. In this paper, we study the effects of a tab cooling BTMS on an anisotropic battery arrangement at different charge–discharge cycles.
Athul Rajeev Mundonkakkoth, Nandini Menon, Thundil Karuppa Raj
Numerical Analysis to Investigate the Effect of Solidification Parameters on the Pull-In Effect of Continuous Casting
Abstract
Direct chill (DC) casting is a method of solidifying molten metal into a semi-finished billet, bloom, or slab prior to rolling in finishing mills using an external continuous chilling technology. However, its operational improvement remains a focus of researches due to the ingot curve formed at bottom and side. The purpose of this research is to examine the thermal and mechanical properties created during the direct chill casting process in order to determine the base and side curvature using a CFD technique. The effect of vertical pull-in direct chill casting of aluminum ingots was investigated using a numerical model based on multiple physics. Thermal and mechanical simulations are performed using ANSYS mechanical software. The development of the ingot during the transient solidification process is aided by the use of a dynamic mesh method. The element kills, and generated concepts are utilized to determine the ingot's deformation. The results demonstrate that the developed model may be utilized to forecast deformations in ingots caused due to thermo-mechanical characteristics throughout the direct chill casting process. The deflection of the slab increases as the molten metal temperature and casting speed decrease. The maximum deflection was determined to be 23.34 mm for the case at a molten temperature of 715 ℃ and a casting speed of 75 mm/min.
Ritesh S. Fegade, Rajendrakumar G. Tated, Rupendra S. Nehete
Mathematical Modeling of a Skin Condenser with Angular Contact for Domestic Refrigerator
Abstract
The refrigerator in the home is a necessary item. As a result, with being built each year, it is critical to account for such a big number of refrigerators refrigerator’s energy use. The purpose of this research is to improve the thermal efficiency from the condenser tube to the refrigerator’s metallic wall. Wire tube condensers were used in older refrigerators. Manufacturers have replaced the wire tube condenser with a skin condenser due to the likelihood of leaking during shipping and a loss in heat transmission due to fouling. The average heat flow from the skin condenser to the atmosphere is between 135 and 142 W/m2, with a temperature gradient of 10–43/m along the skin condenser’s surface. The mathematical model presented is used to predict the rate of heat transfer from a condenser tube with angular contact. To expand the surface area of the condenser tube, it is supported by a hemispherical cross-sectioned plate. The simulation result shows a 9.3% increase in heat transfer through the walls and a 50% reduction in the temperature of the polystyrene surface. The heat load on the refrigerator is lowered by 2 to 4% as a result of the skin condenser.
N. D. Shikalgar, S. N. Sapali, A. B. Shinde
Aerodynamic Analysis of Deployable Wing Arrangement for Space Shuttle
Abstract
The study space for morphing wings is astonishingly wide and provides ample scope for enhancements up against fixed wings. Morphing-wing research has accumulated considerable recognition in the aerospace community over the last decade, and a folding wing is a promising approach that can improve aircraft proficiency over multiple varieties of missions which conclusively enhance the capability of the space shuttle. In this paper, the conventional shape of the wings is being refashioned to serve the requirements for maintaining the flight and also for navigation. The idea was sparked by the traditional Japanese fan and has a hinged mechanism similar to that of the fan. This work introduces a novel concept for retractable dynamic wings on a space shuttle. Modeling of the spacecraft with modified wings is done in SOLIDWORKS. The aerodynamic analysis is performed using the computational fluid dynamics (CFD) method with ANSYS FLUENT® (2020 R1) as the solver. The aerodynamic force coefficients are estimated for five different specific deployment phases, viz., zeroth (0°), one quarter (7.5°), half (15°), three-quarter (22.5°), and full (30°) phases. The result reveals that the coefficient of drag drops and the coefficient of lift rises from the primary phase to the final phase providing promising inputs into the idea of retractable wings.
Vidya Chandran, Poornima Rajendran, Shabu Gopakumar, K. S. Arun Kumar, C. A. Nikhilraj, Sheeja Janardhanan
Single Blow Characteristics of a Porous Spherical Bed Regenerator at Liquid Nitrogen Temperature
Abstract
The thermal–hydraulic performance of porous spherical bed regenerator was investigated in the present study. For this, a laboratory apparatus was developed with a passive system for evaluating the performance of a spherical bed regenerator at liquid nitrogen temperature with different porosities and mass flow rates of (0.4, 0.5, 0.6) and (2.29 g/s, 2.813 g/s, 3.33 g/s), respectively. The effectiveness of the regenerator was found to improve with increasing mass flow rate and decreasing porosity. The regenerator performed best with a mass flow rate and porosity of 2.29 g/s and 0.4, respectively.
V. M. Abhiroop, R. I. Vivek, K. E. Reby Roy, B. R. Vishnu
Design, Development, and Numerical Analysis of Mist Nozzle and Its Impact on Performance Parameters of an Evaporative Cooler
Abstract
The comfort cooling system is considered one of the major elements that absorbs high energy from all today’s essential commodities. And, it is one of the sources for global warming. An evaporative cooling system is commonly referred to as an alternative to air-conditioning systems working on vapour compression refrigeration cycles. Comparatively, the evaporative cooling systems consume 55–75% less energy compared to the phase change refrigeration system. In this research article, the development of a mist nozzle and its CFD simulation is carried out at different inlet water temperatures and its effect on pressure drop at the outlet end of the nozzle. By measuring the reduction in temperature, cooling capacity, and saturation efficiency, the experimental analysis leads to the discovery of performance characteristics such as cooling effect. These performance parameters were measured in a variety of environments and with variable air mass flow rates. Using the experimental data, a linear regression analysis is used to construct an empirical association to forecast the decline in air temperature. The experimental cooling air temperature and the predicted cooled air temperature are validated and found with good agreement.
Avinash M. Deshmukh, S. N. Sapali, Ajit B. Shinde, Niyaj D. Shikalgar
Metadata
Title
Applications of Computation in Mechanical Engineering
Editors
Dean Vučinić
Vidya Chandran
Alam Md. Mahbub
C. B. Sobhan
Copyright Year
2023
Publisher
Springer Nature Singapore
Electronic ISBN
978-981-19-6032-1
Print ISBN
978-981-19-6031-4
DOI
https://doi.org/10.1007/978-981-19-6032-1

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