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2018 | Book

Biomedical Engineering and Neuroscience

Proceedings of the 3rd International Scientific Conference on Brain-Computer Interfaces, BCI 2018, March 13-14, Opole, Poland


About this book

This edition of the volume ‘Advances in Intelligent Systems and Computing’ presents the proceedings of the 3rd International Scientific Conference BCI. The event was held at Opole University of Technology in Poland on 13 and 14 March 2018. Since 2014 the conference has taken place every two years at the University’s Faculty of Electrical Engineering, Automatic Control and Informatics. The conference focused on the issues relating to new trends in modern brain–computer interfaces (BCI) and control engineering, including neurobiology–neurosurgery, cognitive science–bioethics, biophysics–biochemistry, modeling–neuroinformatics, BCI technology, biomedical engineering, control and robotics, computer engineering and neurorehabilitation–biofeedback.In addition to paper presentations, the scientific program also included a number of practical demonstrations covering, for example, the on-line control of mobile robot and unmanned aerial vehicle using the BCI technology.

Table of Contents

Virtual Reality Based Simulators for Neurosurgeons - What We Have and What We Hope to Have in the Nearest Future
High levels of manual skills, good visual-motor coordination, excellent imagination and spatial awareness are the main factors determining the success of neurosurgeons. Proficiency in neurosurgical skills used to be acquired through hands-on training in cadaver labs and in real operating theatres under master neurosurgeon supervision. Most recently, virtual reality (VR) and augmented reality (AR) computer simulations have also been considered as tools for education in the neurosurgical training. The authors review existing solutions and present their own concept of a simulator which could become the useful tool for planning, simulation and training of a specific neurosurgical procedure using patient’s imaging data. The benefits of simulator are particularly apparent in the context of neurovascular operations. It is the field in which it is very difficult for young neurosurgeons to gain proficiency because of the lack of experience caused by the competition between microsurgery and endovascular techniques.
Dariusz Latka, Marek Waligora, Kajetan Latka, Grzegorz Miekisiak, Michal Adamski, Klaudia Kozlowska, Miroslaw Latka, Katarzyna Fojcik, Dariusz Man, Ryszard Olchawa
Outlier Correction in ECG-Based Human Identification
In this article we have proposed a novel method for ECG signal processing in biometric applications. The main idea is to correct anomalies in various segments of ECG waveform rather than skipping a corrupted ECG heartbeat, as it is commonly done in most cases. The proposed approach is taking into consideration that biosignals are of quasi-periodic nature.
Neighbouring ECG heartbeats are analysed using a sliding window. Within such a window the analysis of samples distributions is being performed. This information allows to detect outlying samples and correct them with expected values. Such an approach allows to collect better statistical representation which improves identification models performance.
In order to validate our method we used open-source Physionet ECG-ID database. This database contains 310 records per 90 unique persons. The classification result reported on this data set using commonly known outlier detection approach was 91%. We carried out a number of experiments and then compared the obtained results to those obtained using the outlier correction method described above. Classification results for our method exceeded 95%. Thus, misclassification error rate has been improved twice.
Volodymyr Khoma, Mariusz Pelc, Yuriy Khoma, Dmytro Sabodashko
Application of sEMG and Posturography as Tools in the Analysis of Biosignals of Aging Process of Subjects in the Post-production Age
Surface electromyography (sEMG) and posturography are some of the most useful tools applied in the assessment of the motor skills of humans. The scope and objective of this paper is to report on concurrent and synchronized application of the Kistler platform for postural balance and electromyography analysis (sEMG Noraxon) with the purpose of the registration of the bioelectric muscle tension of selected muscles (soleus, tibialis anterior). A random group of senior subjects aged 60–70 years, who participate in regular fitness program involving the formation of psychomotor activities (once a week) and focusing primarily on the motor coordination and low-intensity aerobic performance capacity was subjected to 4 tasks involving postural assessment. The results of the study were concerned with the analysis of the correlation between the sEMG and COP parameters and confirm the initial hypothesis regarding the existence of a positive correlation between the level of muscular coactivation (soleus, tibialis anterior) and the scatter parameters of COP.
Zbigniew Borysiuk, Mariusz Konieczny, Krzysztof Kręcisz, Paweł Pakosz
The Possibilities of Using BCI Technology in Biomedical Engineering
The paper presents capabilities of building devices dedicated for persons with heavy mobility dysfunction and indicates the role of interfaces connecting brain with computer (Brain Computer Interface, BCI). Impulses coming from closing eyes, clenching teeth, and tongue movement were proposed as optimal in controlling the applications that manage executable systems. A group of electrodes giving a strong electric signal characteristic for the activity were designated and on the basis of conducted research a proposition of a scientific project concerning building of supporting devices for persons with heavy mobility dysfunction was presented.
Dariusz Man, Ryszard Olchawa
Brain Biophysics: Perception, Consciousness, Creativity. Brain Computer Interface (BCI)
The paper presents connections between perception, awareness, and creativity from the biophysical point of view. Attention was drawn to human senses’ limitations and their influence on cognition. The role of interfaces connecting brain with computer and particular role of Brain Computer Interface (BCI) are indicated which the authors believe will be the next stage of human brain supporting technology evolution. It will enable the growth of perception, awareness, and creativity, and consequently lead to social development.
Dariusz Man, Ryszard Olchawa
The Neglected Problem of the Neurofeedback Learning (In)Ability
Neurofeedback (NFB) as one of the biofeedback modalities has a very wide range of applications. Surprisingly, despite of its popularity, research on its effectiveness in many cases remains inconclusive. What is more, there are studies that have even brought contradictory results. For instance, the need to use individualised vs standard neurofeedback protocol is still under debate. In this article we point out the problem of the neurofeedback effectiveness underestimation which might result from the neglected neurofeedback learning inability phenomenon (also called as BCI-illiteracy). We suggest that there are three preconditions of the neurofeedback loop establishment, and subsequently, we reflect on their potential obstacles. We conclude by encouraging neurofeedback researchers and practitioners to pay more attention to observing and reporting the problem of the neurofeedback learning inability, as it is crucial factor for determining its real effectiveness.
Rafał Łukasz Szewczyk, Marta Ratomska, Marta Jaśkiewicz
Influence of LED Radiation on Brain Electrical Activity Record
This paper deals with influence of LED radiation on brain wave signals. Diodes that emit light radiation for room lighting are being increasingly used, and are also used in tablet screens, laptops, televisions, and smartphones. Recent research shows that the light emitted by the LEDs affects various physiological functions because they emit light in the 400–490 nm range, which is blue. This work presents the effect of the LED light coming from the computer monitor on the brain electrical activity record.
Zolubak Magda, Mariusz Pelc
Using Neurofeedback as an Alternative for Drug Therapy in Selected Mental Disorders
Neurofeedback is a very effective technique that may be considered as an alternative to drug therapy to support development of children with different mental disorders such as ADD. The aim of this paper is to show how neurofeedback can be used for therapeutic purposes to increase selected signal parameters. For the test purposes 30 therapeutic sessions with 13-year old boy are presented showing theta waves frequency and SMR increase in the frontal part of head and partial improvements in the central part. Another sessions lead to bringing the relevant signals frequencies near to desired, correct values. Overall outcome of the training has lead to increased ability to concentrate and to lengthening the time through which the patient was able to work without distractions.
Zolubak Magda, Mariusz Pelc
Statistical Methods for Analyzing Deceleration and Acceleration Capacity of the Heart Rate
This paper presents the application of statistical methods for Electrocardiography (ECG) examinations. Computer program designed to assessment of deceleration capacity (DC) and acceleration capacity (AC) of the heart rate in the LabVIEW environment with Biomedical Toolkit can be used to analyze the health status of patients with heart diseases or patients after myocardial infarction (MI). A study on ECG recordings from Holter or biomedical data files is executed using specific tools of Digital Signal Processing (DSP).
Mirosław Chyliński, Mirosław Szmajda
Convolutional Neural Networks Implementations for Computer Vision
The paper covers the current state of the art regarding the use of machine learning mechanisms, and in particular the deep convolutional neural networks used in the field of computer vision. In the article there has been presented the current definition of deep learning and specific dependencies between related fields such as machine learning and artificial intelligence. The practical part of the work consists of three components: the features of the structure of the convolutional neural network, the distinction of its key elements, the description of their actions, the compilation of information about available learning sets used in network testing and verification processes, and the review of the implementation of convolutional neural networks, which had a significant impact on development of discipline. To illustrate the great potential of the presented tools for solving computer vision tasks, the study highlites examples of their applications. The possibility of using convolutional neural networks for identification of technical objects in digital images is indicated.
Paweł Michalski, Bogdan Ruszczak, Michał Tomaszewski
Autodiagnosis of Information Retrieval on the Web as a Simulation of Selected Processes of Consciousness in the Human Brain
An agent searching information on the Web processes finite sets of knowledge descriptions. By analogy to processes of consciousness, the knowledge is (1) assertions – what agent knows, (2) concepts – what agent has knowledge of and (3) axioms – what agent conceives by conceiving rules. An information retrieval system in which the agent knows about itself, is called an autodiagnosis of searching information on the Web. This work presents a theoretical description of autodiagnosis and its references to selected issues of neuropsychology related to processes of consciousness.
Anna Bryniarska
Effect of Spatial Filtering on Object Detection with the SURF Algorithm
The article presents a preliminary study into the detection of electrical insulators in digital images aquired during a power line inspection. Due to the enormous amount of digital data generated during a high voltage lines inspection, there is a need to automate the detection process of power insulators in digital images. As part of the study, the effects of applying spatial filtering into digital images for the purpose of the identification of electrical insulators with the use of a local feature detector and descriptor SURF (Speeded Up Robust Features) were analyzed. The recognition and designation of an insulator’s ROI (Region Of Interest) in a digital image will allow the application of more advanced methods aimed at the identification of possible damages in further stages of the analysis.
Michał Tomaszewski, Jakub Osuchowski, Łukasz Debita
Concept of Brain-Controlled Exoskeleton Based on Motion Tracking and EEG Signals Analysis
The article describes the possibilities of motion tracking and electroencephalography as the methods through creating a new type of powered exoskeleton control system. Modern motion tracking methods for three-dimensional space were presented with their advantages and disadvantages. Brain-computer interface was introduced as a possible control system for the robotic exoskeleton. Combined data model was proposed as the hypothetical solution based on electroencephalographic signals for the steering method.
Andrzej Olczak
System to Communicate Disabled People with Environment Using Brain-Computer Interfaces
In this chapter a project of a system to communicate disabled people with environment using Brain-Computer Interfaces was described. The user interface was developed basing on a pictogram writing system. In the test phase EPOC+ Neuroheadset by Emotiv was used. The system was adapted for a young disabled girl with Dandy-Walker syndrome (DWS). The girl uses this type of communication with her family under the care of a speech therapist on a daily basis.
Natalia Browarska, Tomasz Stach
Methods of Acquisition, Archiving and Biomedical Data Analysis of Brain Functioning
The following article sets out four acquisition methods of data obtained on the basis of brain signals: EEG, NIRS, fMRI as well as PET. Moreover, it provides the readout analysis of the signals occurring within the human brain and a possible manner of archiving and processing them. For an illustrative readout of the signals, a multi-channel encephalograph was applied. With the use of Emotiv Xavier TestBench application, time-varying EEG signals from individual electrodes were recorded in the .edf format which were subsequently subjected to Toolbox EEGLab for Matlab.
Szczepan Paszkiel, Piotr Szpulak
Making Eye Contact with a Robot - Exploring User Experience in Interacting with Pepper
In this paper authors describe a new approach to analysis of user experience in interacting with a humanoid robot Pepper. The designers and engineers of humanoid robots struggle to make the robots appear friendly and welcoming – not only to surpass the so-called Uncanny Valley, but also to make the human-machine interaction consistent and comfortable. The paper includes description of an experiment involving humanoid robot Pepper and human volunteers in a form of a short verbal interaction. The result of the experiment consists not only of a questionnaire, but also other parameters measured and calculated by a robot, inter alia the time of the eye contact. The authors evaluate the correlation between the time of eye contact and the overall opinion of volunteers.
Michal Podpora, Agnieszka Rozanska
Pole-Free vs. Minimum-Norm Right Inverse in Design of Minimum-Energy Perfect Control for Nonsquare State-Space Systems
In this paper a comparison of energy cost for different types of perfect control structures is presented. It is shown, that there is a possibility to improve the said control strategy for nonsquare LTI MIMO discrete-time state-space systems in terms of robustness through seeking of minimum control energy. It is remarkable, that simulation examples made in Matlab/Simulink environment confirm the potential of pole-free control design not only in the context of maximum-speed and maximum-accuracy properties, but, what is important, in terms of minimum energy behavior.
Marek Krok, Wojciech P. Hunek
Meta-structural Graph-Based Design Patterns for Knowledge Representation in Association-Oriented Database Metamodel
This paper describes the problems of modeling graph-based structures in Association-Oriented Database Metamodel in the context of knowledge representation system. The basics of Association-Oriented Metamodel solutions, principles of modeling and sample implementations of graph structures have been presented, including labeled graphs as well as generalization of graphs, i.e. hypergraphs. Subsequently, metastructural ontological design patterns dedicated to knowledge representation systems are presented based on example of standard class-instance-feature-value and relationship patterns.
Marcin Jodłowiec, Marek Krótkiewicz, Krystian Wojtkiewicz
Application of the Nvidia CUDA Technology to Solve the System of Ordinary Differential Equations
This paper presents some concepts of parallel solution of ordinary differential equations in the context of the Nvidia CUDA technology. Current research leads to the development of algorithms suitable for mass parallel architecture. There has been taken into account the potential opportunities of this architecture, but also significant hardware limitations. Considered conceptions were implemented on both: the Central Processing Unit (CPU) and Graphics Processing Unit (GPU). The results of the computation time measurements and their detailed analysis were provided in this paper.
Artur Pala, Jan Sadecki
Towards Semantic Knowledge Base Definition
The paper is a wide survey over one of the knowledge representation and processing solutions, namely knowledge bases. Due to current terminological inconsistency authors propose the complex definition of knowledge base in the field of knowledge representation. The overview of the most common reality description methods is provided in order to discuss its usefulness in knowledge base design. Authors not only give the definition of the knowledge base but also prove its completeness on the example of Semantic Knowledge Base project. The project aims at developing the general domain knowledge base using ontology base and semantic networks as basic knowledge representation methods.
Marek Krótkiewicz, Krystian Wojtkiewicz, Marcin Jodłowiec
Biomedical Engineering and Neuroscience
Wojciech P. Hunek
Szczepan Paszkiel
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