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About this book

The conference addresses general topics on how products and materials can be recycled and looks for application examples. The focus is on the areas:

· Material and Energy Flow Assessment

· Sustainable Mobility

· Industrial Ecology with a focus on renewable energy sources or WEEE

· (Re-) Manufacturing

· Cascade Use and Waste Management 4.0

Table of Contents


Cascade Utilization During the End-of-Life of Product Service Systems: Synergies and Challenges

The circular economy concept is receiving increasing attention from academia and businesses as a conceivable means to decouple economic growth from material consumption. Product Service Systems (PSS), primarily due to their sustainability potential, have been identified as a promising lever that can facilitate the transition towards a circular economy. However, a product may not be more resource efficient or have reduced environmental impacts just because it is marketed through one of the various PSS business models. In this regard, the comprehensive End-of-Life (EOL) management of PSS can play a crucial role by maximizing the utilization of a product’s remaining value. In this paper, we consider the applicability of the cascade use methodology proposed by Kalverkamp et al. [15] in the context of PSS. Additionally, we explore the possible synergies and associated challenges between PSS business models and cascade utilization.
Muztoba Ahmad Khan, Matthias Kalverkamp, Thorsten Wuest

Shifting Remanufactured Products from Used to New

Humans use more resources than the earth can regenerate and the demand on materials is expected to rise further. The worldwide economy follows mainly the linear rules, in which only one life cycle of a product is considered. Remanufacturing, the reuse of products after their treatment, even if achieving a turnover of round 30 billion Euros in Europe accounts only for a small proportion of the manufacturing. In this paper the integration of remanufacturing in the production of new units is introduced in order to enable a shift of remanufactured products from used to new ones. The opportunity for this approach is explained based on the example of household appliances.
Aleksandra Patrycja Wewer, Thomas Guidat

Planned Obsolescence in Portable Computers - Empirical Research Results -

This study aims to use empirical research to verify and to quantify planned obsolescence effects, and specifically to identify the role of user expectations. The products chosen for this study were portable devices such as laptops, notebooks, netbooks, and ultrabooks. The population researched were students of a university in southwestern Germany. A questionnaire with 29 single questions was handed out to a total of 215 students, with a return rate of 99%. Indicators measured covered the life span expectations of the computer, the life span of the previous computer model used, the time of repairs, the warranty period length, and the reason for replacing the last computer. The results indicate that about two thirds of the notebook users might claim to be subject to planned obsolescence due to a mismatch of expected and delivered use phase length, although from a merely technical viewpoint a sufficient notebook performance had been delivered.
Martin Adrion, Jörg Woidasky

Gaps and Needs within the WEEE Management in Brazil

The generation and processing of waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE) has given rise to numerous challenges around the world. Accordingly, preventive approaches basen on governmental and environmental regulatory pressure are highly relevant to treat WEEE in a proper manner. Within Latin America (LATAM) Brazil produces the highest total amount of WEEE with a still rising tendency, while recycling schemes are still in their infancy. Therefore, it is important to outline the main gaps and needs of related systems. Within the framework of this paper, recommendations for improving the management of WEEE in Brazil are derived based on the expertise of various local experts in this sector. The results of the knowledge sharing methodology of a World Café show that political enforcement of implemented national laws and close cooperation of different stakeholder groups are key instruments to improve the general WEEE management in Brazil.
Sascha Diedler, Kerstin Kuchta

Formal and Informal E-waste Collection in Mexico City

Cities in emerging countries, which attract the rural population with their higher living standards, cause various problems affecting the environment. One of them is the fast increasing amount of waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE), known as “e-waste”. One of the main prerequisites for a sustainable e-waste management is the separate collection. This study discusses the collection system of e-waste in Mexico City, both formal and informal. The formal collection includes the separate collection of e-waste according to the new separation system. In addition, the government is running two other initiatives, the Barter Market and Reciclatrón, which represent collection sites for e-waste. However, these efforts are not sufficient, which is why the informal sector plays a significant role in collection, recycling and disposal of e-waste.
Nina Tsydenova, Merle Heyken

E-Book Reader Recyclability

In Germany, currently about ten million e-book readers are in use. Dismantling trials were undertaken to assess the recycling potential of these devices. Ten discarded e-book readers from five different manufacturers were acquired for manual dismantling, out of which nine were actually dismantled, whereas the tenth sample was reactivated by hard reset. During the trials the e-book readers were tested on various dismantling options such as required time, connection accessibility, destruction during dismantling and materials identification. Due to the length of the dismantling time, apart from some zinc parts, manual dismantling is not economical. This is mainly caused by the high number of connections which needed to be opened. Typical dismantling characteristics were 10.7 dismantling steps per device, with arithmetic mean duration of 53.4 seconds per dismantling step. Thus from a purely economic perspective, mechanical recycling should be preferred to manual dismantling for recycling.
Ersin Karadeniz, Christian Klinke, Jörg Woidasky

Extraction Potential of Tantalum from Spent Capacitors Through Bioleaching

Tantalum (Ta) is the one of the most critical elements according to the European Commission. Research on tantalum recovery from secondary sources such as waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE), bottom ash and by products of the industrial activities, however, is limited. In this study, the recovery potential of tantalum from spent tantalum capacitors was tested using bioleaching. Three different kinds of microorganisms were tested for tantalum recovery, which were Pseudomonas putida (DSM No. 6125), Bacillus subtilis (DSM No. 1088532), and Penicillium simplicissimum (DSM No. 1078). It turned out that P. simplicissimum has the ability to leach tantalum from wasted tantalum capacitors with a maximium leaching rate of 1.25 g Ta per kg sample. An unknown species achieved the highest leaching rate (9.88 g Ta / kg sample) but isolation and identification failed. The potential of tantalum recovery by bioleaching is demonstrated, however, further research needs to be carried out.
Mehmet Ali Kucuker, Xiaochen Xu, Kerstin Kuchta

Comparability of Life Cycle Assessments: Modelling and Analyzing LCA Using Different Databases

Life Cycle Assessment is a recognized method to assess the environmental impact of a product, of product alternatives and of deviations from different life cycle designs. Life Cycle Inventory (LCI) databases support the modelling by providing the necessary inventory data. This study aims to better understand deviations and potential inconsistencies between inventory databases causing effects on the life cycle assessment results. The production of an electric motor used in electro-mobility applications such as electric vehicles is modelled using GaBi Thinkstep software and three different life cycle inventory databases, namely Ecoinvent, GaBi professional, and the European Life Cycle Database (ELCD). Starting from the ReCiPe single score results, the analysis moves through corresponding endpoint and midpoint indicators to identify reasons for deviations. Despite some limitations, the results show both similarities and differences. Overall, it may be assumed that results deviate to a degree that can change the resulting assessment.
Matthias Kalverkamp, Neele Karbe

Reuse, Recycling and Recovery of End-of-Life New Energy Vehicles in China

China has the largest quantity of new energy vehicles (NEVs) in the world. As time progresses, a certain percentage of NEVs will enter the scrap stage every year. By examining the status quo and the problems of recycling of conventional end-of-life vehicles in China, this study investigated the potential market for end-of-life NEVs and existing problems in the recycling and reuse systems. It was found that the recycling and reuse systems’ needs should be considered ahead of time. Further, various modes and methods for the recycling and reuse of end-of-life NEVs and their parts were analysed. Several strategies for the recycling and reuse of NEVs are proposed, including the establishment of an independent industry model for the utilization of scrap NEV power batteries. This study provides a reference for establishing a sound recycling system for end-of-life NEVs and setting up a recycling and reuse platform for scrapped NEVs in China.
Weiqun Han, Yuan Shi, Alexandra Pehlken, Goufang Zhang, Pang-Chieh Sui, Jinsheng Xiao

Assessment of Reusability of Used Car Part Components with Support of Decision Tool RAUPE

Owners of a car usually have to maintain their car including their car parts regularly, which results in exchanging car parts from time to time. Normally, products made by original equipment manufacturers are used by professional garages because of the guarantee they have to provide. The newly developed decision tool RAUPE is based on data mining methods applied to a data base provided by a car dismantling network that includes around one million spare parts’ data. The results of this data mining is included in RAUPE giving information on the reusability chances of the spare parts and the life cycle performance related to its CO2 emissions. The decision tool is in its beta version and is to be evaluated by the end of 2018. The paper describes the concept of RAUPE and the role of its stakeholders.
Alexandra Pehlken, Björn Koch, Matthias Kalverkamp

A SWOT and AHP Methodology for the Formulation of Development Strategies for China’s Waste EV Battery Recycling Industry

Along with the electric vehicle (EV) boom in China, the amount of EV batteries is increasingly growing, which leads to a dual challenge for waste batteries regarding disposal pressure and recycling demand. However, so far, EV battery recycling has not been industrialized and a recycling network not been established in China. In this paper, a SWOT analysis approach is employed to summarize the scrap battery recycling situation in China and sum up the main factors of these four aspects (Strength, Weakness, Opportunity and Threat). Then an Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP) method is adopted to assess these factors by weight coefficients. Finally, a TOWS method is used for making development strategies according to the key factors and their weights. The overall strategies include the five aspects laws, economics, system constructions, technology and public education and could be useful for China to promote its EV battery recycling management in the future.
Zhu Lingyun, Chen Ming

Evaluation of the Recyclability of Traction Batteries Using the Concept of Information Theory Entropy

As traction battery technologies and electro mobility as a whole continue to grow in importance, the recyclability of batteries has increasingly gained attention in politics, industry and science. The aim of this paper is to broaden the understanding about the recycling of traction batteries by applying the concept of information theory entropy. To this end, information theory-based entropy indicators are used to determine the material mixing complexity of current and future battery chemistries used in electric vehicles. Through the integration of different economic metrics and with the help of additional related information on industrial, political and social influencing factors the recyclability of traction batteries is evaluated and the development of future battery recycling systems and policies is discussed. The results show that the proposed methodology is suitable for comparing different product technologies and that significant differences exist regarding the determining factors for the recyclability of different battery technologies.
Nicolas Bognar, Julian Rickert, Mark Mennenga, Felipe Cerdas, Christoph Herrmann

The Importance of Recyclability for the Environmental Performance of Battery Systems

While several studies about the environmental impacts of batteries exist, the end-of-life stage is often disregarded and the relevance of battery reuse or recycling not quantified. However, the end-of-life phase of battery storage systems is highly relevant for their overall environmental performance. In order to quantify this relevance, we extend existing LCA studies by an end-of life model and assess the influence of battery recycling for the life cycle impact of three different battery types. These include a lithium-ion battery (LIB), a vanadium-redox-flow battery (VRFB) and an aqueous hybrid ion battery (AHIB), all for stationary energy storage services (renewable support). The results show that a high recyclability can improve the environmental performance of the batteries over their life cycle significantly. This underlines the need for a design for recyclability of batteries for minimising environmental impacts of battery systems and the corresponding loss of valuable resources.
Jens F. Peters, Manuel Baumann, Marcel Weil

Assessment of the Demand for Critical Raw Materials for the Implementation of Fuel Cells for Stationary and Mobile Applications

Because of their low emissions and possible contribution to sustainable development, both mobile and stationary fuel cells show promising tendencies to play an important role in the future. However, the polymer exchange membrane fuel cell (PEMFC) contains significant amounts of platinum, a material considered critical within the European Union. Using material flow analysis, this paper seeks to examine how the implementation of mobile and stationary fuel cells will affect demand for critical raw materials and to what degree recycling presents a viable option for reducing the pressure on primary production. Based on a number of developed scenarios, it is demonstrated that the platinum requirements arising from a more widespread adoption of neither fuel cell vehicles nor household heating systems is likely to cause a depletion of platinum deposits in the near future. However, both technologies may increase the pressure on the already constricted platinum market.
Rikka Wittstock, Alexandra Pehlken, Fernando Peñaherrera, Michael Wark

The Material Use of Perovskite Solar Cells

This work quantifies, through material flow analysis, the demand and discard of lead and indium in scenarios of future adoption of perovskite solar cells, considering four aspects for the construction of scenarios. These aspects include the type of perovskite solar cell, the future market share, the lifetime of the modules and the absence or presence, respectively, of recycling. The results show that the demand for lead might not be significant compared to the current supply. However, the use of indium in a high market share scenario might go beyond the current supply of this material. The required amount of material may decrease through the use of tandem technologies, a longer product lifetime and end-of-life recycling.
Juan Camillo Gomez, Thomas Vogt, Urte Brand

Comparison of Cascaded Utilization with Life Cycle Assessment – a Case Study of Wind Turbine Blades

The utilization of resources in multiple cascade stages can improve the resource efficiency of product systems. This paper discusses a method by which a comparison of cascaded utilizations can be achieved despite the multi-functionality of such systems. Based on a comparison of the cascaded utilization with an equivalence system, potential reductions in impact indicators can be identified. In a case study, four scenarios for the cascaded utilization of a rotor blade are developed on the basis of a literature review. Potential reductions in the impact indicators Cumulative Energy Demand (CED) and Cumulative Raw Material Demand (CRD) are calculated. The main results of a review of the method are twofold: (i) The selection of the equivalence systems has a decisive influence on the result of the study and (ii) the approach requires a high data diversity and availability.
Kalle Wulf, Frauke Germer, Henning Albers

Development and Application of Metrics for Evaluation of Cumulative Energy Efficiency for IT Devices in Data Centers

This paper develops and evaluates a set of metrics to evaluate the holistic energy efficiency of data centers. The Cumulative Energy Efficiency (CEE) and Cumulated Performance Efficiency (CPE) are metrics developed considering criteria for indicators for the evaluation of resource efficiency, while also taking into account aspects of sustainability and primary resource depletion. The metrics are calculated using Cumulative Energy Demand as resource indicator, which is analyzed through a Life Cycle Assessment of products. The useful energy and performance is then compared to this resource depletion indicator. The metrics are then tested with a case study of a server used in a data center. The results indicate a CEE=0,260 and a CPE=789 ops/J. When comparing these values to other well established metrics, the developed metrics account for embodied energy and energy transformation losses for the whole energy supply chain.
Fernando Peñaherrera, Katharina Szczepaniak
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