Skip to main content
main-content
Top

2021 | Book

Emerging Powers, Development Cooperation and South-South Relations

share
SHARE
insite
SEARCH

About this book


This book analyses the role of emerging powers as a development assistance providers and the nature of their development cooperation, their behaviour, motives and markedly their changing identities in international relations. With their growing economic and political clout, emerging powers are using economic instruments like foreign aid to ensure their position in the international system that is going through power shifts. By comparing three major emerging economies of the Global South- Brazil, India and China- this book would explore how emerging powers are changing the international aid architecture that is created and dominated by the traditional donors.

Table of Contents

Frontmatter
Chapter 1. Introduction: Emerging Powers as Development Assistance Providers in International Aid Architecture
Abstract
The rise of emerging powers as development assistance providers is an important shift in the international aid architecture in which they were largely considered as recipients of aid. This chapter brings out this transition by outlining their role as a development assistance provider of the Global South and delves into the reasons behind their burgeoning aid programmes. With their growing economic and political clout, emerging powers are using economic instruments like foreign aid to ensure their position in the global order that is going through major power shifts. Even when the emerging powers are not overtly challenging the established order, they are making inroads into a system that is established and maintained by the most powerful countries in international politics. While this shows their readiness to take more responsibility in the system, it also signifies their quest for a legitimate place in the evolving international system, which they are trying to achieve through the use of economic instruments.
Chithra Purushothaman
Chapter 2. The Evolving Bilateral Aid Architecture
Abstract
This chapter gives an overview of the international development landscape, in which the emerging powers have become important stakeholders, creating their own narratives on development cooperation and doing aid differently in a set-up created by the traditional donors. While traditional donors continue to provide most of the assistance, the presence of emerging powers has brought in new ideas and ways of aid-giving that either emerged from their own experience as a recipient or created in accordance with their priorities and preferences. Their foreign aid policies are not written in stone and have evolved over time with scope for ample change during the course of delivery and implementation. This brings in new dynamics into international foreign aid architecture, where emerging powers are bringing in the prospects of positive change in how aid has traditionally been understood. This chapter critically analyses the international bilateral aid architecture and how emerging powers are creating inroads into the system by playing both roles—as a donor as well as a recipient—which gives them the space and opportunity to experiment and evolve.
Chithra Purushothaman
Chapter 3. COBRADI: The Rise and Fall of a Southern Provider
Abstract
Brazil’s rise as a development assistance provider has been slow and steady with substantial progress in the twenty-first century under Lula administration. The changing political and economic landscape has raised concerns on the future of Brazilian Cooperation for International Development (Cobradi) and the framework it was actually based on. The changing realities of domestic and international politics have altered the space of Cobradi, which emphasised on SSC as the most significant tenet. The current leadership under Bolsonaro is pushing for its membership in the OECD, thereby eroding the long-standing principles and tenets of Cobradi. While Brazil’s development assistance is interlinked with its global aspirations and domestic preferences, the presidential diplomacy has had a huge role to play in defining and structuring the Cobradi in its foreign policy.
Chithra Purushothaman
Chapter 4. Chinese Development Assistance: Leveraging Deep Pockets
Abstract
The rise of China from a recipient to a net donor is a defining feature of twenty-first-century aid architecture, where the traditional donors’ aid is dwindling and the gap left by these countries is being filled by emerging powers with their own aid programmes. With the rising economic clout, China has pushed its aid programmes to new levels, where its volume and geographic scope has expanded considerably, signifying its changing priorities and preferences. While China identifies itself as an emerging power of the Global South, its increasing role in international politics, where it is ready to take over the US in the economic realm and expanding its global influence through initiatives like the Belt and Road Initiative (BRI) brings forth the ambiguities in China’s desire for a global role and its preferred identity. This chapter argues that China is using its aid as an instrument to create favourable outcomes and trying to build its standing vis-a-vis other players, including great powers and regional powers, thereby consolidating its position in the global order.
Chithra Purushothaman
Chapter 5. Indian Development Cooperation: Aiming High, Falling Short
Abstract
India has largely been understood as a recipient of aid from the traditional donors, despite a seven decade long history of India’s development assistance programme. The volume, scale and scope of its assistance to the Global South have increased considerably in the last seventy years, in line with its growing economic capabilities. This chapter looks at India’s growing role as a development assistance partner and the motivations behind its development cooperation. As an emerging economy, India’s development cooperation initially acted as a tool to support its aspiration to be a legitimate leader of the Global South, and later to support its mission for regional leadership, getting access to markets and its quest for energy and natural resources. As an aspiring global power, India aims to leverage its development cooperation to create desired outcomes—both short-term and long-term gains—by modifying economic instruments as per its priorities and preferences. Even though India’s economic diplomacy ambitions run high, New Delhi has been limited by both domestic and international factors that has not allowed it to realise its full potential.
Chithra Purushothaman
Chapter 6. Comparisons: Brazil, China and India as Development Assistance Providers
Abstract
This chapter compares the development cooperation policies and programmes of the three largest development assistance providers of the Global South—Brazil, China and India—to arrive at commonalities and differences in emerging powers’ development cooperation. While there are convergences in emerging powers’ development assistance, there are as many divergences. Emerging powers are not a homogeneous group and do not align their development assistance programme to any set standards or rules, unlike the OECD-DAC. These countries are trying and testing their own aid programmes, which is evolving not as per any strategic framework created by the government, but as per the preferences and priorities of the leadership and the changing international environment. Despite several domestic constraints, these countries have improved on their earlier development assistance programme, which points to the significance of foreign aid in their foreign policy.
Chithra Purushothaman
Chapter 7. Conclusion
Abstract
This chapter gives an overview of the emerging powers’ development assistance programme and their growing importance in international aid architecture. Through development cooperation, these countries aim to make economic, political and strategic gains without using any coercive mechanisms, to rise in the global order. However, these emerging powers’ development assistance is dependent on both domestic and international factors, including their economic growth, domestic stability and leadership as well as stability in the region and the international economic environment. The future of development cooperation in foreign policy considerations of the emerging powers will depend on how they perform economically. Their economic heft is going to decide their development assistance outflows and their place in the international aid architecture. In the present scenario, Brazil is retreating, India is in a balanced proactive state of engagement, and China is making headways in development cooperation.
Chithra Purushothaman
Backmatter
Metadata
Title
Emerging Powers, Development Cooperation and South-South Relations
Author
Chithra Purushothaman
Copyright Year
2021
Electronic ISBN
978-3-030-51537-9
Print ISBN
978-3-030-51536-2
DOI
https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-51537-9

Premium Partner