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2023 | OriginalPaper | Chapter

13. Experimental Study Design

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Abstract

The following section describes the experimental study design employed in this paper. Appropriate stimuli are selected, the independent variable is manipulated and the dependent variable, mediators, moderators and control variables are operationalized.

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Appendix
Available only for authorised users
Footnotes
1
A moderator variable is an additional variable that changes the nature of the relationship between the independent and dependent variable. Cf. ZIKMUND/BABIN (2010), p. 522.
 
2
Cf. ANTONY (2014), p. 63; SETHURAMIAH/KUMAR (2016), p. 129 et seqq. Full-factorial designs are widely accepted as the most commonly used experimental designs. ANTONY (2014), p. 63.
 
3
Cf. GREENWALD (1976), p. 315; GEUENS/DE PELSMACKER (2017), p. 89.; CHARNESS/GNEEZY/KUHN (2012), p. 1. The between-subjects design is also preferred by CHARNESS/GNEEZY/KUHN (2012) in their analysis of between-subject and within-subject designs CHARNESS/GNEEZY/KUHN (2012), p. 7.
 
4
Cf. CALFEE (1985), p. 227.
 
5
Cf. HEGNER (2012), pp. 104 et seqq.; HOMBURG/GIERING (1996), pp. 12 et seqq.; RACK/CHRISTOPHERSEN (2007), p. 28.
 
6
Cf. KUß/WILDNER/KREIS (2018), p. 49; LAMNEK/KRELL (2016), p. 94; HIDESSEN (2020), p. 74.
 
7
Cf. DE VEIRMAN/HUDDERS (2020), p. 10; BECKERT ET AL. (2020), p. 9; STEILS/MARTIN/TOTI (2022), p. 154.
 
8
Cf. EVANS ET AL. (2017), p. 143; DE JANS/CAUBERGHE/HUDDERS (2018), p. 7; VAN REIJMERSDAL ET AL. (2020), p. 98; BOERMAN (2020), p. 203; KIM/KIM (2020), p. 4; CASALÓ/FLAVIÁN/IBÁÑEZ-SÁNCHEZB (2020), p. 514; MARTÍNEZ-LÓPEZ ET AL. (2020), p. 1814; SUNDERMANN/MUNNUKKA (2022), p. 5.
 
9
Cf. KARAGÜR/BECKER/KLEIN/EDELING (2021), p. 17.
 
10
Cf. DE VEIRMAN/HUDDERS (2020), p. 24.
 
11
Quantitative marketing research refers to research that addresses marketing objectives via techniques that allow the researcher to provide elaborate interpretations of phenomena without depending on numerical measurements. Its focus lies in unearthing new insights. On the other hand, quantitative marketing research refers to research that addresses objectives via empirical assessments, which involve numerical measurement and analysis. Cf. ZIKMUND/BABIN (2010), pp. 131 et seqq.
 
12
Cf. STATISTA (2022a). INVIDEO (2022) states that the main category of Instagram users in the US is the 25–34 years category (31,9% meaning 52,92 million). They are followed by the 18–24 years category (22,8%, meaning 37,8 million); BVDW (2019), p. 6.
 
13
The interview guide can be observed in the Electronic Supplementary Martial A.
 
14
Cf. MAYRING (2016), p. 89 et seqq.; VOGEL/FUNCK (2018), pp. 3 et seq.
 
15
Cf. LAMNEK/KRELL (2016), pp. 333 et seq.
 
16
Cf. HOMBURG (2017), p. 68.
 
17
Cf. KUCKARTZ (2016), p. 25; GORDEN (1992), pp. 1 et seqq.
 
18
Cf. BOWLBY (1977), p. 208; THOMSON ET AL. (2005), p. 78.
 
19
Cf. KUCKARTZ (2016), p. 25; GORDEN (1992), pp. 1 et seqq.
 
20
Cf. LIENEMANN (2021) also chooses Pamela Reif as a real SMI for his stimuli manipulation, as she was at that moment in time, the SMI (not celebrity) with the highest number of followers in the fitness industry Germany. The fitness SMI ranking for Germany has not changed. Furthermore, Pamela Reif has gained followers becoming the widest known German SMI. See STARNGAGE (2022). In addition, she has a clearly defined Instagram profile oriented towards fitness and nutrition. Therefore, this choice aids and facilitates the recruitment of respondents. Cf. LIENEMANN (2021), p. 101. This choice is in line with CHOI/RIFON (2012) who underlie the necessity of selecting celebrity-stimuli familiar to the users. Cf. CHOI/RIFON (2012), p. 643.
 
21
Cf. GEUENS/DE PELSMACKER (2017), pp. 83 et seqq.
 
22
Cf. REYNOLDS ET AL. (2003), p. 84.
 
23
Cf. LIENEMANN (2021), p. 57.
 
24
Cf. BEHE ET AL., (2017), p. 621.
 
25
Cf. LIENEMANN (2021), p. 102; SINNIG (2019), p. 100. At the same time, the underlying theory supports the use of real brands. The schema theory requires existing schemas to be compared with each other, therefore real existing brands should be used in this work.
 
26
Cf. GEUENS/DE PELSMACKER (2017), p. 86.
 
27
Cf. NIE/LIU (2021), p. 362.
 
28
Cf. WATKINS (1984) studies pre-planning of consumer purchase behaviour for low-involvement goods, namely chocolate confectionary. Cf. WATKINS (1984), p. 51.
High involvement goods represent a higher financial investment. Therefore, the consumer’s attitude here is influenced to a greater extent by the quality of the argument in the ad and less by the peripheral signals in the ad (e.g., endorser attractiveness).
Low involvement goods represent a lesser financial commitment. Therefore, the consumer’s attitude here is influenced to a greater extent by the peripheral signals in the ad and less by the ad’s argument quality. COKKI (2017), p. 1525. Consumers often buy low involvement products on impulse, without a lengthy process of conscious decimos, as these products carry a low cost of failure. ADHIKARI (2019), p. 424.
 
29
Cf. LIENEMANN (2021), p. 104.
 
30
Cf. SINNIG (2019), p. 123; LEINEMANN (2021), p. 104.
 
31
Cf. PERDUE/SUMMERS (1986), p. 322.; ESCHWEILER ET AL. (2007), p. 548; LIENEMANN (2021), p. 107.
 
32
Cf. EVANS ET AL. (2017), p. 143; DE VEIRMAN/HUDDERS (2020), p. 31. BOERMAN/VAN REIJMERSDAL/NEIJENS (2012), p. 1054, similarly employs this operationalization for brand memory.
 
33
Cf. KLEIN/BECKER (2018), p. 5.
 
34
A semantic differential scale refers to a measure of attitudes that is comprised of a series of seven-point rating scales that utilize bipolar adjectives to regulate the beginning and end of each scale. Cf. ZIKMUND/BABIN (2010), p. 348.
 
35
Cf. GREWAL/MONROE/KRISHNAN (1998), p. 50 et seq. GREWAL/MONROE/KRISHNAN (1998) Use a 7-point semantic differential scale in order to measure purchase intention. Similarly, HAUSMAN/SIEKPE (2009), p. 9 and KAY (2020) use a 7-point Likert scales. KAY/MULCAHY/PARKINSON (2020), p. 27.
 
36
Cf. HARDESTY ET AL. (2002), p. 7; KANITZ (2013), p. 170; HANISCH (2017), p. 139; SINNIG (2019), p. 106; LIENEMANN (2021), p. 108.
 
37
Cf. TILL/BUSLER (1998), p. 578; LIENEMANN (2021), p. 107.
 
38
Cf. KLEIN/BECKER (2018), p. 5.
 
39
Cf. EVANS ET AL. (2017), p. 143; EVANS/WOJDYNSKI/HOY (2019), p. 154.
 
40
Cf. HOVLAND/WEISS (1951), p. 635; HOVLAND ET AL. (1953), OHANIAN (1990), p. 39.
 
41
Cf. OHANIAN (1990), p. 41.
 
42
Cf. ERDOGAN (1999), p. 299; SINNIG (2019), p. 111; DE VEIRMAN/HUDDERS (2019), pp. 30 et seq; KAY/MULCAHY/PARKINSON (2020), p. 28; SCHOUTEN ET AL. (2020), p. 267; MARTÍNEZ-LÓPEZ ET AL. (2020), p. 1816; KARAGÜR/BECKER/KLEIN/EDELING (2021), p. 61; BREVES ET AL. (2021), p. 6.
 
43
Cf. KLEIN/BECKER (2018), p. 5.
 
44
Cf. PARK ET AL. (2010), pp. 5 et seq. While PARK ET AL. (2010) develop a ten-item scale, we have adjusted the scale similarly to LIENEMANN (2019), in order to lessen the respondent attention loss, saturation or exhaustion. Cf. LIENEMANN (2019), p. 108.
 
45
Cf. LIENEMANN (2019), p. 108.
 
46
Cf. KOSCHATE (2008) p. 109; BOERMAN/VAN REIJMERSDAL/NEIJENS (2012), p. 1054; MCDANIEL/GATES (2013), p. 242; NEE (2016), p. 110; SINNIG (2019), p. 96; DIEGEL (2021), p. 147; ANDRADE (2021), p. 178.
 
47
Cf. TROMMSDORFF (2009), p. 147; KROEBER-RIEL/WEINBERG/GRÖPPEL-KLEIN (2009), p. 224 et seqq.; SCHADE (2012), p. 34; BURMANN/HALASZOVICH/SCHADE/PIEHLER (2018), p. 16.
 
48
Cf. BURMANN/STOLLE (2007), p. 23.
 
49
Cf. KELLER (1993), pp. 4 et seqq.; SCHADE (2012), p. 13.
 
50
Cf. PECHEUX/DERBAIX (1999), pp. 390 et seqq.; SCHADE (2012), p. 116; ADOMEIT (2020), p. 136.
 
51
Cf. BRUNER/HENSEL/JAMES (2005), p. 48; SCHADE (2012), p. 116.
 
52
Cf. MITCHELL/OLSON (1981), p. 323; ABRAHAM (2020), p. 114; LIENEMANN (2021), p. 111.
 
53
Cf. MITCHELL/OLSON (1981), p. 326.
 
54
Cf. MITCHELL/OLSON (1981), p. 323; SINNIG (2019), p. 114; ABRAHAM (2020), p. 114. In accordance with LIENEMANN (2021) we expand and adapt the items in accordance to the open evaluation points. LIENEMANN (2021), p. 111.
 
55
Cf. SIMONIN/RUTH (1998), p. 39; CHOI/RIFON (2012), p. 644; SINNIG (2019), p. 114.
 
56
Cf. SIMONIN/RUTH (1998), p. 39.
 
57
Cf. LABRECQUE ET AL. (2011), p. 48; AUDREZET/DE KERVILER/MOULARD (2020), p. 565.
 
58
Cf. NAPOLI ET AL. (2014), p. 1090; AUDREZET/DE KERVILER/MOULARD (2020), p. 565.
 
59
Cf. KAY/MULCAHY/PARKINSON (2020), p. 28.
 
60
Cf. SCHALLEHN (2012) p. 137; BURMANN ET AL. (2018), p. 59; ADOMEIT (2020), p. 134.
 
61
Cf. BURMANN/SCHALLEHN (2012), p. 49.
 
62
Cf. BURMANN/SCHALLEHN (2010), pp. 27, 34.
 
63
“Trust” is a different concept from “trustworthiness”. Trustworthiness is a component of “credibility” and a precursor of “trust”. Cf. SEKHON ET AL. (2014), p. 3.
 
64
Cf. BURMANN/SCHALLEHN (2010), p. 34; BURMANN/SCHALLEHN (2012), p. 49; BURMANN/ MAHN (2021), p. 32.
 
65
Cf. STEILS/MARTIN/TOTI (2022). The authors categorize SMIs in accordance with BOERMANN (2020), p. 200. Micro-SMIs have up to 10,000 followers, while meso-SMIs have up to 1 million followers with a national scope and macro- or mega-influencers have more than 1 million followers and an extended international outreach. Cf. STEILS/MARTIN/TOTI (2022) p. 148.
 
66
Cf. ADDO ET AL. (2021), p. 1.
 
67
Cf. STEILS/MARTIN/TOTI (2022) p. 158.
 
68
Cf. STEILS/MARTIN/TOTI (2022) p. 149; ABIDIN (2016), pp. 1 et seqq.; MARWICK (2013).
 
69
Cf. ZIKMUND/BABIN (2010), p. 283.
 
70
Cf. KARANDE/MAGNINI/TAM (2007), p. 192.
 
71
Cf. KUNG/KWOK/BROWN (2018), p. 266.
 
72
A determinant-choice-question represents question with a fixed alternative that requires the participant to choose one option from among multiple alternatives. Cf. ZIKMUND/BABIN (2010), p. 372.
 
73
This unaided recall, is characterized by asking participants to remember something without providing additional clue within the given question. Cf. ZIKMUND/BABIN (2010), p. 379.
 
74
Cf. BOERMAN/VAN REIJMERSDAL/NEIJENS (2012), p. 1054; BOERMAN (2020), p. 203; LIENEMANN (2021), p. 174.
 
75
Cf. BOERMAN (2020), p. 203; BOERMAN/VAN REIJMERSDAL/NEIJENS (2012), p. 1054; EVANS ET AL. (2017), p. 143.
 
76
Cf. EVANS ET AL. (2017), p. 143; DE VEIRMAN/HUDDERS (2020), p. 125. BOERMAN/VAN REIJMERSDAL/NEIJENS (2012), p. 1054 similarly employs this operationalization for brand memory.
 
77
The questionnaire is available in the Electronic Supplementary Martial B. As the target audience is German, the questionnaire language is German.
 
78
Cf. ZIKMUND/BABIN (2011), underline that a survey constitutes a way of illustrating public opinion by collecting primary data Cf. ZIKMUND/BABIN (2011), p. 202. Primary data represents data that has been specially gathered for one particular study. Cf. HOMBURG (2017), pp. 67 et seqq. This contrasts with secondary data, which represents data that has been previously collected for a purpose other than the one in the current study. Cf. ZIKMUND/BABIN (2010), p. 163.
 
79
Cf. GEUENS/DE PELSMACKER (2017), p. 98.
 
80
Cf. GEUENS/DE PELSMACKER (2017), p. 90.
 
81
Cf. DE VEIRMAN/HUDDERS (2020), p. 124.
 
82
Cf. PODSAKOFF ET AL. (2003), p. 888.
 
83
Previous studies have pointed out that respondents who know the research objective are able to make conscious decisions and answer artificially for the hypothesis or against it. Cf. ORNE (1962), p. 776 et seqq.; ROSNOW/ROSENTHAL (1997), pp. 65 et seqq.; ABRAHAM (2020), p. 114.
 
84
The role of filter questions is to screen out participants who are not qualified to answer the subsequent questions. Cf. ZIKMUN/BABIN (2010), p. 381; SHAMON/BERNING (2020), p. 56.
 
85
Cf. LIENEMANN (2021), p. 114.
 
86
Cf. BURMANN ET AL. (2018), p. 254.
 
87
Cf. LEE/KOO (2012), p. 1979; DJAFAROVA/TROFIMENKODE (2018), p. 6; VEIRMAN /HUDDERS (2019), p. 25.
 
88
Further on in the questionnaire the respondents were asked if they were Instagram followers of Pamela Reif. However, this constitutes no screen-out criterium, as non-followers can also observe, consume and interact with the Instagram content of an SMI. Cf. LIENEMANN (2021), p. 116.
 
89
This is in accordance with the screen-out questions employed by Cf. LIENEMANN (2021), p. 114. For a detailed description of “screener” questions see SHAMON/BERNING (2020), p. 56.
 
90
Cf. KOCH/PETER/MÜLLER (2019), p. 100 et seqq. The random assignment to the experimental and control groups is intended to ensure that there are an equal number of “frustrated” and “non-frustrated” respondents in all groups. This aspect is absolutely central, as without randomly distributed subjects, the requirements for experiment are not met. Cf. KOCH/PETER/MÜLLER (2019), p. 4. The random allocation should ensure that respondents with different characteristics are distributed approximately equally among all groups. Thus, factors such as a similar age structure, or good/bad mood can be held similar across groups. KOCH/PETER/MÜLLER (2019), p. 69.
 
91
Cf. GEUENS/DE PELSMACKER (2017), pp. 89 et seq.
 
92
Cf. GEUENS/DE PELSMACKER (2017), p. 70.
 
93
Cf. GEUENS/DE PELSMACKER (2017), p. 87.
 
94
Cf. GEUENS/DE PELSMACKER (2017), p. 86.
 
95
Cf. EVANS ET AL. (2017), p. 143; DE VEIRMAN/HUDDERS (2020), p. 125; BOERMAN/VAN REIJMERSDAL/NEIJENS (2012), p. 1054.
 
96
Cf. KARANDE/MAGNINI/TAM (2007), p. 192.
 
97
Cf. KUß/WILDNER/KREIS (2014), p. 129.
 
98
Cf. PODSAKOFF ET AL. (2003), p. 886.
 
99
Cf. SUDERMANN/MUNNUKKA (2022), p. 6.
 
100
Cf. KLEIN/BECKER (2018), p. 5.
 
101
Cf. EVANS ET AL. (2017), p. 143; DE VEIRMAN/ HUDDERS (2020), p. 31. BOERMAN/VAN REIJMERSDAL/NEIJENS (2012), p. 1054.
 
102
Cf. KARAGÜR/BECKER/KLEIN/EDELING (2021), p. 18.
 
103
Cf. KARAGÜR/BECKER/KLEIN/EDELING (2021), p. 18.
 
104
Cf. BORCHERS/HAGELSTEIN/BECKERT (2022), p. 984.
 
105
Cf. KLEIN/BECKER (2018), p. 5.
 
106
Cf. KARANDE/MAGNINI/TAM (2007), p. 192.
 
107
Cf. KUß/WILDNER/KREIS (2014), p. 129.
 
Metadata
Title
Experimental Study Design
Author
Corina Oprea
Copyright Year
2023
DOI
https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-658-41364-4_13

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