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2024 | Book

Intelligent Transportation System and Advanced Technology

Editors: Ram Krishna Upadhyay, Sunil Kumar Sharma, Vikram Kumar

Publisher: Springer Nature Singapore

Book Series : Energy, Environment, and Sustainability


About this book

This book explores the recent advancements in intelligent transportation sector. In today's rapidly evolving world, transportation plays a pivotal role in shaping our societies and economies. As the demands on our transportation systems continue to grow, there is an increasing need for innovative solutions to enhance efficiency, safety, and sustainability. This book provides a comprehensive and up-to-date exploration of the intersection between transportation and cutting-edge technology. It offers a thorough examination of the various facets of Intelligent Transportation Systems (ITS) and advanced technologies applied to the transportation sector. It analyzes the latest trends, technologies, and developments that are shaping the future of transportation, including AI, IoT, and smart infrastructure. It provides practical insights, case studies, and real-world examples to help transportation professionals and researchers understand how advanced technology can be applied to address transportation challenges. It discusses the policy and regulatory considerations surrounding the implementation of advanced transportation technologies and explores the potential future developments and advancements in the field, including the impact of emerging technologies.

Table of Contents



Chapter 1. Introduction to Intelligent Transportation System and Advanced Technology
Intelligent Transportation System (ITS) is the seamless fusion of Information and Communication Technologies (ICT) with transportation infrastructure, aiming to deliver innovative services across various modes of transportation and traffic. ITS empowers users with knowledge, ensuring a safer, more dependable, efficient, and user-friendly transportation experience while harmonizing with the entire transportation network to optimize usage. It has proven to be a highly effective strategy in alleviating traffic congestion. ITS encompasses a broad spectrum of technological applications designed to enhance transportation infrastructure. Its primary objective is to assess, innovate, analyze, and integrate novel technologies and concepts, ultimately enhancing traffic efficiency, environmental sustainability, energy conservation, time-saving, and safety and convenience for drivers, pedestrians, and all transportation stakeholders. Cutting-edge technologies such as data collection and evaluation systems, communication networks, digital mapping, video surveillance, sensors, and variable message signs have emerged as catalysts for transformative traffic management approaches on a global scale. The seamless integration of data collection, analysis, assessment, and dissemination contributes to the development of a comprehensive traffic management system that promotes seamless information sharing among managers and users alike.
Ram Krishna Upadhyay, Sunil Kumar Sharma, Vikram Kumar

Intelligent Transportation System, Materials, Process and Management

Chapter 2. A Systematic Review on Renewable Hydrogen Application in the Land Transportation Sector
Transportation systems play a vital role in society, fulfilling essential social and economic functions. However, the current state of these systems cannot be considered sustainable. The transportation sector is carbon intensive, i.e. largely driven by fossil fuels. This results in an unsustainable impact both for the environment, with the aggravation of global warming and climate change, and for people’s quality of life, mainly due to the associated pollution. Therefore, there are a lot of political and technical interests in the potential role that renewable hydrogen can support in a transition to a low-carbon economy. Thus, this study aims to conduct a systematic review with a bibliometric approach on the application of renewable hydrogen in the land transportation sector, i.e., in the road and rail sectors, providing insights into the following questions concerning the application of renewable hydrogen in the land transportation sector: (i) What are the key environmental, economic, social, and technological advantages of utilizing renewable hydrogen in land transportation? (ii) What challenges and barriers are encountered when implementing renewable hydrogen in land transportation, and what potential solutions can be implemented to overcome them? (iii) What technologies are currently available for incorporating renewable hydrogen into land transportation? (iv) What are the examples of successful initiatives and projects applying renewable hydrogen in the transportation sector? (v) What are the future prospects for widespread adoption of renewable hydrogen vehicles in land transportation? and (vi) What government policies and economic incentives exist to encourage the use of renewable hydrogen in land transportation?
Victor Hugo Souza de Abreu, Dante Luiz Da Ros Hollanda, Laís Ferreira Crispino Proença, Laura Bahiense, Andrea Souza Santos
Chapter 3. Efficiency Improvement of Reverse Logistics by Managing ITS Implementation and Analyzing Customer Behavior
Organizations frequently seek better approaches to work on their supply chain cycle. Customer satisfaction remains ahead of their rivals in the cutthroat manufacturing world. Reverse logistics has been viewed as a technique to rejuvenate supply chain processes for a decade. This research aims to provide a better reverse logistics process and how reverse logistics can be utilized as an administration system. This research brings up the essentials of reverse logistics and investigates what choices the present logistics administrators need to make consistently to improve their logistics model. A developing concern has been created to control rising worldwide contamination. Additionally, it draws out a portion of the impacts of reverse logistics choices on the climate and the other way around. The methodology used is categorized into two segments: survey overview and interview. The postulation begins by assembling crafted by logistics specialists in the hypothetical foundation area. Through an overview directed at a couple of manufacturing and related firms in India, a small image of how reverse logistics has entered the manufacturing scene has been drawn. This research also clarifies how reverse logistics exercises help associations accomplish green creation and logistics.
Saurabh Narwane, Rakesh Kumar, Ravi Shankar Sinha, Ram Krishna Upadhyay
Chapter 4. Studying the Effectiveness of Synthetic Rutile Made from Inferior Quality Ilmenite Ore
Ilmenite (FeO.TiO2) is the most abundant mineral available worldwide for the extraction of Titanium and its oxide. Titanium dioxide (TiO2) is the commonly produced intermediate chemical from Ilmenite ore. It is mostly used in the manufacture of paints, pigment, ceramics and welding rod coating which ultimately can be used in automobiles. The ore contained major amount of TiO2 and iron oxide. Dealing with subpar ilmenite ore poses significant challenges due to its reduced titanium dioxide content and elevated iron oxide composition. These challenges underscore the need for an innovative and efficient synthetic rutile production process. The thermal analysis pattern of Ilmenite mixed with 5% charcoal indicates loss in weight. The DTA plot does not reveal any drift and has a decreasing trend whereas the addition of 5% sodium carbonate along with 5% charcoal shows two drifts in the DTA plot. The reduction experiment is done at 1050 °C temperature for 90 min duration in a raising hearth furnace where Ilmenite pallets mixed with additive are dipped in a coal bed. The TiO2 recovery has been 86.39% in 30-min duration. The investigation demonstrates that TiO2 is formed with these mixtures at 1050 °C, whereas iron has been mostly converted to metallic iron. It is also observed that compared to addition of only 5% charcoal, the sodium carbonate (5%) yielded a higher amount of TiO2 (86.39%) in 90-min duration. This is attributed to an improved reduction environment during the reduction of mixed mass. The Ilmenite and different reduced products and leach residue have been characterized by X-Ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and studied to examine the path of the reaction.
Purushottam Kumar Singh, Santosh Kumar Mishra, Kartikeya Shukla, Pankaj Kumar
Chapter 5. Unearthing the Origins: A Comprehensive Analysis of Root Causes Behind Major Accidents in India’s Midstream and Downstream Petroleum Sector
Oil and gas industries being hazardous are prone to accidents, fire and explosion. Compared with other sectors, the management of the Oil and Gas industries is usually more concerned about safety. Several initiatives like introducing advanced technologies, structured training of the workforce, and preparation of safe operating procedures are being undertaken. Still, then, accidents do occur endangering life and property. Therefore, careful study of accidents’ root causes would definitely help in preventing possible unsafe conditions. If we can avoid unsafe conditions and introduce suitable mitigation measures, most of the accidents can be prevented and even if accidents occur, their impact can be minimized. Hence, the objective of the present chapter is to study the major accidents that occurred in India's midstream and downstream petroleum sectors and their root cause(s) and other contributing factors. It also categorizes the accident root causes and analyses the most frequent causes of accidents which can be prevented or its risk can be mitigated.
Jamunalal Rout, Gagan Aggarwal, Vineet Kumar Saxena, Hemalata Jena, Suchismita Satapathy
Chapter 6. Waste-To-Biofuel Production for the Transportation Sector
Addressing climate change and reducing reliance on fossil fuels necessitates decarbonizing the transportation sector. Biofuels are considered a renewable and cleaner energy source compared to fossil fuels. Biodiesel is a renewable alternative fuel that can be used in automotive vehicles. It is derived from various sources, such as vegetable oils, animal fats, or waste cooking oils (WCOs), and it can be blended with petroleum-derived diesel fuel or used in its pure form, depending on the vehicle and engine specifications. The aviation sector is experiencing significant growth, and as its greenhouse gas emissions contribute to approximately 2% of total global emissions, decarbonization poses an ongoing challenge. Sustainable aviation fuels represent the most viable solution for the aviation industry to address climate change and meet the increasing fuel demand in the sector. Waste feedstocks, such as WCOs, municipal solid waste, and lignocellulosic materials, show promise as valuable feed streams for producing biojet fuel. Although the railway sector is currently the most electrified subsector of transportation, oil accounts for 55% of total energy consumption, and biodiesel shows high potential as an alternative fuel. Finally, as the marine industry is currently exploring and evaluating the technical feasibility and commercial viability of alternative fuels such as ammonia, hydrogen, and methanol, as well as electro-fuels, biodiesel is emerging as an increasingly viable option in the short term that can provide immediate emission reductions. The current chapter highlights the progress and challenges associated with waste-to-biofuel production for the transportation sector, focusing on the automotive, aviation, rail, and maritime industries.
Nikolaos C. Kokkinos, Elissavet Emmanouilidou, Sunil Kumar Sharma
Chapter 7. Enhancing Multimodal Transportation in India: Jogighopa Multimodal Logistics Park
The Indian logistics industry is transforming at a rapid pace. The scale of progress in technology, infrastructure, and level of services by different service providers can define whether the industry can help its customers by reducing their logistics costs and providing effective services. At present, the cost of transportation of goods is less competitive for a country like India, with huge export potential and a fast-growing manufacturing sector. To enhance the efficiency of the Indian logistics sector, optimize the intermodal mix, provide support to organized warehousing and associated logistics activities, and remove bottlenecks in the supply chain, the Indian Government announced the development of MMLP under the Bharatmala Pariyojana. The proposed network of logistics parks is expected to reduce logistics costs by around 25%. However, overcoming many obstacles, like changing the modal shift of freight transportation, adopting better technologies, reducing inventory costs, improving timeliness, and easing custom clearance, is necessary. While there are many research articles on technology and infrastructure developments, little emphasis has been given to the detailed planning of Multimodal Logistics Park (MMLP). There has not been significant research on India’s first MMLP. This paper provides a perspective on these issues, explaining the importance, impact, and method for planning an integrated multimodal transportation system, outlining some of the critical challenges with the help of secondary information, and providing a methodology for constructing a multimodal logistics hub with the case study of India’s first multimodal logistics park in construction.
Jayant Gupta, Vaibhav Jaydeo Khobragade, Ram Krishna Upadhyay
Chapter 8. Management of Intelligent Transportation Systems and Advanced Technology
The management of Intelligent Transportation Systems (ITS) and advanced technology is crucial for the successful implementation and operation of modern transportation networks. This paper examines the role of management in ensuring the effectiveness and sustainability of ITS and advanced technology applications in transportation. Effective management encompasses various aspects, including system planning, deployment, operation, maintenance, and evaluation. The integration of advanced technologies such as sensors, communication systems, and data analytics requires comprehensive management strategies to optimize performance, enhance safety, and improve efficiency. Additionally, the management of ITS involves coordinating with various stakeholders, including government agencies, private sector entities, and transportation operators, to ensure seamless integration and interoperability. This paper also explores the challenges associated with managing ITS, such as data privacy, cybersecurity, and the need for skilled personnel. The said challenges could be efficiently managed by making provision of five vital functions to secure the system. The first one is identify (knowing the risk of data), second one protect (security controls were incorporated in the systems), third one detect (quickly spot actions should be activated), fourth one respond (ensure the system has enabled prompt response), and last one is recover (quickly re-establish the data and services). Effective management practices involve proactive monitoring, real-time decision-making, and continuous improvement to address emerging issues and adapt to changing technological landscapes. Furthermore, the paper highlights the importance of collaboration and knowledge sharing among different organizations and jurisdictions to leverage best practices and foster innovation in ITS management. By embracing effective management strategies, transportation authorities can unlock the full potential of advanced technologies, improving mobility, reducing congestion, and enhancing the overall transportation experience for users.
Subhash Kumar Verma, Richa Verma, Bipin Kumar Singh, Ravi Shankar Sinha
Chapter 9. Integration of Cycling with Public Transportation
Recent research by various agencies worldwide has proven that the transportation sector accounts for one-third of total CO2 emissions. It’s observed that motorized transit modes majorly contribute to this atmospheric pollution, especially short trips via these motorized vehicles. These short trips are highly inefficient and contribute disproportionately to emissions. Widespread use of motorized transit modes also causes traffic congestion and haphazard traffic growth, leading to air pollution, more greenhouse gas emissions, and long commuting times, causing human health degradation, environmental quality damage, and urban sustainability. These problems are faced by many cities in India and around the world and can be reduced by introducing measures that change the existing modal split and increase the share of cycling on daily trips. The present research focuses on integrating bicycle usage with public transportation in India. Bicycle-public bus intermodality is described in the case of various locations in Vadodara city where first-mile connectivity to the nearest bus stop is not provided by any transportation mode in particular, apart from privately owned vehicles. This research tries its best to build a base route model to promote intermodality and provide inferences and recommendations. Hence, cycling should be included in public transport systems to minimize disadvantages while increasing advantages. The increase in the use of cycling for daily trips depends significantly on an individual’s attitude toward cycling. Therefore, the government or private organizations should initiate appropriate policies, measures, and promotional programs to influence people’s attitudes. The methods proposed in this work are worthwhile, and the integration of cycling with public transportation modes is practical.
Arpit Gaur, Satvik Gupta, Ram Krishna Upadhyay
Chapter 10. Intelligent Technologies in High-Speed Rail Transit Systems
The rapidly spreading high-speed rail network poses severe challenges in the modern rail industry. These include increased traffic congestion and increased human errors in maintenance and traffic management. All these things raise the safety concerns of rail systems. The application of intelligent technologies not only gives a reliable solution to these problems, but also makes the system faster and more efficient. Many applications are developed for HSR systems based on intelligent technologies such as traffic control systems, fault detection systems, in-cab signaling systems, driver assistance systems, and navigation systems. These technologies have revolutionized various aspects of HSR systems and still continue to do so by enabling high-level automation and auto-adaptive systems. This chapter gives a detailed review of the usage of intelligent technologies in different sectors of high-speed rail (HSR) systems. It focuses on the application of artificial intelligence and machine learning technologies in sections such as traffic management, maintenance, communication, and more.
Nisha Prasad, Shailendra Jain
Chapter 11. Management of GPS Tracking Systems in Transportation
The management of GPS tracking systems plays a vital role in optimizing transportation systems and enhancing operational efficiency. This paper focuses on the management aspects associated with GPS tracking systems in transportation. GPS technology has revolutionized the way vehicles are tracked, monitored, and managed, enabling real-time visibility and effective decision-making. The management of GPS tracking systems encompasses various components, including system configuration, data collection, data analysis, and performance evaluation. Effective management ensures accurate positioning and tracking of vehicles, efficient route planning, timely dispatching, and effective resource allocation. Additionally, the integration of GPS data with other transportation management systems enhances situational awareness, enables proactive incident management, and improves customer service. The paper explores the challenges associated with GPS tracking system management, such as data quality, system reliability, and privacy concerns. It highlights the importance of implementing robust data governance practices, ensuring system integrity, and addressing security vulnerabilities. Furthermore, the paper emphasizes the significance of training and capacity building to empower transportation operators and managers in effectively utilizing GPS tracking systems. Collaboration among stakeholders, including transportation agencies, technology providers, and fleet operators, is essential for successful GPS tracking system management. By adopting effective management practices, transportation systems can benefit from improved operational efficiency, reduced costs, enhanced safety, and better customer satisfaction.
Richa Verma, Bipin Kumar Singh, Farah Zahidi

Sustainable Transportation System and Application

Chapter 12. Neighbourhood Walkability as a Determinant of Sustainable Transport Mode Choice: Evidence from Nigeria
Despite the increasing popularity, walking is gaining as a sustainable transport mode, it is often de-emphasised in the planning and design of neighbourhoods and cities as well as in transport infrastructure investments, especially in the developing world. Thus, the built environment greatly supports the automobile at the expense of active transport modes, resulting in an undesirable pedestrian environment. Studies have established that the characteristics of the built environment play a major role in residents’ choice of walking as a transport mode. Against this backdrop, this chapter attempts an assessment of neighbourhood walkability in Ilesa, Nigeria. Both subjective measurements, based on pedestrians’ perception, and objective measurements, through direct field observation, were taken. The data obtained were subjected to both descriptive and inferential analyses. It is found that neighbourhood walkability in Ilesa is directly proportional to residential density. Overall, the walkability level for Ilesa and its constituent neighbourhoods is found to be moderate, owing to a general deficit or absence of essential pedestrian facilities. Furthermore, a significant relationship is found between walking as a transport mode and several neighbourhood characteristics. The study concludes that overhauling some neighbourhood characteristics could encourage walking as a transport mode choice in the city. Consequently, practicable policy recommendations are proffered towards the overhauling of neighbourhood characteristics and the general improvement of the pedestrian environment in the city. It is hoped that, towards the promotion of sustainable transport, the findings of this study will be found relevant in policymaking, design/redesign, and planning of cities, especially in Nigeria.
Olorunfemi Ayodeji Olojede, Blessing Olufemi, Damilare Jeremiah Odeyemi, Peter Bolaji Oladeji, Adewale Sheyi Popoola, Ayorinde Oluwafemi Oladipupo, Elizabeth Tolulope Akinjobi
Chapter 13. Cost Construction Management of Aerial Rope Systems for Sustainable Public Transport in Green Cities
The general trend of modern urban planning and the creation of sustainable urban infrastructure is the implementation of the principles of social, economic and environmental impact within the framework of the concept of green (sustainable) cities. Aerial rope systems are one of the promising areas for the implementation of the principle of a car-free city, as they are an environmentally beneficial alternative for the development of zero-emission passenger transport. This research examines the technical aspects of the problem of managing the cost construction ropeways based on the development of optimization models that minimize the total cost of construction by choosing the optimal route, taking into account urban infrastructure and terrain, as well as by choosing the optimal height and the placement distance of intermediate towers, the optimal tension of the load-bearing ropes. The developed models and the results of optimization can serve as a guide for a preliminary assessment of the number and height of towers, their installation locations and the characteristics of the rope system. It is advisable to use them at the initial stage of designing a ropeway to compare the cost of various options for the location of the ropeway route and reduce the risk of error when choosing the least expensive option. The need to take into account a large number of restrictions related to the placement of urban infrastructure and terrain features is the reason for the rather high cost of construction of rope transport systems.
Alexander V. Lagerev, Igor A. Lagerev
Chapter 14. Advanced Techniques in Upgrading Crude Bio-oil to Biofuel
The transition towards sustainable energy sources necessitates the exploration of alternative options, and biomass waste presents a promising avenue for biofuel production. This study delves into advanced techniques for upgrading crude bio-oil derived via thermochemical conversion of biomass waste, transforming it into a viable and efficient biofuel. The study highlights the significance of biofuels, the potential of biomass waste as an energy resource, and the need for upgrading crude bio-oil to overcome its limitations. Pyrolysis emerges as a key process to convert biomass waste into bio-oil, setting the stage for further discussions. The energy-related physicochemical properties of bio-oil are explored, unveiling its complex nature and limitations. High oxygen content, low thermal energy (heating value), and corrosiveness are key limitations of crude bio-oil. These limitations set the backdrop for advanced upgrading techniques that aim to enhance bio-oil's quality and applicability. Hydrodeoxygenation (HDO), catalytic cracking, and hydrotreating emerge as critical upgrading methods. HDO reduces oxygen content through catalytic reactions, catalytic cracking breaks down complex compounds into valuable hydrocarbons, and hydrotreating reduces impurities. Each technique's mechanisms, benefits, and challenges are discussed. Upgraded biofuels resulting from these techniques exhibit improved energy-related physicochemical properties. Reduced oxygen content, higher calorific value, and decreased corrosiveness achievable via these mechanisms for bio-oil make them viable replacements for fossil fuels. Moreover, upgraded biofuels have substantial benefit since they demonstrated improved combustion property, emitting fewer pollutants and contributing to cleaner energy systems. The compatibility of upgraded biofuels with internal combustion engines and existing infrastructure positions them as practical alternatives. The transition towards commercialization is examined, considering economic feasibility and environmental benefits. Ongoing research trends, technological advancements, and policy frameworks shape the future prospects of upgraded biofuels.
Abiodun Oluwatosin Adeoye, Rukayat Oluwatobiloba Quadri, Olayide Samuel Lawal, Dosu Malomo, Emmanuel Oghenero Emojevu, Omotayo Oluyemisi Omonije, Olalere Kayode Odeniyi, Moshood Olatunji Fadahunsi, Muhammad Jibrin Yelwa, Samson Abiodun Aasa, Augustine Eyikwuojo Onakpa, Busuyi Patrick Omoniyi, Ibrahim N. Mark, Joseph Usman, Aminu Muhammad Ismaila, Abdullahi Usmanu Saidu
Chapter 15. Advancements in Vibration Analysis for Rail Vehicle Dynamics
Rail vehicle dynamics and vibration analysis play a pivotal role in ensuring the safety, comfort, and efficiency of modern railway systems. This manuscript presents a comprehensive review of the latest advancements in vibration analysis techniques applied to rail vehicles. Vibration phenomena in rail vehicles are a complex interplay of multiple factors, including track irregularities, vehicle dynamics, suspension systems, and operational conditions. This review aims to provide a consolidated overview of the methodologies, tools, and research trends that have emerged in this field. The manuscript begins by discussing the fundamental concepts of rail vehicle dynamics and its connection to vibration behavior. Various sources of vibration excitation are identified, including wheel–rail interactions, aerodynamic forces, and track irregularities. Classical methods of vibration analysis, such as modal analysis and frequency response analysis, are examined in the context of rail vehicles, highlighting their strengths and limitations. Furthermore, the manuscript delves into modern approaches that have gained prominence in recent years. These include model-based techniques leveraging multi-body dynamics simulations, finite element analysis, and computational tools for comprehensive assessment of vehicle behavior under diverse operating conditions. Additionally, the integration of advanced sensor technologies and data-driven methods for real-time monitoring and diagnosis of vibration issues is explored. The review also addresses the significance of vibration control and mitigation strategies for enhancing rail vehicle performance. Active and passive control techniques are discussed, encompassing adaptive suspensions, tuned dampers, and energy harvesting mechanisms. The effectiveness of these strategies in reducing vibration amplitudes, enhancing passenger comfort, and extending the longevity of rail infrastructure is thoroughly examined.
Azad Duppala, Srihari Palli, Rallabandi Sivasankara Raju, Dowluru Sreeramulu, Suman Pandipati, Pavan Kumar Rejeti
Intelligent Transportation System and Advanced Technology
Ram Krishna Upadhyay
Sunil Kumar Sharma
Vikram Kumar
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Springer Nature Singapore
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