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About this book

The papers included in this book were presented at the International Conference “New Technologies, Development and Application,” which was held at the Academy of Sciences and Arts of Bosnia and Herzegovina in Sarajevo, Bosnia and Herzegovina on 28th–30th June 2018. The book covers a wide range of technologies and technical disciplines including complex systems such as: Robotics, Mechatronics Systems, Automation, Manufacturing, Cyber-Physical Systems, Autonomous Systems, Sensors, Networks, Control Systems, Energy Systems, Automotive Systems, Biological Systems, Vehicular Networking and Connected Vehicles, Effectiveness and Logistics Systems, Smart Grids, Nonlinear Systems, Power Systems, Social Systems, and Economic Systems.

Table of Contents

Frontmatter

New Technologies in Mechanical Engineering, Metallurgy, Mechatronics, Robotics and Embedded Systems

Frontmatter

Automation of the Welding Process by Use of Industrial Robots

The development of robotic technology, owing to the advancement of digital technology, is evolving each year, resulting in increased representation of industrial robots. We are currently in the fourth industrial revolution, referred to as “Industry 4.0” by the Germans. The implementation of the fourth technological revolution depends on a series of new and innovative technological achievements, most of which are applied in robotic technology. Automation of production processes, including automation of the welding process, must include industrial robots. This paper demonstrates the representation of industrial robots in the world continents, and four top countries: China, Japan, North America and Germany. An analysis was conducted of the annual representation of industrial robots in the welding process worldwide and on continents of Asia/Australia, Europe, and Americas, for the period 2010–2016. As it is known that industrial robots are most represented in the automotive industry, a tendency of their representation was depicted in the automotive industry for the same period, as well as the percentage in all industrial branches by 2016. Industrial robots are most widely used in two welding processes: arc welding and spot welding, so an analysis of their representation in these two welding processes for the period 2010–2016 was conducted. A comparative analysis of the annual production of vehicles in four countries was made: China, Japan, USA and Germany, as well as the presence of robots in these countries in the welding processes. The paper also includes the analysis and possibilities of future industrial robot representation in this area.

Isak Karabegović, Riaz Mirza

Modelling of Multiphase Twin Screw Machines

Twin screw compressors used in refrigeration, gas and air compression represent approximately 80% of the millions of industrial positive displacement compressors produced globally each year. More than 95% of these are oil injected. Oil injected twin screw compressor is just one type of multiphase screw machines. Other include twin screw expanders, multiphase pumps and motors. Multiphase twin screw machines are traditionally analysed and designed by use of chamber thermodynamic models. However for further improvement of efficiency and reliability it is necessary to use more advanced modelling techniques such as 3D Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD). In order to obtain fast and accurate solution of multiphase screw machines using CFD, it is important that a numerical grid of the highest quality is generated quickly and reliably. For that purpose, a deforming grid of a twin screw machine is generated using algebraic transfinite interpolation upon which an elliptic partial differential equations (PDE) of the Poisson’s form are solved numerically to produce smooth final computational mesh. This paper gives a review of the current state of art in the application of CFD in modelling of multiphase twin screw machines including compressors, expanders and pumps. Future challenges and development trends in application of CFD for multiphase twin screw machines are also shown in the paper.

Ahmed Kovacevic, Sham Rane, Nikola Stosic

Influence of Injection Molding Process Parameters on Part Quality

A case study to determine the influence of injection molding process parameters on part quality is performed. Part quality is evaluated based on deflection rate, volumetric shrinkage, and sink mark depth results. Considered process parameters are mold temperature, melt temperature, injection time, pack time, pack pressure and cooling time. A thin walled butterfly valve flap and a thick walled butterfly valve shaft are analyzed separately. Polypropylene is used as molding material. A design of experiment based on the Taguchi method is generated for both parts and a computer simulation to solve the case matrixes is executed. Relative process parameter influence on each individual quality criteria is determined by analysis of variance. Importance of process temperatures as well as parameter impact dependence on characteristic part shape is reveled.

Janez Gotlih, Miran Brezočnik, Igor Drstvenšek, Timi Karner, Karl Gotlih

Numerical Analysis of Material Fatigue Impact on Bicycle Frame Safety in Accordance with EN 14764

Bicycles represent the most widespread means of transport today. The basis for a large bike usage is its relatively simple construction. There are many different types and shapes of bicycles on the market. In order to protect buyers and users from low quality and unstable bicycles, standards have been developed that prescribe minimum safety requirements and test methods before placing the bicycle on the market.The European standard for urban and recreational bicycles has the designation EN 14764 and prescribes, inter alia, the procedure for testing the impact of material fatigue on the safety of the bicycle frame.The study of how the impact of material fatigue affects the appearance of bicycle crack is carried out using numerical simulations. Simulations were performed on a concrete sample of BASMAN’s bicycle manufacturer GS-TMT Travnik.The research carried out has shown that numerical simulations can help to determine the direction in which the designer creates a solution meeting the requirements of the standards at the very beginning of the bicycle design.The results of the numerical simulations have shown what needs to be done to make the analysed bicycle frame fulfilled the test requirements prescribed by EN 14764. Analysis also showed the concentration of stresses in certain zones on the examined bicycle frame, which coincide with the point at which a cracking occurred at one used bicycle.

Nermina Zaimović-Uzunović, Ernad Bešlagić, Almir Porča

The Influence of the Tool Geometry on the Quality of the Weld in FSW Process

There are several friction welding procedures that have, to a greater or lesser extent, a commercial application, among which can be distinguished FSW - Friction Stir Welding. Firstly, using the FSW procedure, straight-line compounds were obtained, and soon afterwards also curvilinear, including circular. In addition to the great interest in the FSW process, many aspects of this process have not been sufficiently explored. This applies, inter alia, to the geometry of the tool. In this paper, the application of FSW welding to aluminium alloys is investigated, by varying different types of tool pin used during welding. Also, microstructure testing was performed, which was used for comparison and gradation of the quality of welds, welded with tools of different geometric shapes.

Aleksandra Koprivica, Nikola Šibalić, Milan Vukčević, Mirjana Jokanović

Dimension Measurement of Injection Moulded Toybricks

Polymer toybricks are available in different shapes and sizes, and their price varies significantly. The aim of this paper is to test whether high price of some brands of toybricks corresponds to their quality, in terms of dimension accuracy. For this purpose, two kinds of toybricks were tested: one made by the renowned LEGO® company, the other model made by anonymous Chinese manufacturer. In addition to visual differences, such as colour stability and finishing quality, the difference is in quality and accuracy of shapes and dimensions that can affect the characteristics of the bricks, such as: quality and stable connection with other bricks in the assembly, lifetime etc. The main characteristic tested here is the dimension tolerance of specific dimensions of toybricks.

Samir Lemeš, Anel Baručija

Wire and Arc Additive Manufacturing (WAAM) – A New Advance in Manufacturing

Additive Manufacturing (AM) is a technique where structures are produced by adding and depositing material in a layer upon layer manner. WAAM (Wire and Arc Additive Manufacturing) is a technology which has been investigated in last 30 years, although the first patent dates from almost 100 years ago. It became interesting for scientists and manufacturers due to its ability to produce fully dense metal parts and large near-net-shape products. WAAM is mostly used in modern industries, like aerospace industry. It uses existing welding equipment, electric arc as energy source and welding wire as feedstock. Because of this, it is cheaper than other AM technologies, which usually need specific equipment and materials. The process consists of few steps (designing CAD model, slicing into layers, tool-path generating, choosing welding parameters, material deposition and post-processing). The aim of this paper is to explain WAAM in detail, give are view about researches so far in this area and to give suggestions for new advances.

Nikola Knezović, Angela Topić

Analysis of the Type and Chemical Content of the Inclusion on SEM of the Stainless Steel With and Without the Addition of Zr and Te

Control of the formation of non-metallic inclusions and their characterization is presenting the foundation for improving of the qualities of steel products, as well as designing of the new types of steel.In order to produce steel with improved machinability, such as austenitic stainless steel X8CrNiS18-9 modification of the chemical composition of non-metallic inclusions is made. In this paper the SEM studies of the presence and type of inclusions in austenitic stainless steel with the addition of sulphur of the label X8CrNiS18-9 without addition and addition of alloying elements Zr and Te, were carried out individually in order to investigate its influence on the shape and chemical composition of the inclusions.

Derviš Mujagić, Aida Imamović, Mirsada Oruč, Sulejman Muhamedagić

Strength and Deformation Calculation of Flat O-Springs

A range of flat O-springs has been developed. 3D computer modeling has been performed with strength and deformation calculation using the software products Autodesk Inventor Professional and SolidWorks. A computer-planned experiment has been made and regression equations have been obtained for determination of the maximum stresses and deformations of the O-springs. The results are shown graphically.

Ivan Balashev, Mariel Penev, Ivan Stoyanov, Radoslav Balashev

Prototype Apparatus for Calibration Contact Sensors for Measuring the Temperature of a Solid Surface

The paper is about calibration of contact sensors for measuring temperature of solids surface. The paper describes process of idea development, design and make of prototype apparatus for calibration of contact sensors in temperature range from +50 °C to +600 °C is described. The apparatus consists of two separate and integrated systems for heating. The test results are given in the form gained by measurement determined characterization of the relevant parameters of the apparatus, according to the protocol for the validation of the method. The significant improvements and innovative approach are confirmed and extending of the temperature range up to 600 °C is provided. These innovations are related to the way of heating the reference body to a set temperature calibration point. The innovations are also seen in a way to ensure long-term uniformity of temperature profile and stability of the temperature of the reference surface with standard deviations less than 0,01 °C to 0,05 °C, based on values read-out during 180 min in the entire calibration range. The specified individual and summary contributions of measurement uncertainty of the apparatus for all calibration points are specified in the end.

Edin Terzić, Raif Seferović, Narcisa Jarović-Bajramović

Automatic Control of Tube Hydroforming Process in Experimental Conditions

Automatic control of tube hydroforming process enables control of the process by application of appropriate sensors for measuring fluid pressure, axial force of the press and axial displacement. In addition, it also provides control of the operation system of electric motor, hydraulic system for achieving fluid working pressure (pump, multiplier, proportional valve…), hydraulic drive for opening/closing hydroforming tools and axial punches. The paper presents an example of introducing automatic control of the tube hydroforming process in experimental conditions.

Edina Karabegović, Edin Šemić, Safet Isić

Analysis and Determination of Friction in Hydroforming Process of Cross Tube

In hydroforming process of cross tube significant influence has a friction between tool and workpiece related to a tool load, stability of forming process and success of obtaining final piece.Although friction in hydroforming process is a lower intensity it affects the increase of process parameters and contact stresses, which results in greater tool load and decreasing its use span.In this paper analysis of friction in hydroforming process of cross tube and determination of friction coefficient using experimental results and simulation with software simufact.forming is given.

Mehmed Mahmić, Edina Karabegović, Ermin Husak

Science of Metals Through Lens of Microscope

Man atempts to know and see what is not visible with the naked eye goes back to the far past. By the combination of concave and convex lenses, in the 16th century, Dutchman Janssen made the first ever-increasing instrument. Robert Hooke was first used to illuminate objects using artificial light and gave a first description of plant cells still afar 1665. Henry Clifton Sorby, in the 1960s, was the first to apply a microscope in metal testing. Today, microscopes are used daily for the testing purity of metals and alloys, the presence of nonmetallic inclusions, the microstructural phase present in the alloys as a result of various forms of heat treatment. This paper gives an overview of the possibilities of light microscopes in the testing of metal materials.

Belma Fakić, Adisa Burić, Edib Horoz

Increase of Performance of Grinding by Plate Circles

A method is proposed for increasing the grinding efficiency of gear wheels by two disk wheels. The possibility of increasing grinding capacity on machines working in two circles by the method of bending without reducing the accuracy of processing has been revealed. The conditions for increasing the processing capacity are determined when placing the disc wheels in one and two adjacent cavities of the treated wheel.

Tonkonogyi Vladimir, Yakimov Alexey, Bovnegra Liubov

Analysis of Torsional Vibration of the Engine Connected with Propeller Through Pair of Gears

The determination of natural frequencies and the mode shapes of vibration of discrete and continuous systems is one of the basic tasks that are solved in the vibrations of these systems. By knowing these values, it is possible to avoid unwanted occurrences in the system. In this paper the torsional vibrations of the shafts of a marine engine connected with a propeller through pair of gears are analysed. A well-known process of transforming gear system with a multiple shafts to a single shaft or torsion chain with definite number of degrees of freedom has been carried out. From this analysis natural frequencies and mode shapes of vibration have been obtained. Then, a numerical analysis of the torsional vibration of the shafts of the engine connected with propeller through a pair of gears has been carried out using the ANSYS software.

Ermin Husak, Erzad Haskić

FEM Model of Misaligned Rotational System with Rotating Looseness

Importance of knowing characteristics of rotational systems vibrations is significant, since it is main cause of machine failure. Vibration analysis could facilitate determination of the machine fault. As a part of the research on machine faults and its reflection on the machine behavior, numerical modeling could give excellent starting information for future research. Finite element model of rotational system motor – flexible coupling – rotor is presented in this paper. As a fault analyzed in this paper, misalignment and rotating looseness are used and modelled as external loads. For this modelled rotational system is shown that it is suitable for analysis of rotational machinery vibrations.

Emir Nezirić, Safet Isić, Isak Karabegović, Avdo Voloder

Application of Explosives in Metal Forming

The use of explosives in deformation process is one of the most interesting and still insufficiently explored areas. This unconventional technology has an increasing use because of being much cheaper and not requiring expensive tools, machines. Explosive as a source of energy has a low price as well. This paper involves deep-drawing explosion technology as well as one of the tools which is used for this technology. High-alloy steels are used to make dies strength, concrete, plastics and others. Also types of media that can be used in processes of explosion are mentioned. Because the calculated mass of required explosives can differ up to 200%, three distinct expressions are suggested, as well as expression for calculating of detonation rate by Dautriche method.

Darko Šunjić, Stipo Buljan

Application of Iterative Methods to Solve Inverse Kinematics Problem of Robot

One of the most important segments of robotics is solving inverse kinematics of the robot. The paper presents the application of numerical methods iteration by individual coordinates, to solve the inverse problem of kinematics of the robot. This problem involves the determination of unknown internal coordinates of the robot, if they know the external coordinates. Using this method, the solution converges quickly, as can be seen from the illustrative examples in the paper.

Avdo Voloder

Parameter Fitting for Soft Dielectric Elastomer Actuator

Big progress has been made recently in humanoid robotics with the development of human like robots. Humanoid robots are becoming more and more similar to humans, but what they still lack are proper mechanical actuators which are still based on rotary motors or pneumatic cylinders. With the development of soft actuators one is getting closer to mimic the natural behavior of muscles. Dielectric elastomer actuators can be used as soft actuators. They can be described with fractional derivative Kelvin-Voigt model. With the help of fractional derivatives and least-square method one can use this combination in algorithm for parameter fitting. Fractional Kelvin-Voigt model can describe wider working frequency range of dielectric elastomer actuator as can basic Kelvin-Voigt model do.

Timi Karner, Janez Gotlih, Boštjan Razboršek, Karl Gotlih

Timber Construction and Robots

The timber construction is using Robots from the phase of production to the assembling of the prefabricated houses. The usage of Robots is based on the need of the producer of prefabricated houses in the sense of software’s programmed specially for certain production. The light timber construction are produced and assembled with programs, mainly organized from the side of the CNC centers and the Robots from the same machine producers. Unlike light frame constructions the heavy wait timber constructions needs different programs for production and additional Robots for assembling. Justification of usage of Roberts should be based on a long term strategic plans of production and assembling when they use digital designs.

Salah-Eldien Omer

Conceptual Solution of the Robotic Arm/Plotter

In everyday life - a person performs actions that require a lot of repetition, and therefore a lot of time. By creating a robot that would process and store data in real-time, repeating the given actions a certain number of times, it would eliminate the human presence in the process itself. In this regard, the aim of this paper is the development of a conceptual robot solution that would replace a human in performing some routine hand-executed functions, such as writing, drawing, and engraving. Realization of the resulting conceptual solution would have low cost of production and small dimensions, while easy portability would allow a greater accessibility and application, both in industrial plants and in personal use.

Milena Djukanovic, Rade Grujicic, Luka Radunovic, Vuk Boskovic

Robot for Cleaning Ventilation Ducts

Conceptual solution of robot for cleaning ventilation channel will be shown and elaborated upon in this work. Our research focuses on the non-destructive techniques to clean the dust, fungi, foreign particles and it also detects flaws, cracks, and corrosion inside the ducts. This research involves a semi-autonomous robot powered by rechargeable batteries, with four driven wheels for movement inside different cross-sectional ducts. It comprises of several sensors such as ultrasonic distance sensors for autonomous movement, quality of air sensor and HD camera to provide the great visuals for inspection of various parameters inside the ducts. Additional equipment like LED light and DC motor for brushes are also envisaged. The main objectives are to clean the ducts by a cleaning brushes attached to the robot, and ducts inspection by a HD camera, helping to provide the healthy conditioned air supply to the chambers. The simple design of robot makes it more convenient and useful for varying cross section ducts and can helps to possible vendors build its bond at consumer ends.

Milos Bubanja, Marina Mijanovic Markus, Milena Djukanovic, Mihailo Vujovic

Cloud Robotics

Cloud Robotics is a developing field of robotics, which currently includes various applications and network paradigmas. The robots are limited in terms of computing ability, memory and data storing. Cloud offers unlimited computing ability, memory, data storing and especially a possibility for cooperation. In this paper, an overview of definitions, concepts and technologies related to cloud robotics is given. Cloud robotics may have an important role in the future asa a technology which is directed at man, capable of solving society’s problems.

Samir Vojić

Vibration Analysis of Motorcycle Handles

The exposure of men, or parts of their bodies, to vibration has been the subject of numerous studies for decades and has resulted in better understanding of many parameters governing the human response to vibrations. In particular, regarding the hand-arm system, vibration can cause changes in tendons, muscles, bones and joints and can affect the nervous system to eventually produce the so-called Hand-Arm Vibration Syndrome (HAVS). Quantification of the parameters affecting the subjective response of different individuals has led to define numerous standards as, for example, the EN ISO 5349-1 and EN ISO 5349-2 regarding the measurement and evaluation of human exposure to hand-transmitted vibrations. Moreover, the European Directive 2002/44/EC on the minimum health and safety requirements, regarding worker exposure to risks from physical agents (e.g. vibration), limit the exposure to vibrations. The aim of this study is to analyse the exposure level of motorcycle drivers to hand-arm vibration (HAV). For this research, vibration levels of a common 650 cm3 maxi scooter were experimentally measured and the maximum driving time that could be safely used was established.

Zlata Jelačić, Boran Pikula

Acoustic Diagnostics of Lever Mechanisms with Subsequent Processing of Data on Neural Networks

The technique of acoustic diagnostics for machine tools - robots is developed. A neural network reference model has been constructed that allows to diagnose the current characteristics of the state of objects under different conditions, namely, the configuration of the mechanism, the geometric parameters of the mechanism with the motor-spindle running, the dynamics of the movement of the nodes of the experimental stand mechanism with variable speed and load on the drive, and the temperature of the object. Experiments have been carried out to investigate the relationship between the parameters of the spectrum of an acoustic signal with a given discreteness, excited by a perturbing effect in the form of “white noise.” The possibility of using the proposed approach to the management of complex technological machines, such as machines with mechanisms based on parallel kinematics, is shown to improve the accuracy of the positioning of the actuators, to ensure their dynamic tuning and to optimize the trajectories of the movements of the working organs of the equipment.

Sergiy Kovalevskyy, Olena Kovalevska, Raul Turmanidze

Power and Control System of Knee and Ankle Powered Above-Knee Prosthesis

After above-knee amputation, amputees usually go under intense rehabilitation process in order to overcome their disadvantage and successfully reintegrate in the society. Passive prostheses, which are mostly used by amputees, enable performing of various activities such as walking on levelled and inclined ground, and even running, riding a bicycle and as of lately swimming. However, performing high power demanding tasks, such as stair ascent, presents a problem because the lack of muscles makes it impossible to produce required forces. This means, that in order for the prosthesis to be able to perform high demanding power activities it must be powered, primarily in its main joints – knee and ankle. In this paper, we are presenting hydraulic power system and control system for knee and ankle powered prosthesis which we are developing in order to achieve required kinematics and dynamics of the prosthesis which would enable it to perform high power demanding activities in more natural manner, especially stair ascent.

Miljan Rupar, Zlata Jelačić, Remzo Dedić, Adisa Vučina

Computer Science, Information and Communication Technologies, e-Business

Frontmatter

Cyber Security Capacity Building Planning Within Organisations

Organisations are facing challenges of protecting their data in cyberspace since damages of cyberattacks might potentially run into billions, besides killing investor confidence and denting brand image. Recent data shows that one of key threats for organisations are insider attacks caused by person who has/had authorized access to an organization’s information system, and thus having the knowledge about the system and being a potential point of intrusion, and jeopardizing the availability, integrity and confidentiality of the organization’s information systems. That is a reason why we analyse key factors influencing planning of capacity building activities for employees, and thus making optimal planning of raising awareness, training and education activities.

Ramo Šendelj, Ivana Ognjanović

New Method of Sequences Spiral Hybrid Using Machine Learning Systems and Its Application to Engineering

In an era of increased emphasis on sustainability and quality assurance, knowledge about metals and other materials used in products, manufacturing processes, and construction is invaluable. Metallurgy is the study of the physical and chemical behaviour of metallic elements. CNC operators typically test many materials with different CNC machine parameters to optimize the topological properties of materials. In this article we present a solution to this problems. We analyse SEM pictures of the microstructure of robot laser hardened specimens using graph theory and fractal geometry. Intelligent systems methods enable predictions for mechanical engineering based on a hybrid of genetic programming and multiple regression, with applications to metallurgy and mechanical engineering. Hybrid evolutionary computation is a generic, flexible, robust, and versatile method for solving complex global optimisation problems that can also be used in practical applications. Hybrid intelligent systems enhance laser hardening by decreasing the process time and increasing the topographical properties of materials.

Matej Babič, Isak Karabegović, Sanda Ipšič Martinčič, Gyula Varga

A Multifunctional Platform for Elders’ Assisting to Live Alone

Living well demands for many facilities in order to assist the people suffering from different disease, especially for those who are unattended by a nurse. The houses of elder people that prefer to live alone require the equipment with such facilities that we think will help them to carry on with their life on their own. According to the recent statistics the prevalence of dementia is increasing as a trend with a sharp curve. Where the observations has shown that belonging to this group are mostly the people of middle or greater age, so 25%–30% of people of age 85 years old or older suffer from this disease. In order to make more enjoyable their life we have thought to build a multifunctional platform that will assist them during the day. Another purpose of this platform will be the notification of their relatives mostly their children, so the platform will show them that they parents or relatives are in good health. So they can be notified if something unusual and bad happened to them and this will be achieved through a non invasive system. The platform LAB (Living Alone Better) that we are proposing is a multifunctional application. The main features of it is to remember them to take their medicines, when it is time to have their meals and as well to notify them to attend the visits to their doctors when it is scheduled beforehand, in the day and the hour when the appointment is fixed. Beside it they can do some physical training by following the instructions said by voice of a trainer. Through the interaction with the platform they can interact as well with their friends, they can read or hear the paper headlines in their own language being the news local or from a larger region of interest from the continent of world wide. Also in case of any home incidence they can dial the emergency number by just pressing a button and a registered voice call with their data and geo-location will part toward the hospital as well a sms which will be sent in automatic to their family members. In this sms is written the information regarding the incidence when it happens in real time. By reading their location the platform will be able to connect them to their nearest friends. So they can hang out together to a near place of interest that can be: a green space, a museum, a theatre, some bars or restaurant and the system could tell them about the weather conditions and the forecast for their zone. Also it will show the shortest path to follow or the nearest bus station or train that they can catch to reach a destination. For their entertainment they can listen to the radio, or hear some music from a predefined list, also some brain training games are implemented in the platform. This platform is designed to be very simple in use without any complexity added, so it can help the elder people to use it and live better even that those have preferred to live alone. Using such platform is a necessity also in our country as the middle age is increasing.

Blerina Zanaj, Fatjon Shaba, Majlinnda Belegu, Gerti Boshnjaku

Economic Aspects of the Application of Cloud Computing

The Paradigm, on which cloud computing was built, as a new model for using IT services, has been known since the beginning of computing, and was created as a result of analogy with the way public utility services are used and paid for: water, gas, electricity, telecommunication services, etc. However, the practical realization of this idea was only possible after the emergence of the Internet and the rapid development of a range of other information and communication technologies. One of the root causes of both the development and the progress of cloud computing is significant time savings, lower risks and fewer barriers to the introduction of new applications, as well as significant cost savings in the implementation of IT projects. The aim of this paper is to briefly introduce some areas of cloud computing, then explain the key benefits and attractiveness of cloud computing in relation to other types of computing, and ultimately consider the economic aspects and issues that are related to it.

Mirha Bičo Ćar, Savo Stupar, Elvir Šahić

The Role of Hadoop Technology in the Implementation of Big Data Concept

Thanks to the incredible speed of the development of Information and Communication Technologies, a huge amount of information is generated in the world today that is increasing with every day. Since such a large amount of data could not be stored and processed (in real or reasonable time) using conventional methods of storing and processing data, a new paradigm of storage, processing and managing of large quantities, variety and data processing speed called the Big Data concept appeared. The aim of this paper is to try to explain the need and significance of the Big Data concept, the changes in data manifestations from the Big Data concept and the role of Hadoop technology as a whole and its components individually in the practical realization of this concept. Since the practical realization of the Big Data concept would not be possible without the corresponding components of Hadoop technology, the paper will deal with the aspects of economics and productivity of storage, processing and data analysis.

Savo Stupar, Mirha Bičo Ćar, Elvir Šahić

Cybernetization of Industrial Product-Service Systems in Network Environment

The beginning of the new millennium, from the point of view of industrial production, is characterized by the rapid development of information and communication technologies and the Internet on one side, as well as globalization, uncertainty and ever-increasing demands of the contemporary market on the other. The basic question that arises from this relationship is: How to balance these two diametrically opposite “half”, which are interconnected at the same time? The answer can be sought undoubtedly in the innovations of products, production technologies and production management methods on the underlying principles advocated by the new Industrial Revolution named in Industry 4.0. The proposed paper is part of the concept of cybernetization of advanced production systems developed in the framework of research work in the field of structuring reference models of cyber-physical production systems. The focus is on showing the cybernetic participants of modern industrial manufacturing and service systems and their connection to the Internet of Service Network.

Elvis Hozdić, Zoran Jurković

Technology-Enhanced Systems in Idiopathic Scoliosis 3D Diagnosis and Screening

This paper presents some of the recently developed solutions for non-invasive scoliosis assessment and diagnosis. Scoliosis is a complex 3D deformity that affects younger population especially in early adolescence, usually without a known reason. The main standard in traditional scoliosis evaluation is single or biplanar radiography in frontal and sagittal plane of the patient and so-called Cobb angle measured on the dominant deformity curve. Nowadays, it is recommended, by many professional societies, to avoid intensive and often X-ray (ionizing) rehearsals and monitoring due to cumulative harmful effect on patients. In that course many research and development institutes and companies offer wide variety solutions for non-invasive diagnosis. Many of these are based on an optical 3D digitizer and software necessary to extract or estimate the degree of deformity and to generate its visualization. We also gave a contribution to this topic with innovative optical method - 3D Scoliosis simulator.

Saša M. Ćuković, William R. Taylor, Ionuţ G. Ghionea

Contributions to Improve the Sustainability in Services Based Organizations

The sustainability of the services based organization consist on its ability to monitor the external environment about opportunities, changes, trends and risks, as well as the ability to learn, change and innovate. To reach the sustainability threshold, the organization must focus on both results and processes. A viable solution is to adopt a quality strategy that allows a perceptible perception of its products to its customers. This research purpose is to identify the extent of which organizations are sustainable and seek to meet the interests of all the involved stakeholders, as well as to help the organizations to identify areas where they can improve their performance.

Mihail Aurel Titu, Bianca Alina Pop, Stefan Titu

Applying Weighted Particle Swarm Optimization to Imbalanced Data in Software Defect Prediction

Imbalanced data typically refers to class distribution skews and underrepresented data, which affect the performance of learning algorithms. Such data are well-known in real-life situations, such as behavior analysis, cancer malignancy grading, industrial systems’ monitoring and software defect prediction. In this paper, we present a W-PSO method, which comprises weighting of instances in a dataset and the Particle Swarm Optimization algorithm. The presented method was combined with classification methods C4.5 and Naive Bayes, respectively, and tested experimentally on ten freely accessible software defect prediction datasets. Based on the results achieved, the presented W-PSO method creates better classification models than classification methods C4.5 and Naive Bayes in the majority of the cases.

Lucija Brezočnik, Vili Podgorelec

Intelligent Transport Systems, Logistics, Traffic Control

Frontmatter

Cooperative Systems in Traffic Technology and Transport

Traffic and transport engineering of the 21st century requires new approaches to make transport safer, more efficient and reliable. The requirements for urban traffic are especially high with demands in integration of different transport modes and significant reduction of noise and air pollution. Technological approach known as intelligent transport systems is based on the use of modern information-communication technologies and artificial intelligence algorithms. A particularly important area are cooperative systems that provide wirelessly communication between vehicles, infrastructure (roads and related equipment) and other users (pedestrians, vulnerable road user, etc.). The main characteristics of Traffic Cooperative Systems Architecture and some typical applications are described in the paper.

Sadko Mandžuka

Wireless Sensor Network Based Alarm Detection and Monitoring of Cyber-Physical System with Mobile Robot Inspection

The cyber-physical systems has been an evergrowing terminology in today’s evolving Industry 4.0, combining improved information technology and automation solutions, data and physical elements and the ability to connect devices to one another using wireless sensor networks. In this paper we present alarm detection and monitoring system using the wireless sensor network (WSN) with the mobile robot inspection. An abnormal event could happen in any uncertain time, so we need more sensor nodes in industrial environment to set alarm precisely if abnormal event happen. Our framework includes the autonomous robot (agent) as an integral part of wireless sensor network and the mobile robot travels to the positions, where the alarm was detected to investigate. The aim of our work was to develop alarm detection system that could help in different factory to install reliable alarm detection systems with localizing and monitoring capability within a relatively lower cost. As such, it could be replicated anywhere including complex event processing.

Lejla Banjanovic-Mehmedovic, Mirzet Zukic

Review of Simulation Based Comparison of VANET Protocols

Vehicle-to-Vehicle communications comprising of VANET is one of the best way to transfer information between vehicles [1]. VANET protocols are the rules that perform the role of governing body for all this communications process. There are many parameters and factors that are taken into account while evaluating the performance of any protocols including VANET protocols as well. Protocol that performs best could be used for V2V communication in VANET. Another part of the VANET system is so-called Vehicle-to-Infrastructure communication that handles the communication of the vehicle with road side units or RSUs. RSUs play a vital role in communication between vehicles that are far away. There are certain factors again that effect the V2I communication. Vehicular Adhoc Network can be considered as the backbone of Intelligent Transportation System (ITS) [2].

Zlatan Jukic, Muhammad Arshad

Ramp Metering on Urban Motorways

Reduced Level of Service on urban motorways, which actually represents evolved urban bypasses, is the product of two overlapping problems. First of them is related to the heavy congestions, and the second one is related to the unavailable constructional build-up of their capacities since they are surrounded by the urban and traffic infrastructure. In order to cope with those problems, it is necessary to introduce urban motorway control methods such as for example ramp metering (RM). The main goal of RM is to increase the throughput of urban motorways by restricting access of on-ramp traffic to mainstream traffic by using special traffic lights. In this paper, an overview of currently most used RM algorithms (ALINEA, SWARM, and HELPER) and their fundamental deficiency in partial problem solving for different traffic scenarios is given. A new RM algorithm based on the Adaptive Neuro-Fuzzy System neural network called INTEGRA is also described.

Martin Gregurić, Sadko Mandžuka, Edouard Ivanjko

Terminology Extraction to Build an Ontology of Intelligent Transport Systems

Ontologies in the field of information sciences represent the basic building blocks in formal semantic infrastructure construction, which are needed for the development of various semantics-aware applications. At the beginning of any ontology development, it is important to create a dictionary of concepts which will make-up the ontology. The methodological basis for the construction of an Intelligent transport systems ontology and iterative procedures for its expansion is described in this paper. Furthermore, knowledge base analysis methods of terminology extraction for building ontologies within the domain of intelligent transport systems is presented.

Pero Škorput, Sadko Mandžuka, Markus Schatten

Cooperative Vehicle Actuated Traffic Control in Urban Areas

Rapid increasing in the number of vehicles in urban areas directly affects traffic quality because of the physical limitations of road infrastructure. Frequent congestions in the cities cause the increase of delays, stop-and-go actions and especially travel times. Up-to-date methods of traffic control are focused on advanced intelligent transport systems solutions in order to increase the quality of urban traffic network. This is directly affects improvement of traffic parameters quality such as travel time, delay, etc. Also, defined parameters affect the quality of environmental factors in urban traffic network (emission of pollution from motor vehicles, fuel consumption, noise level, etc.). Higher level of traffic control is enabled by direct real-time communication between vehicles (personal vehicles, public transport vehicles, etc.). This method outperforms traditional fixed cycle management of signalized intersections, which use predetermined signal plans. Benefits of using cooperative actuated control where model with implemented control algorithms is compared with existing traffic model with fixed time signal plans are described. The main goal is to harmonize traffic flow with optimal vehicle speed and to reduce the number of stop-and-go actions which directly affects emission of pollution and fuel consumption.

Miroslav Vujić, Sadko Mandžuka, Luka Dedić

Application of Mini Computers and RFID Technology in Automation

The advancement of technology is increasing the need for its application in everyday life. RF technologies one of the interesting area and is widley used in Europe but also in Bosnia and Herzegowina. Point of this paper is to investigate usage, abilities and limitations of this contactless technology by simple access control of parking lot via RFIDtechnology and Arduino mini computer.

Malik Čabaravdić, Sanela Čančar, Anel Husaković

Application of Unmanned Aerial Vehicles in Logistic Processes

In order to respond to the challenges of modern society, the organization of logistic processes requires synergistic optimization effects of physical processes and application of innovative technologies. The emphasis is based on continuous optimization of the processes with the aim of faster, more quality and more cost-effective services to the end user. In this paper possibility and potential of UAV (Unmanned aerial vehicle) application in logistics processes will be explained. Processes as stock inventory in warehouses and others can be improved with application of UAV.

Jasmina Pašagić Škrinjar, Pero Škorput, Martina Furdić

New Technologies in the Field Energy: Renewable Energy, Power Quality, Advanced Electrical Power Systems

Frontmatter

The Turbulence Intensity of the Wind Bora

The Bora is a cold and gusty wind which occurs along the eastern coast of the Adriatic Sea and its hinterland. It is most commonly from the north or north-east direction and often achieves stormy strength. Due to the direct connection of the Bora and the complex terrain, the speed of the wind Bora is rapidly changing while crossing obstacles and the turbulent flow occurs. For the classification of wind turbines the wind turbulence intensity with the wind speed are the basic parameters. The measurements of the Bora characteristics were made at Hrgud and Morine in the area of Eastern Herzegovina on an extremely complex terrain. The standardized measurement equipment was used which is mounted on a measuring mast at the height of 78 m. The measured values of the turbulence intensity of the Bora, have been analyzed and compared with the corresponding standards and recommendations.

Blago Pehar, Elvir Zlomušica, Suad Zalihić

Lab-Scale Tests as Support to Selection of Sustainable Coal Combustion Technology - Case Study: Support to Design of TPP Kakanj Unit 8 -

In the Laboratory for coal and biomass combustion at the Mechanical Engineering Faculty - University of Sarajevo, extensive research was carried out on the characteristics of combustion of mixtures of coals from Middle Bosnian basin. The aim of the research was to obtain reliable data for further analysis and optimization of the combustion system relied on these coal blends, and the answer to the question of whether it is possible to efficiently burn these coals in boilers with dry ash bottom. Combustion of various coal blends from coal mines Kakanj, Breza and Zenica were investigated at various temperatures (950–1350 °C) and under various technological conditions in the combustion chamber. The following parameters were varied: fraction of individual coals in the mixture, combustion temperature, thermal load of the combustion chamber, air distribution including the combustion air staging system. During the study the composition of flue gas, in particular CO2, CO, NOx and SO2 emissions, then combustion efficiency, solid ash sample characteristics, reactivity of CaO and binding of sulfur to alkaline compounds of the coal ash were analyzed. Summary of the results of this research is given in this paper. It has been shown that high efficiency combustion can be established under certain conditions. It is also estimated that pulverized coal combustion with dry ash bottom furnace is acceptable and sustainable technology for treated coals/blends.

Nihad Hodžić, Sadjit Metović, Anes Kazagić

Influence of New Technologies on Higher Energy Efficiency of Hydrostatic Devices and Systems

Both the experience and data from literature show that current hydraulic components and development of electric control systems have significantly increased energy efficiency. Therefore, all world manufacturers of hydraulic devices and systems use advanced technologies and methods with the final aim to integrate them into mechanical system. Energy losses, made as a result of all forms of friction, are minimized. It is safe to say that modern growth is based on development of new materials and accompanying technologies as well as on control techniques, i.e. on mechatronic approach and design of such systems. Ecological requirements and legal regulations should not be neglected, either. Based on the above issues and available data the authors of the paper try to answer the following question: What is the position of once famous factory of hydraulic devices from Trstenik in comparison to other competitive factories worldwide?

Milutin Živković, Predrag Dašić, Zvonko Petrović

Design of Pico Hydropower Plants for Rural Electrification

Pico hydro power stations include all hydropower systems with output of up to 5 kW. These systems have proven themselves to provide a reliable source of electricity for rural areas. Apart from rural area electrification, pico hydro power stations are convenient for utilizing the hydropower potential of water supply systems. This paper shows the calculation procedure and the selection criteria for basic components of a pico hydropower station based on a Pelton turbine. The paper provides an example of calculation procedure as well as the possibility of using them in Bosnia and Herzegovina.

Krsto Batinić, Dušan Golubović, Stojan Simić, Goran Orašanin

Development of Construction of Mini Hydro Power Plant Model Based on Pelton Turbine

In this paper is presented constructive development of a mini hydro power plant model, based on Pelton turbine. The 3D model of the Pelton turbine was constructed and drawn in working environment SOLIDWORKS. The construction is implemented to the end, where the model of mini hydro power plant was obtained. The parts of a model where made of various materials. Supporting parts were made of steel, and on them is attached plexiglass, so the model look like an aquarium. The main part of the turbine, runner, is compiled using two disks made of aluminium alloy, and buckets which were printed on 3D printer, using PLA plastic. For the simulation of water head, water pump is used.

Radoslav Tomović, Aleksandar Tomović, Marko Mumović, Vuk Vujošević

Gas Escape from Combustion Chamber to Crankcase, Analysis of a Set of Parameters Affecting the Blow by

One of the several losses of a combustion chamber is the gas leakage toward the crankcase due to imperfect sealing of the rings. Commonly known as blow by, it affects efficiency and emissions. A bibliographic review concerning the phenomenon is mentioned and starting from that, the equations that rule the ring dynamics, inter-ring pressures and mass flows are described and solved for a diesel engine using ©RicardoRINGPAK Solver. Ring and groove dimension together with engine speed and load were the investigated parameters. However, blow by gasses shows to depend upon by many other factors.

Cristiana Delprete, Arian Bisha, Erjon Selmani

Comb-Based Decimator for Multiples-of-Five Decimation Factors

This paper presents novel comb-based decimator for multiples-of-five decimation factors. The proposed decimation structure has two stages. In the first stage is a comb filter decimated by one fifth of the overall decimation factor, while in the second stage is a comb decimated by five. Additionally, the simple multiplierless filter is inserted in the second stage. This filter improves alias rejection in all folding bands except in bands which are multiples of five, in comparison with the original comb filter. Like original comb filter, the proposed filter is multiplierless.

Gordana Jovanovic Dolecek, Isak Karabegovic

The Filter-Compensation Device Applications to the AC 25 kV 50 Hz AC of Serbian Railways

New technologies in rail, including devices for infrastructure and transport, have meant improved safety, comfort, and speed of services. It has also brought new problems for the AC 25 kV 50 Hz traction power supply system with a specific filter-compensation device in traction substations of the Serbian Railways. These problems have resulted in some specific behavior issues during operation modes. For these reasons, research activities during last several years in engineering departments at the Railway College of Vocational Studies in Belgrade have been focused on studying the behavior of the traction system during selected operation states with traction vehicles with diode converters. The main findings of these problems are detailed in this paper.

Branislav Gavrilovic, Zoran Bundalo

Optimization of Water Supply System Using Software EPANET 2.0

Concepts of planning water supply networks in countries in transition were based at the beginning and during 20th Century, when most of the existing objects were built. In that period main aim of water supply system was to provide sufficient amount of water for the population and economy, so the water objects were planned based on the input available at that time. Upgrades of water supply systems were done in different scale, without systematic approach to an integral overview to a weakness in whole system. New concept of Water Utilities, which has appeared in countries in transition, changes approach where in old systems water utilities have to satisfy demand driven consumption towards the system where utilities start to managing with demand managed consumption. First task to use new concept is introduction of efficiency in management and maintenance of water supply system.In this paper there is presented the process of water supply system optimization by using software package Epanet 2.0 on real example of DMA Pavlovac which is part of water supply system under the authority of the UC “Vodovodikanalizacija” East Sarajevo.

Aleksandar Košarac, Dejan Romić, Goran Orašanin, Jovana Blagojević

The Possibilities of the Cadastral Land Use Assessment by the Methods of Remote Sensing

This study shows integration of remote sensing methods and conventional geodetic methods as well as processing and analysis of the results of cadastral land use assessment for the area of cadastral municipality Butmir in Sarajevo. For that purpose high-resolution multi-spectral WorldView-2 satellite images were used, with the object-oriented approach to image classification and image classification algorithm creation. The main objective is to compare the results obtained with the conventional methods of cadastral land evaluation and the results obtained by the methods of remote sensing. The possibilities of methodology development for the assessment of cadastral land use for each individual cadastral parcel have been assessed. Such a methodology would provide updated information on the real estate cadastre, reduce the costs and time of data collection and land use map creation procedure, with the aim to solve problems in economic development of the country, urbanization of the area, development of science and exploration of the land potentials.

Admir Mulahusić, Jusuf Topoljak, Nedim Tuno, Karlo Ajvazović

Analysis of the Energy Potential of Organic Bioradable Part of Municipal Waste

Sustainable waste management, and especially its biodegradable part at the European Union level, is becoming one of the priorities, not only because of the necessity of conserving soil and reducing waste, but also the possibility of using significant energy potentials of this type of waste. This is particularly true, bearing in mind that about 90 million tons of biowaste is produced annually in the EU, 40% of which is still disposed of in landfills.Considering the composition of biodegradable municipal waste (food waste, garden waste, agricultural waste, etc.), as well as a high percentage of moisture in it, the process of anaerobic digestion is the most appropriate way of converting biodegradable municipal waste into renewable energy. This process is carried out using biogas plants that use biodegradable municipal waste as a raw material for producing biogas as an energy product for energy production.Therefore, the use of biodegradable municipal waste for the purpose of biogas production has two important beneficial aspects: environmental protection through the avoidance of waste disposal on non-sanitary landfills, and the production of energy from renewable sources.

Mahmut Jukić, Ifet Šišić

New Technologies in Agriculture and Ecology, Chemical Processes

Frontmatter

Modeling the Extraction Process of Sage (Salvia Officinalis L.) with Supercritical CO2 at Different Temperatures

In this paper an investigation was done on the extraction of sage (Salvia officinalis L.) using supercritical carbon dioxide at different extraction temperatures (313, 323 and 333 K). For the qualitative and quantitative analysis of the obtained extracts methods GC-FID and GC-MS were applied. Qualitative and quantitative composition of the obtained CO2 extracts and essential oils isolated from CO2 extracts at different temperatures of extraction was also determined. The extraction system was modeled by using the modified equation Reverchon - Sesti Osseo, whereby the effect of temperature on the yield of the extract was studied. Based on the results of modeling the overall yield of the extract depending on the temperature, it is concluded that a given model approximates the experimental results very well in all cases.

Sabina Begić, Vladan Mićić, Darko Manjenčić

The Effect of Concentration of Methanol as a Solvent on the Antioxidative Activity of Sage Extract

The production of high quality plant extracts is the basis for the production of herbal preparations and the isolation of bioactive ingredients. Recently, there is a tendency of replacing synthetic antioxidants, due to their toxic and potentially cancerous effects, with natural antioxidants. For this reason, it is necessary to intensify research of antioxidative and biological effects of plant extracts, as well as the influence of the process conditions of extraction on the mentioned effects and the yield of extraction. In this paper, the antioxidative activity of sage extract was tested, depending on the concentration of methanol as a solvent in the process of maceration with occasional mixing. Total phenolic and flavonoid content in obtained sage extracts was determined spectrophotometrically. The radical scavenging capacity was determined by the DPPH method, where the extract concentration required for the neutralization of 50% of the initial concentration of the DPPH radical was also determined.

Selma Osmić, Sabina Begić, Vladan Mićić

Occurrence of Apple Powdery Mildew, Podosphaera Leucotricha (Ellis. & Everh.) E. S. Salmon in North-Western Region of Bosnia and Herzegovina

Apple powdery mildew (Podosphaera leucotricha (Ellis. & Everh.) E. S. Salmon) along with apple scab pathogen (Venturia inaequalis (Cooke) Winter) represents economically the most important apple pathogen. Apple powdery mildew was monitored during 2016 and 2017 in north-western area of Bosnia and Herzegovina at 10 orchards of the following varieties: Idared, Braeburn, Gala, Fuji, Elstar, Granny Smith, Cripps Pink, Jonathan, Golden Delicious and Red Delicious. A scale from 0–5 was used for determination of infection intensity on leaves of the examined varieties. The results were analysed using Townsend Heuberger method providing the infection index. High infection indexes were determined for Idared, Granny Smith, Jonathan (58–80%) in 2016 and 2017, which were therefore categorized as varieties highly sensitive to P. leucotricha. Cripps Pink variety was moderately sensitive. Moderate resistance was registered for varieties: Elstar, Golden Delicious. The lowest infection indexes were recorded for Fuji and Gala varieties (3–8%), while the Braeburn variety did not indicate any infection symptoms. More intensive infections are recorded as a consequence of mild winters, dry and warm weather during spring, heavy fertilization, sensitive varieties and modern breeding methods. Sensitive varieties such as Idared, Jonathan and Granny Smith are usually used for development of orchards, while significance of agrotechnical and chemical measures are often underestimated in apple production. Important protection measures include removal of white infected branches and its disposal. For new orchards farmers should use resistant varieties. The basic protection measure for P. leucotricha is use of fungicides, which may prevent secondary infection of apple fruit, leaves and flowers.

Zemira Delalić

Application of Multivariate Statistic to Classify Blueberry Fruits

Blueberry (Vaccinium myrtillus) is kind of the berry fruit which has recently been grown in the area of Bosnia and Herzegovina. A few farmers decided to plant this fruit, but there is no scientific data on the properties of the fruit so far, hence the need for this research. The research examines the morphological, chemical and sensory characteristics of the three cultivars of blueberry (Goldtraube, Bluecrop and Blueray), grown in the Una - Sana Canton, as well as a share of total phenols (TP), anthocyanins (TA) and ascorbic acid (TC). Therefore, the multivariate statistics were used for highlighting the similarities or differences in specific parameters.The Blueray cultivarhas the best morphological properties, as well as the highest dry matter share (13.72%), total acid (2.33%), sugar (11.76%) and ash (0.27%). TP content (29.75–59.34 mgGAE/100 g) was lower than in blueberries grown in the region, while TA (213.91–684.84 mg/100 g) and TC (7.52–9.16 mg/100 g) were a bit higher. Significant differences (p ≤ 0.05) among cultivars were observed for all measured parameters. By using the PCA Bluecrop cultivar was characterized with the share of water and Blueray with the share of ash, dry mater, sugar and total acid.

Vildana Alibabić, Azra Skender, Melisa Orašćanin, Ibrahim Mujić

The Effect of Technological Process on Physico-Chemical and Nutritional Properties of Sour Cherries Products

The aim of this research was to determine the effect of selected processing methods on physico-chemical and nutritional properties of sour cherries (Prunus cerasus L.) products. In laboratory conditions, is applied lyophilization (freeze drying) of sour cherries, and vacuum concentration to obtain concentrate of sour cherry. For obtained products were analyzed of vitamin C (L-ascorbic acid), crude fiber, sugar content, total fruit acids, and color intensity using by CIELAB system, with coordinates (L, a*, b*). Experimental results in lyophilized sour cherry showed a significantly higher (p < 0,05) content of vitamin C(35,76 ± 0,05 mg/100 g), crude fiber (4,80 ± 0,04%), total fruit acids (7,23 ± 0,05%), and significantly higher levels of red color spectrum a* (32,09 ± 1,00). This indicates that sour cherries processed by lyophilisation largely retain nutritionally valuable substances, in comparison with sour cherry concentrate obtained by the vacuum concentration.

Ramzija Cvrk, Azra Begović, Snježana Marić, Nils V. Juul

Application of New Technologies in Meat Processing Industry in the Function of Improvement of Total Quality of Products and Consumer Protection

Just as it does in the world, the meat processing industry in Bosnia and Herzegovina also represents one of the main branches of the food-processing sector. In the last twenty years, there have been great developments and applications of technological solutions, which accompany this branch of industry. Today, it is unimaginable that any production plant which deals with meat processing does so without the help of tens of highly-sophisticated machines (meat crusher, automatic mixers and fillers, micro and macrocutters, pickl-injectors, tumblers-massagers, smoking chambers, vacuum packing machines, etc.). Besides the fact that these machines, in their basic intent, have in a significant deal replaced the human factor, their application has other implications as well. Namely, the application of the newest technological accomplishments in the meat industry not only has it in many ways influenced the expansion of the palette of products, but also the overall quality of the products as well. On the other hand, the technology of lasting dry-cured meat products has even in the most advanced meat processing plants kept the basic contours of traditional production, in which the human work is predominantly present (meat cutting, ropes tying, salting/brining, drying, smoking, etc.). With the intent to try and find modalities of application some of the technological solutions in this production segment, the use of specific machines for some technological phases was done experimentally. More precisely, the phase of salting and/or brining, which is traditionally done by hand, was attempted in this study to be replaced by injecting machines (pickl-injectors). In addition, the modification of the technological process of production was performed in the segment of salting/brining. Namely, in this part of the production process the use of tumbler-massagers was implemented, for the purposes of the experiment. The aim of the application of these two contemporary machines was to establish the justification of their use from a technological standpoint. Besides that, their influence on the end quality of the product was the most important element of the justification of their use.

Amir Ganić, Munevera Begić, Enver Karahmet

The Impact of Water on PVC Floor Coverings

PVC floor coverings are more or less resistant to water. Plasticised PVC typically has relatively loosely bound molecules of plasticizers and secondary plasticizers (DOP, BBP, etc.). In gelled PVC layers the durability is mostly the result of physical binding of plasticiser molecules in between PVC chains. PVC plastisol ingredients are by design not particularly solidly bound to the structure, which makes them susceptible to leaching or migration of water molecules into the structure of PVC floor coverings. The plasticiser molecules and other PVC paste compounding ingredients leach into the water (pigments, fillings, stabilisers, foaming agents, inhibitors, etc.). The resistance to water is significantly improved with an upper polyurethane (PU) layer. In the PVC paste production, the PVC types using the emulsion process are highly suitable. The PVC types so produced contain a significant proportion of emulsifier residue. Emulsifiers have a strong water-binding ability, which is reflected in the opacity of the PVC layer. Micro-suspension-type PVCs are much more stable concerning the impact of moisture, but such PVC pastes are usually less stable.

Mario Krzyk, Darko Drev

Exposure to PM10 Aerosol Particles and Other Aerial Pollutants in the Capital City of Montenegro

Aerial contaminations are of booming interest in the 21st century as they attenuate and disable favorable living conditions for each human being. This manuscript represents trajectories on the occurrence of PM10, particulate matters which are defined as atmospheric aerosol particles and emission densities of other toxic gases such as carbon monoxide, and nitrogen-dioxide. Trajectory on the occurrence of PM10 aerosol particles for one characteristic, in-situ spot of capital city of Montenegro, (Podgorica) from January 1st to July 20th (2017) was detected. Trajectories on the occurrence of other airborne pollutants (CO, NO2) from January 1st to June 30th (2017), were detected. As plain of these toxic gases, the district Nova Varos in the capital city of Montenegro was considered. All databases of these emissions were taken from Montenegrin Environmental Protection Agency (MEPA). Collected temporal data of aforementioned toxic gases emissions were presented either as daily average values or as average values for the section of eight hours or hourly. In attachment are also given the air quality index grids for Europe and USA. The air quality situation of mentioned urban settlement Nova Varos in accordance with European air quality index grid was analyzed, since European air quality index grid encompasses Montenegrin air quality index grid. This manuscript serves as insight into the degree of local air pollution and limitative, stringent policies of air purification within one city. It reveals the genuine causes of such aerial contamination and discovers statistically the occurence frequencies of these particles in certain district.In that way, this is a guide through a certain microclimate and the readers can anticipate how much is a microclimate of a spot influential on a global scale.

Jovana Jovanovic, Svetlana Stevovic

New Technological Procedures for Production of Thioncarbamates as a Selective Flotation Reagents

In this paper an innovative technological procedures for the production of carbamates (selective flotation reagents) was presented, as well as, some advantages over the classical, known process of production. A technological procedures for the synthesis of thiocarbamate starts with reaction between alkylxanthogens and amines in the presence of nano-palladium multiwall carbon nanotube catalysts, and continues with oxidation of the xanthogenic acid amine salt and catalytic reaction from isobutanol and amine. Obtained results are compared with classical ammonolysis in terms of yield and quality of the obtained products. New technological procedures for the production of carbamates exhibit comparative significant advantages such as mild reaction conditions, higher conversion rate and ecologically justified without the separation of the product.

Milutin M. Milosavljević, Milan M. Milosavljević, Milutin Živković, Ljiljana Pecić

The Content of Heavy Metals in “PET” Bottles of Drinking Water and Its Electrical Conductivity

Heavy metals are natural ingredients of the Earth’s crust. Due to their persistence, high toxicity and the tendency to accumulate in the ecosystem, heavy metals pose a threat to human health. The aim of the paper is to examine the content of heavy metals in the PET packaging of water, the pH value as well as the electrical conductivity of commercially produced bottled water. The analysis used bottled water purchased in Una-Sana Canton markets from twelve different manufacturers. PET packaging samples were digested in the microwave oven Anton Paar Multiwave PRO, and analysed on the PerkinElmer Atomic Absorption Spectrum AnalyserAAnalyst 800 with Zeeman correction. Cadmium (Cd), lead (Pb), cobalt (Co), zinc (Zn), and iron (Fe) were analysed by flame technique. The measured concentrations of heavy metals in PET packaging were low, and these values do not deviate from the European Parliament and Council Directive 94/62/EC on packaging and packaging waste. The electrical conductivity for all samples was in accordance with the Ordinance on table water in B&H. The analysed PET packaging does not present a danger to human health because the measured concentrations of heavy metals comply with Directive 94/62/EC.

Ekrem Pehlić, Aida Šapčanin, Husein Nanić, Adnan Ćehajić

Determination of Heavy Metals in Hair Dyes by the Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometry

Heavy metals are present in our environment, and it is therefore difficult to avoid their presence and impact on the human organism. Some heavy metals are essential to the human body, but if not in high concentrations. It is known that heavy metals can be found in many cosmetic products, and one of these is hair colours, where they can enter the body through the skin and root of the hair. In this way, if they are in high concentrations in the body, they can cause various health problems. It is therefore more important to determine the content of heavy metals (Cd, Pb, Co, Zn and Fe) in hair dyes by using different types made by different manufacturers. Also, the aim of the paper is to compare the concentrations of heavy metals in the dyes used to produce brighter and darker hair shades. For determining the concentration of heavy metals, eight haircut dyes produced in 2015 were used, and they were purchased in markets and drug stores in Bosnia and Herzegovina. The analysis of heavy metals was done by the atomic absorption spectrophotometry method on the atomic absorption spectrophotometer “Perkin Elmer” AAnalyst-800 with Zeeman correction, flame technique. The samples were prepared by wet digestion in the microwave oven Anton Paar Multiwave 3000, in a mixture of nitric acid and hydrogen peroxide in a ratio of 1 mL H2O2 and 6 mL HNO3. In all the analysed hair dyes’ samples, heavy metals Cd, Pb, Co, Zn and Fe were detected. The concentrations of heavy metals in the analysed hair colours were different, but there was no significant difference between the concentration of the metal in the same dyes’ shades from different manufacturers. Hair dyes producing the darker shades of hair have a higher content of heavy metals than those used to produce brighter shades. Also, low concentrations of toxic heavy metals Pb and Cd were detected in all samples, however these heavy metals were strictly forbidden to be used as material (EU Directive No 1223/2009) for the production of cosmetic products, including hair dyes. Thus, all these analysed cosmetic products should not be used because of a potential negative health effect.

Ekrem Pehlić, Husein Nanić, Huska Jukić, Aldina Aldžić

Microbiological Analysis of Surface Waters in the Area of National Park “Una”

Natural water quality becomes one of the limiting factors for use and maintenance of the environment balance. Uncontrolled pollution of surface and groundwater reduces the quantity of quality water resources. Indicators of surface water faecal pollution are pathogenic microorganisms that are actively developing in water, and reaches the rivers by anthropogenic impacts through sewage systems. The primary aim of this research is to determine the microbiological analysis of surface waters in the area of National Park “Una”.Water samples were collected from two places: locality I (Martin Brod) and locality II (Kulen Vakuf). The selected microbiological parameters analysed: the number of colonies of aerobic organotrophs, the total number of coliform bacteria and the total number of faecal streptococcus. These parameters were used to present realistic image of microbiological water quality and to determine pollution hotspots at National Park “Una”.

Melisa Zulić, Huska Jukić, Asmir Aldžić, Adnan Ćehajić

Research of Antimicrobial Resistance of Clinical Important Multi-resistent Gram Negative Bacterial Isolates in the Una-Sana Canton Area

The term “microbial resistance” means the immunity/resistance of bacteria to antimicrobial drugs. The level of their resistance depends on the antimicrobial drug, the bacterium itself and the mechanism of resistance. Microbial resistance may be a specific feature of a single bacterial isolate, but also of certain bacterial species and genera. When one bacteria is resistant to three or more antibiotics (i.e., an antibiotic group), there is multiple resistance.The enormous occurrence of resistance to both pathogenic and non-pathogenic bacteria occurred due to uncontrolled use of antibiotics. The occurrence of resistance of non-pathogenic bacteria disturbs the balance of existing microbial ecosystems. Since bacteria occupy different ecological niches, the process of gene transfer between members of the same or different species/genera, the number of resistant strains increases. Particularly important is the interspecific transfer of genes from pathogens to non-pathogenic bacteria and vice versa. The main role in this process is the micro-organisms commensals of human and animal, which are “vectors” for the transmission of genes of resistance between pathogenic and non-pathogenic bacteria. Monitoring the occurrence of resistance in non-pathogenic bacteria, primarily of human and animal commensals and food micro-organisms, is of great importance not only from the ecological but also from the aspect of the treatment of bacterial infections of humans and animals.Isolates of bacteria from hospitalised patients at the departments of the Cantonal Hospital “Dr. Irfan Ljubijankić” in Bihac were used for the research and development of this work.In the study period, the occurrence and resistance of Gram-negative multi-resistant types was monitored.Of the total of 9 species of isolated and identified Gram-negative multiresistant bacteria, the most abundant isolates were: Klebsiella pneumoniae ESBL (with 16 isolates, or 23,18%), Escherichia coli ESBL, Acinetobacter spp. and Pseudomonas aeruginosa (with 11 isolates, or 15,94%), Enterobacter spp. ESBL (with 8, or 11,59% isolates), Proteus mirabilis (with 5 isolates, or 7,24%), then Serratia spp. (with 3 isolates, or 4,34%), and Citrobacter spp. ESBL and Klebsiella oxytoca (with 2 isolates, or 2,89%).

Asmir Aldžić, Huska Jukić, Kanita Dedić, Amela Dubinović-Rekić

New Technologies in Civil Engineering, Education, Control Quality

Frontmatter

Nanotechnology in Civil Engineering

Nanotechnology is a way forward, not only in civil engineering, but in other industries as well. Much effort is being given to these research, and main focus is in improving existing materials, in terms of their properties. In this paper brief information of nanotechnology applied and investigated in civil engineering will be given. Most of the presented research include enhancement of concrete, as the most used material in civil engineering, thus silica fume, fly ash and red mud are presented, as well as carbon nanotubes, which are a great leap forward in this field.

Merima Šahinagić-Isović, Marko Ćećez, Fuad Ćatović

Support Parametric Vector Analysis of Available Resources for Minimisation of Project Duration–Four Varieties of Conditions

This paper considers the dependence of the project duration on available resources through the problem of parametric analysis (PA). Vector PA has been presented from the aspect of variants of perturbation directions and intensities for several different categories of resources that belong to the ‘work type’ category. Four varieties of direction combination and selected change intensities are illustrated for m = 3 resource categories $$ P_{i} $$ with constant available amounts $$ n_{i} \; = n_{i} (t) $$ and intensities $$ n_{i}^{'} \; = n_{i} (t)\,^{'} , $$$$ i \in I,\; $$$$ t \in T $$. A general formulation of the mathematical model, solution algorithm, and an illustrative example, are given too. The illustrative examples were solved using the MS Project software.

Omer Kurtanović, Lejla Dacić

New Technologies in Education at “Džemal Bijedić” University in Mostar

Information and communication technologies (ICT) have become unavoidable in educational processes. They are used in higher education to a significant extent today in a complex Bosnian-Herzegovinian reality. This paper presents an overview of the development and experience in applying ICT in education with suggestions for further development and improvement at the Dzemal Bijedic University of Mostar.

Alim Abazović, Dragi Tiro, Fuad Ćatović

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