Fabrication of new neodymium zinc tellurite glasses in the form [(TeO2)0.70 (ZnO)0.30]1−x (Nd2O3)x and x = 0.01, 0.02, 0.03, 0.04 and 0.05 mol% were performed by the melt-quenching technique. The glasses’ density and molar volume were measured. Also, XRD, FTIR, and UV–Vis spectroscopies have been measured for every glass sample. The spectra of the FTIR obtained showed IR absorption indicating the presence of TeO3 and TeO4 structural units. Direct and indirect bandgap, refractive index, metallization criterion, dielectric constants, polarizability, optical basicity, and linear dielectric susceptibility were determined and discussed. The band gap energies, Urbach energy, polaron radius, transmission coefficient, and reflection loss were determined and discussed. The values of the obtained optical parameters for the present glasses indicated that the glasses are semiconducting and possess great potential for applications such as in electronic packaging, nonlinear optics, and fiber optics.