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About this book

This book contains the selected and peer-reviewed manuscripts that were presented in the Conferences on Multidisciplinary Engineering and Technology (COMET 2019), held at the University Kuala Lumpur Malaysian Spanish Institute (UniKL MSI), Kedah, Malaysia from September 18 to 19, 2019. The aim of COMET 2019 was to present current and on-going research being carried out in the field of mechanical, manufacturing, electrical and electronics and general studies for engineering and technology. Besides, this book also contains the manuscripts from the System Engineering and Energy Laboratory (SEELAB) research cluster, UniKL which is actively doing research mainly focused on artificial intelligence, metal air batteries, advanced battery materials and energy material modelling fields. This volume is the third edition of the progress in engineering technology, Advanced Structured Materials which provides in-depth ongoing research activities among academia of UniKL MSI. Lastly, it is hoped to foster cooperation among organisations and research in the covered fields.

Table of Contents

Frontmatter

Chapter 1. Micro-Power Energy Harvester Using Piezoelectric for Acoustic Sound Wave Energy Harvesting

Abstract
The advancement of portable electronic devices and the ever-increasing integrated functions which have become a necessity in smartphones, tablets and similar devices have prompted the industry to look for portable power supplies to enhance the lifetime and the usage of portable electronic devices. Therefore, harvesting free energy from the surroundings to provide usable electrical energy could be an interesting solution toward this requirement. In this paper, sound waves energy which is in the form of a pressure wave is investigated to be as a source of free energy which is abundant in our surroundings. The piezoelectric type called PZT 5A bimorph cantilever was introduced as a sound energy harvester during an experimental work. The piezoelectric was tested to extract sound energy produced by the loudspeaker at several predetermined distances from the loudspeaker. The result shows that the maximum voltage of 83 mVpeak was obtained with the sound intensity of 102.6 dB at a resonant frequency of 374 Hz, and the maximum power of 3.445 µW was produced at 1 kΩ of optimal load resistance.
Haris Fazilah Hassan, Rosemizi Abd Rahim

Chapter 2. Damage Diagnosis of a Structural Steel Plate Using Wavelet Packet Transform

Abstract
Cracks and physical damages are a threat to the strength of structures. Non-destructive test (NDT) measures are used to detect the damages at the earlier phase to avoid any major damage to the structures. Vibration signal processing is one of the NDT methods to determine the damage based on the experimental modal analysis. In this study, an experimental setup is devised to freely suspend a steel plate of size 30 cm by 60 cm. Based on the experimental modal analysis, the steel structure is struck using an impact hammer and the dispersed mechanical energy is bagged as vibration response using an accelerometer. The damages of size 512–1852 µm were manually simulated at arbitrary locations on the surface of the steel structure. The data acquisition procedure is repeated before and after the simulation of damage. The vibration signals are then processed, and the wavelet packet transform is applied to extract the dominant features from both the normal and fault data. The feature set is normalized between 0 and 1 are then mapped toward the condition of the plate to formulate the final dataset. Using a K-fold cross-validation technique, the dataset is trained and tested using support vector machine (SVM) and K-nearest neighbor (KNN) classifiers. The results are compared and discussed.
Pranesh Krishnan, Sazali Yaacob, M. P. Paulraj, Mohd Shukry Abdul Majid

Chapter 3. A Study on the Influence of Temperature on Steel Corrosion Over Time

Abstract
Corrosion is the main factor for steel failure. It is a natural process, which converts a refined metal to a more chemically stable form, such as its oxide, hydroxide or sulphides. It’s the gradual destruction of material (usually metals) by chemical and/or electrochemical reaction with the environment. For this study, the influence of temperature on the corrosion surface of the steel evaluated under the temperature that has been applied ranging between 40 and 110 °C for 2 min for the heat released by the material. The study of temperature absorption was conducted under low temperature between −17 °C until 15 °C for 2 min. This investigation of the experiment showed that the application of corrosion temperature behaviour of steel can be used or applied as the renewable application or purpose in the sector of engineering.
Sharmiwati-Mohammed-Sharif, Wan Noreaman Wan Zuharuddin

Chapter 4. Binding Friction of NiTi Archwires at Different Size and Shape in 3-Bracket Bending Configuration

Abstract
During orthodontic treatment, the force released by the bent of a NiTi archwire is influenced by the friction developed in the bracket system. This in vitro study investigated the amount of friction encountered by the NiTi archwire in a 3-brackets configuration. Five different sizes within two shapes of NiTi archwire were considered for the bending test at different deflection magnitudes of 2, 3 and 4 mm. The binding friction was measured by comparing the force-deflection curve of the NiTi archwire with the use of polytetrafluoroethylene (Teflon) bracket and stainless steel brackets. The force result from the Teflon bracket was considered as a control test, utilizing its frictionless character. This investigation revealed that the binding friction is affected by the archwire size and shape. The NiTi archwire experienced higher binding friction during activation and slightly lower during the wire recovery at deactivation. The magnitude of the binding friction gradually increased with the increase of the archwire size and shape, with the largest binding friction of 7.6 N recorded from the 0.457 mm × 0.635 mm rectangular archwire and the smallest binding friction was recorded from the 0.356 mm round archwire.
Mohd Nizam Ahmad, Abdus Samad Mahmud, Muhammad Fauzinizam Razali, Norehan Mokhtar

Chapter 5. Design of a Child Restraint System for Motorcycles

Abstract
In developing countries, children riding on a motorcycle as a pillion or driver are very common despite restriction by law for the driver. Children as motorcycle pillions or riders are more vulnerable. They are vulnerable to hazard on lower limb and falling from the motorcycle due to a lack of stability. This paper is focused on designing a child restraint system for motorcycles with an engine capacity of 100–150 cc that can secure the safety of the child passenger from aged 2 to 5 years old and being able to support a maximum child passenger of 20 kg weight. The methodology used in designing this product includes house of quality, morphological chart, weighted objective analysis, sketching, concept design, CAD modelling, finite element analysis and prototyping. The result of the design is able to withstand the child maximum weight of 20 kg and was successfully installed at a Modenas KRISS.
Zulkarnain Abdul Latiff, Fazidah Saad

Chapter 6. Drowsiness Detection Using Electroencephalogram Anomaly Based on Spectral Entropy Features and Linear Classifier

Abstract
Sleeping on the wheels due to drowsiness is one of the significant causes of death tolls all over the world. The primary reason for sleepiness is due to the lack of sleep and irregular sleep patterns. Several methods such as unobtrusive sensors, vehicle dynamics and obtrusive physiology sensors are suggested to diagnose drowsiness of drivers. However, the unobtrusive sensors detect drowsiness in the later stage, whereas the physiological methods use obtrusive sensors such as electroocular, electromyogram and electroencephalograms and produce high accuracy in the early detection of drowsiness, which makes them a preferable solution. The objective of this research article is to classify drowsiness with alertness based on the electroencephalographic (EEG) signals using band power and log energy entropy features. The publicly available ULg DROZY database was used in this research. The five EEG channels from the raw multimodal signal are extracted. By using a band-pass filter with the cut-off frequencies of 0.1 and 50 Hz the high-frequency components were removed. Another band-pass filter bank is designed to slice the raw signals into eight sub-bands, namely delta, theta, low alpha, high alpha, low beta, mid beta, high beta and gamma. The preprocessed signals were segmented into an equal number of frames with a frame duration of 2 s using a rectangular time windowing approach with an overlap of 50%. Spectral entropy features were extracted for each frame in the sub-bands. The extracted feature sets were further normalized between 0 and 1 and labeled as drowsy and alert and then combined to form the final dataset. The K-fold cross-validation method is used to divide the dataset into training and testing sets. The processed dataset is then trained using, K-nearest neighbor network, and support vector machine classifiers, and the results are compared. The KNN classifier produces 95% classification accuracy.
Pranesh Krishnan, Sazali Yaacob, Annapoorni Pranesh Krishnan

Chapter 7. Close Loop Feedback Direct Current Control in Driving Mode of a Four Quadarnts Drive Direct Current Chopper for Electric Vehicle Traction Controlled Using Fuzzy Logic

Abstract
The direct current (DC) series motor is the highest starting torque motor compared to other motors with the same kilowatt power. The conventional speed controller that is used in an electric vehicle utilizes the series motor that can cause jerk and slip during start-up. This paper discusses the usage of a direct current control (DCC) in the four quadrants direct current chopper (FQDC) application to overcome the start-up problem. The series motor current is controlled in a closed-loop fashion using the fuzzy logic technique. The DCC is a current control method using a lookup table (LUT) with a predetermined reference current. The system is tested using MATLAB/Simulink. The simulation results using MATLAB/Simulink show that the current can be controlled using a fuzzy logic technique.
Saharul Arof, Noramlee M. Noor, R. Mohamad, Emilia Noorsal, P. A. Mawby, H. Arof

Chapter 8. Digital Proportional Integral Derivative (PID) Controller for Closed-Loop Direct Current Control of an Electric Vehicle Traction Tuned Using Pole Placement

Abstract
Direct current (DC) series motors have a higher starting torque compared to other types of motors, and their power is in the kilowatt range. The standard speed is applied for electric vehicles (EVs) with a series motor, and four quadrants direct current chopper (FQDC) can cause jerk and slip during the start-up. DC control (DCC) is one of the solutions applied to FQDC to overcome this start-up problem. The DCC is the current control strategy that employs a lookup table with a predetermined reference current. The current has to be controlled in a closed loop with feedback. An inefficient feedback controller with wrongly tuned parameters can cause ripples in current and torque. This paper describes the modeling and the control of a proposed DCC using a PID controller with the pole placement technique. The system is tested using MATLAB/Simulink which shows that the current can be controlled using the digital PID utilizing the pole placement technique.
Saharul Arof, N. M. Noor, M. F. Alias, Emilia Noorsal, Philip Mawby, H. Arof

Chapter 9. Numerical Analysis of Multiphase Electrolyte Flows in an Al-Air Battery Using Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics

Abstract
The aluminium–air (Al-air) battery is one of the demanded batteries as it is safe and efficient to power up an electronic device. However, the corrosion behaviour due to the hydrogen gas released from the aluminium anodes is a critical issue that must be considered in the Al-air battery development. This paper is aimed to establish an Al-air battery single-cell model and to simulate the hydrogen gas release by using the smoothed particle hydrodynamics (SPH) method. As a result, the pressure distribution and velocity profile inside the Al-air battery are being studied. These two measured parameters are closely significant indicators towards the corrosion behaviour. Controlling the fluid behaviour inside the Al-air battery by using the SPH method is another way to improve the performance of the battery.
Faizah Osman, Muhamad Husaini Abu Bakar

Chapter 10. Discrete-Time Linear System of New Series Motor Four-Quadrant Drive Direct Current Chopper Numerically Represented by Taylor Series

Part 1: Driving Mode Operation
Abstract
This paper proposes a numerical method using Taylor series in representing a new series motor of a four-quadrant drive direct current chopper (FQDC) in driving mode operation for electric vehicle’s application. The representation has three main purposes which are for troubleshooting, error correction and optimization. The Taylor series will be used to imitate the real system of a FQDC, but it is running in an embedded system such as a PIC microcontroller. Through this representation system, we can do a fault diagnose, error correction and system tuning without disturbing the real system on running. Once the optimization via representation is obtained, it can be applied to the real system. The representation system using Taylor series is tested using MATLAB/Simulink. The simulation results using MATLAB/Simulink show that the Taylor series computation algorithm successfully represents the FQDC in driving mode.
Saharul Arof, E. D. Sukiman, N. H. N. Diyanah, N. M. Noor, Emilia Noorsal, Philip Mawby, H. Arof

Chapter 11. Cooking Oil Turbidity Analysis

Abstract
Recycling cooking oils in daily life is a common thing to do for some people to reduce the costs. However, this habit will lead to an unhealthy lifestyle. Reheating oil undergoes a series of chemical changes such as oxidation and hydrolysis, which will produce some harmful substances that will generate lipid peroxidation that could possibly be dangerous to human health. This experiment is conducted on how to detect the turbidity of the oil by using a simple experimental setup.
Marina Borhan, Muhammad Safwan Che Ab Aziz, Aiman Rafique Mohd Nasir, Muhamad Husaini Abu Bakar, Liyana Isamail

Chapter 12. Series Motor Four-Quadrant Direct Current Chopper: Reverse Mode, Steering Position Control with Double-Circle Path Tracking and Control for Autonomous Reverse Parking of Direct Current Drive Electric Car

Abstract
This paper focused on the steering position control for automatic reverse parking of a direct current (DC) drive electric car. The steering position control was integrated into a vehicle cornering algorithm using a two-turn/double-circle concept. The control technique was simulated using MATLAB/Simulink; the results showed that the technique successfully met the objective of steering position control for reverse parking. Therefore, it is suitable to be implemented in an autonomous DC drive electric car.
Saharul Arof, M. S. Said, N. H. N. Diyanah, N. M. Noor, N. M. Yaakop, Philip Mawby, H. Arof, Emilia Noorsal

Chapter 13. Series Motor Four-Quadrant DC Chopper: Reverse Mode, Direct Current Control, Triple Cascade PIDs, and Ascend-Descend Algorithm with Feedback Optimization for Automatic Reverse Parking

Abstract
This paper focuses on the reverse mode of a proposed series motor four-quadrant direct current chopper (FQDC). The paper proposes a control technique in controlling the acceleration and deceleration of an electric vehicle (EV) using triple cascade proportional-integral-derivative (PID) controllers with an ascend-descend algorithm for controlling speed, torque, and position. The aim is to control the electric propulsion motor powered by the FQDC for the application of automatic reverse parking of an autonomous DC drive electric car. The control technique was simulated using MATLAB/Simulink, and the results showed that the technique has successfully met the objective of torque, current, speed, and position control for reverse and auto-reverse parking. In addition, the technique is suitable to be implemented in a DC drive electric car.
Saharul Arof, M. S. Said, N. H. N. Diyanah, N. M. Noor, J. A. Jalil, Philip Mawby, H. Arof, Emilia Noorsal

Chapter 14. The Image Processing Technique of Defect Detection in Metal Materials Using Active Infrared Thermography

Abstract
Technology on active infrared thermography has been widely used in the field of non-destructive testing. The defects produce an uneven heat dissipation, and an infrared camera captures this thermal reaction. The phase image provides an outstanding invisible flaws description on sequences of images captured. During the data acquisition phase, the result might be affected by image noise resulting from the emissivity on the specimen surface and also by the non-uniform heating process. For this study, an infrared camera of medium wave infrared range was analysed. The heating process is done by heating the aluminium plate in an oven for 5–15 min. These specimens contain twelve numbers of flat-bottomed circular holes, from sample upper surface with different artificial depth. All of the artificial defect samples were manufactured by the milling machining process. The defect detection and characterisation used several data and different analysis methods were used in the pre-processing for quantitative analysis. The infrared test method on non-destructive thermography capability was increased since the final result appears clearer and can be used for future studies. The temperature data used the image filtering and image segmentation process for better visualisation of defects. The correlation image and the correlation image phase show promising results. The experimental setup and comparative results were analysed in detail in this document. As a conclusion, the image enhancement method has a significant influence on the defect detection result.
Nor Liyana Maskuri, Muhamad Husaini Abu Bakar, Ahmad Kamal Ismail

Chapter 15. Alternator Performance Analysis of a Micro-Turbogenerator in Automotive Application

Abstract
A micro-turbogenerator is a combination of an alternator and a turbocharger which is used to convert rotational mechanical energy into electrical energy. It can be configured with different prime movers such as a steam turbine, a gas turbine in single-cycle or in a combined-cycle arrangement. The primary objective of this project is to study the performance analysis of a micro-turbogenerator in automotive application and to determine the correct alternator that can supply current to generate the test rig. An experiment has been conducted to find the output current of the alternator by using an instrument and it involved certain mathematical calculations based on the output voltage and alternator power. The results show that the higher the alternator speed, the higher the output current or power produced. This concludes that with the increment of the alternator’s output voltage along with the alternator’s speed, the alternator is really charging up the battery. A fully charged battery should have a voltage reading above 13.7 V. Therefore, this proves that the usage of the alternator in a lower engine capacity is applicable. Besides, the higher the alternator’s speed, the lower the alternator’s output current. This indicates that theoretically, there are possible loads acting on the engine and the current decreased as it was consumed by the loads. In addition, the higher the alternator’s output voltage, the lower the alternator’s output current.
Khairul Shahril, Muhammad N. A. Hamid, Mohamad Zulfikar, Adli Tajul, Shahril. N. Soid

Chapter 16. Experimental Study of the Engine Performance Enhancement by Using a Micro-turbocharger System

Abstract
This project deals with an experimental study of a micro-turbocharger test rig for engine performance with and without a turbocharger system. In order to achieve higher performance, bigger engines are needed. With the turbocharger, the performance of the engine can be increased without the need of a bigger engine. This is called a downsize. Therefore, the objective of this research work is to develop a micro-turbocharger test rig using a motorcycle engine for laboratory usage to evaluate the performance of the motorcycle engine with and without turbocharger system. In order to fabricate the test rig, the finite element method (FEM) was chosen as the method to study the stress and displacement of the structure before performing an action for the fabrication. Moreover, in this project, the turbo IHi RHF3 and Lifan 160 cc motorcycle engine was selected according to the required specification. The engine performance such as torque, brake power, mean effective pressure, fuel consumption, specific fuel consumption and brake thermal efficiency was measured. The test data were collected by using a dynamometer controller. All the data of the engine performance were collected, and some calculations were made to obtain the resulting power after installing the turbocharger.
Khairul Shahril, S. N. Soid, Khairul Akmal, Muhammad N. A. Hamid, W. Faradiana

Chapter 17. Solving the Production Bottleneck Through Minimizing the Waste of Motion for Manual Assembly Processes

Abstract
In this paper, the application of the waste elimination technique in solving the waste of motion for manual assembly processes has been studied, analyzed, and implemented. The waste of motion is one of the seven wastes as highlighted in the lean manufacturing system (LMS), where it can happen at any time and workers are required to make movements that do not add any value to the overall production processes. A poor designed manual assembly processes can cause low productivity and inefficiency of the production system due to excessive motions. An excessive motion will cause the production bottleneck process and production delinquency, increase inventory, encourage waste of waiting, and unable to smoothing the production flow. In minimizing the waste of motion, the step-by-step of manual assembly processes needs to be studied and observed to ensure fully understanding of the process requirement. Then, each step of the manual assembly process needs to be analyzed to identify the waste of motion which is affecting the productivity and efficiency of the production systems. Once the waste of motion has been identified, the steps of manual assembly processes are required to be re-visited and re-designed to achieve optimum efficiency of the production process flow. Some of the unwanted processes might be eliminated or integrated to ensure minimum motions during the manual assembly process. This research has been conducted by analyzing the manual assembly processes in selected case study in industry and implementation the improvement process to solve the waste of motion. The result of this study shows that the process cycle time has been drastically improved by 60% and at the same time this improvement had increased the production output and solved the worker fatigue issue due to the overburden tasks. Through an effective analysis and implementation, the waste of motion for production process had been identified and successfully minimized.
Mohd Norzaimi Che Ani, Ishak Abdul Azid

Chapter 18. Investigation the Impact of 5S Implementation Toward Accident-Free Manufacturing Industries

Abstract
In this paper, the impact of 5S implementation toward accident-free manufacturing industries was reviewed and investigated. The 5S method is a standardized process that when systematically implemented creates and maintains an organized, safe, clean, and efficient workplace. The 5S also implemented and improved the visual controls to make any process non-conformance’s obvious and easily detectable. The 5S is a systematic housekeeping technique used by organizations initiated from Japanese words; Seiri (sort), Seiton (set in order), Seiso (shine), Seiketsu (standardize), and Shitsuke (sustain). The implementation of a 5S environment in a workplace requires employee motivation and good management. All the different levels of an organization need to put their best efforts on a day-to-day basis and work together toward achieving improved performance and reducing waste. The 5S is the most effective tool and widely applied worldwide in any organization to improve the workplace. However, industrial accidents still occurred and increased. Based on current data, the Department of Safety and Health (DOSH, Malaysia) in their Web site stated an increase of accidents by 107% (January to June 2018–2019) and it is a long journey before an accident-free industry can be achieved. Hence, in this research, the impact of 5S implementation toward accident-free manufacturing industries was investigated. The literature of the 5S implementation was thoroughly reviewed through searching from published literature from the Emerald Insight, Elsevier, Google Scholar, and other databases. The data captured from this published literature was analyzed to study the impact of the 5S implementation. The result of this research shows based on the theoretical implementation, the 5S implementation potentially helps the organization to reduce the industrial accident but it requires systematic monitoring plans such as an internal audit. Through an effective investigation in this paper, the impact of 5S implementation on accident-free manufacturing industries was successfully carried out.
Muhammad Syafiq Ridha Mutaza, Mohd Norzaimi Che Ani, Azmi Hassan

Chapter 19. Effect of Maleic Anhydride Polypropylene on the Properties of Spear Grass Fiber in Reinforced Polypropylene and Ethylene Propylene Diene Monomer Composites

Abstract
Polypropylene ethylene propylene diene monomer (PP/EPDM) polymer composites reinforced by spear grass (10, 20, 30, 40, and 50 wt%) were prepared with and without compatibilizer. The maleic anhydride polypropylene (MAPP) was applied as compatibilizer to the composites. The water absorption test and tensile test were conducted according to the ASTM570 and ASTM638, respectively. The percentage of water absorption, and elongation at break, was reduced with the increment of spear grass content. In contrast, tensile strength increased from 10 to 20 wt% and then reduced thereafter. Besides, the MAPP enhanced the water absorption, tensile strength, tensile modulus and elongation at break properties of the composites. In conclusion, the 20 wt% reinforcement of spear grass in the polypropylene ethylene propylene diene monomer polymer composites and MAPP as compatibilizer agent results in good properties.
Muhammad Azree Ifwat Adnan, Faizatul Azwa Zamri, Mohamad Sabri Mohamad Sidik, Siti Rohana Ahmad

Chapter 20. Effect of Acid Acrylic on Mechanical Properties and Swelling Behavior of Spear Grass Fiber Filled Polypropylene Composites

Abstract
In recent years, polypropylene (PP) is an ideal choice for automotive components due to its lightweight and the flexibility in the manufacturing process. However, due to the environmental effect, the usage of PP has been reduced by reinforced green materials such as spear grass fiber (SGF). In this study, acrylic acid (AA) has been used as a compatibilizer between the matrix and fiber. The composite mixture was prepared in the formulation of 5, 10, 15 and 20 wt% of treated and untreated composites. The tensile test suggests the composite with 5 wt% for treated and untreated composite have the highest value of tensile strength. The modulus of elasticity increased with the increasing in filler loading. In contrast, the elongation at break decreased with the increasing in filler loading. Moreover, the swelling test discerned that the increase in filler loading has increased the water absorption of composites. The presence of AA reduced the equilibrium water absorption percentage.
Nuramalena Abdul Latif, Muhammad Afiq Mohd Nabin, Mohamad Sabri Mohamad Sidik, Nurashikin Sawal

Chapter 21. Parametric Optimization of Electrical Discharge Machining of SiSiC Ceramic Through the Taguchi Design Approach

Abstract
The evolution of silicon carbide (SiC) ceramics has recently attracted the interest of several researchers due to their industrial applications. Nonetheless, the shaping of SiC is quite challenging using conventional techniques due to its extreme hardness, high thermal stability and high brittleness characteristics. This study attempts to shape a modified SiC called siliconized SiC (SiSiC) by the electrical discharge process (EDM). Moreover, the effective utilization of the Taguchi approach to study the EDM parameters and optimize the responses has been reported. The responses to be studied include material removal rate (MRR), electrode wear (EW) and surface roughness (SR). The Taguchi methodology using L9 orthogonal arrays was employed to plan the experiment, and the signal-to-noise (S/N) ratio was used to predict the optimum parameter settings. The experimental results were analyzed using S/N and ANOVA. The results reveal that the peak current (I) and on-time (ON) were the main significant parameters on MRR and SR whereas EW was influenced mainly by the peak current. The off-time was found to be insignificant in all the selected responses. The results obtained were justified by conducting the verification runs.
Abdul’Azeez A. Aliyu, Ahmad Majdi Abdul Rani, Muhammad Al’Hapis Abdul Razak, Sadaqat Ali

Chapter 22. The Impact of Sintering Dwell Time on Nitrogen Absorption, Densification and Microhardness of 316L Stainless Steel Using Powder Metallurgy

Abstract
Powder metallurgy is one of the promising techniques for producing different metals and their alloys. The uniqueness of this technique owes to its processing parameters that can be optimized to produce a desired material with tailored physical and mechanical properties. Among the available biomaterials, the austenitic stainless steel 316L has been used for some time for manufacturing implants and other surgical devices. However, this material is prone to localized corrosion attacks. It corrodes in human physiological conditions in long-term applications and releases metal ions. The corrosion products include ions of nickel, chromium and iron that accumulate in the tissues surrounding the implant limiting its usage as a biomaterial. This research work aims diffusing a sintering gas (nitrogen) into the matrix of stainless steel by increasing the dwell time. The results of the study show that the increased dwell time not only diffuses nitrogen into the matrix but also forms a protective layer of nitrogen onto the samples surface. There is also a notable effect of increased dwell time on the densification and microhardness of the sintered samples. The results indicate that this surface layer can prevent the leaching of metal ions from the stainless steel matrix.
Sadaqat Ali, Ahmad Majdi Abdul Rani, Muhammad Al’Hapis Abdul Razak, Abdul Azeez Abdu Aliyu, Krishnan Subramaniam

Chapter 23. Kinematic and Dynamic Analysis of a Stephenson III Six-Bar Linkage for Amplified Rectilinear Motion: Application to Globe Valve Control Mechanism

Abstract
This paper presents the kinematics of a six-bar linkage which magnifies the magnitude of linear motion. A designed mechanism eliminates the problem of long bellow lengths in bellow valves which makes the valve design aesthetically more suitable for industrial applications. The mechanism is a planer linkage with a single degree of freedom where a straight-line motion at input is converted to an extended perpendicular translatory motion at output. The amplification obtained at output can be increased by addition of a link. The mechanism is based on a Stephenson III six-bar linkage. Graphical synthesis of the mechanism is attained through qualitative design process. Analyses on the proposed solutions are performed to determine their viability. Iteration between the synthesis and analysis is done until the desirable results are achieved. The paper uses the vector closed loop equations method for kinematic analysis, and later, the results are also verified by a numerical example. After the geometry and motion for the task is achieved, as an application of the mechanism, the mechanism is applied to a bellow globe valve as its opening and closing mechanism. Force analysis is carried out to study the force propagation in the mechanism and actuation of the valve. The synthesized linkage application in the globe valve reduces the length of bellow required up to 75% which as a result reduces the height of the valve significantly.
Farooq I. Azam, Haizum Aimi Zaharin, Ahmad Majdi Abdul Rani, Muhammad Al’Hapis Abdul Razak

Chapter 24. Influence of Porous Designs on Mechanical Properties of Ti6Al4V for Biomedical Applications

Abstract
Aseptic loosening and stress shielding are the most common causes of implant failure after total knee and hip arthroplasty. Failure is due to difference in mechanical properties of natural bone and artificial implants. Porous structures provide the solution to this problem and are being used in implants to avoid failure. The purpose of this research is to determine an optimum porous structure that gives similar mechanical properties as natural bone and can be used in implants. Four different structures have been analyzed for their mechanical properties at different pore sizes and orientation. Finite element analysis is performed in all designs using the ANSYS structural module mimicking ISO standard testing (ISO 13314). All of the structures give optimum porosity to be used as implants, but only some instances show similar Young’s modulus and yield strength to mimic bone’s mechanical properties. The analysis of the porous structures gives promising results for application in orthopedic implants. Application of optimum structure to implants can reduce the premature failure of implants and increase the reliability.
Haizum Aimi Zaharin, Farooq I. Azam, Ahmad Majdi Abdul Rani, Muhammad Al’Hapis Abdul Razak
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