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2023 | Book

Sustainable Finance, Digitalization and the Role of Technology

Proceedings of The International Conference on Business and Technology (ICBT 2021)


About this book

This book constitutes the refereed proceedings of the International Conference on Business and Technology (ICBT2021) organized by EuroMid Academy of Business & Technology (EMABT), held in Istanbul, between 06–07 November 2021.

In response to the call for papers for ICBT2021, 485 papers were submitted for presentation and ‎inclusion in the proceedings of the conference. After a careful blind refereeing process, 292 papers ‎were selected for inclusion in the conference proceedings from forty countries. Each of these ‎chapters was evaluated through an editorial board, and each chapter was passed through a double-blind peer-review process.‎

The book highlights a range of topics in the fields of technology, ‎entrepreneurship, business administration, ‎accounting, and economics that can contribute to business ‎development in countries, such as ‎learning machines, artificial intelligence, big data, ‎deep ‎‎learning, game-based learning, management ‎information system, ‎accounting information ‎system, knowledge management, entrepreneurship, and ‎social enterprise, corporate social responsibility and sustainability, business policy and strategic ‎management, international management and organizations, organizational behavior and HRM, ‎operations management and logistics research, controversial issues in management and organizations, ‎turnaround, corporate entrepreneurship, innovation, legal issues, business ethics, and firm ‎governance, managerial accounting and firm financial affairs, non-traditional research, and creative ‎methodologies.

These proceedings are reflecting quality research contributing theoretical and practical implications, for those who are wise to apply the technology within any business sector. It is our hope that the contribution of this book proceedings will be of the academic level which even decision-makers in the various economic and executive-level will get to appreciate.

Table of Contents


Corporate Finance, Digitalization of Accounting

CatBoost: The Case of Bankruptcy Prediction

Prediction of company bankruptcy is a field that develops mainly with the introduction of big data and data mining, and their application into actual business environment. In the field of classification methods, ensemble methods have significant position including various bagging or boosting algorithms. One of the newest algorithms in this field is the CatBoost algorithm developed in 2018. The aim of this manuscript is to apply the CatBoost algorithm to detect company bankruptcy based on financial and categorical data. The prediction model was created on a data sample of 89,447 small and medium-sized enterprises (out of which 295 went bankrupt) from Slovakia from the year 2019. The results indicate that the best CatBoost model achieved area under curve (AUC) value of 98.12%, and this model outperformed other models applying only financial or categorical variables. The contribution of this paper is the finding that application of categorical variables can contribute to better results than application of pure financial variables in CatBoost models. These findings should be taken into account by managers or institutions such as banks when creating their own bankruptcy prediction models.

Mário Papík, Lenka Papíková, Jana Kajanová, Michal Bečka
Review of the Public Sector Organizations’ Environment: Accounting and Internal Control Systems, and Audit Quality

The external auditor’s evaluation of the audit client’s environment, in particular the accounting and internal control systems, is crucial in order to provide a high audit quality. Especially in PSOs, the importance of this evaluation increases because of their specific characteristics, such as the type of PSO, laws and regulations, governance method (including internal auditing), and accounting information system (including the accounting basis). The organization’s management is responsible for establishing and maintaining an efficient accounting and internal control systems, but the external auditor is responsible for evaluating and determining the efficacy of these systems in order to determine whether or not to rely on them and to what degree. This paper reviews the main elements of environment of the PSOs which they may have significant impact on the audit quality and contributes to audit quality literature by reviewing the characteristics of PSOs, particularly the internal control and its effects on the audit quality. And it provides a basis for discussing the effect of several potentially elements of environment of PSOs on audit quality for future research.

Husni Ibrahim Asad Rabaiah, Mustafa Mohd Hanefah, Rosnia Masruki, Nurul Nazlia Jamil
The Impact of Accounting Information System on the Organizations Financial Performance

In the face of fast technological progress, increasing knowledge, and difficult demands from businesses and customers, an accounting information system is an essential instrument in the hands of managers seeking to sustainable competitive advantage. The impact of accounting information systems on organizations financial performance is investigated in this study. The primary goal of this paper is to review the theoretical and conceptual basis as well as research findings on accounting information systems and company financial performance. According to the findings of the review, previous studies on the impact of accounting information on financial performance focused on the cost implications of accounting information systems as they relate to corporate financial performance. The vast majority of studies used a survey study methodology to investigate this link, and the rest of the researches were conducted in industrialized economies where accounting information systems technologies have been extensively adopted. As a result, this study suggests that further research should done in this area to close this research gap..

Thabet Yusuf AlBastaki, Allam Hamdan
Asset Management Performance: Evidence from Ukraine

The article is focused on asset management performance of investment management companies of Ukraine and on the possibility of forming effective measures of its optimization. The analysis of performance of investment management companies of Ukraine allowed to identify positive and negative tendencies of their activity. The economic modeling revealed the relationship between the asset management performance of investment management companies and such factors as costs, revenues, liabilities, equity and asset turnover ratio of this companies. The authors proposed a set of management measures, implementation of which would improve asset management performance of investment management companies.

Maksym Slatvinskyi, Tetyana Demchenko, Inna Kosmidailo, Nadiia Reznik
Factors Affecting Investor Switching Intention to Fintech Peer-To-Peer Lending

This research investigates the factors that influence the Investor switching intention from deposits or investing their funds in traditional financial services, namely banks, to invest in the Financial Technology Peer-to-Peer Lending. We build the research model adapting the Push–Pull Mooring (PPM) Framework to describe the migration theory of customers switching behavior. The Push factors include customer’s Satisfaction on Bank and perceived Service Quality on Bank. While the Pull Factors is Individual’s Knowledge toward Peer-to-Peer Lending and Personal Reward Sensitivity. Multiple Regression Analysis is used to analyze the model and relationship between variables. We collected data from 170 respondents who are investing part of their portfolio in a bank deposit. We find that Pushing factors of customer satisfaction and perceived Service Quality on banks has a negative effect on investor switching intention. The Pull factor of an Individual’s Knowledge toward Peer-to-Peer Lending and personal Reward Sensitivity positively affects investor switching intention.

Shadiq Shakur Ahmad Baruna, Zuliani Dalimunthe, Rachmadi Agus Triono
Contemporary Management Accounting Practices, Innovation and Organizational Performance of Service Organizations in Malaysia

The purpose of this study is to examine the relationship between contemporary management accounting practices (CMAP), innovation and organizational performance (OP) of service companies in Malaysia. CMAP is represented by Decision Support System (DSS), Balanced Scorecard (BSC) and Total Quality Management (TQM). The population of this study includes all the service listed companies and large scale non-listed companies. Purposive random sampling techniques is deployed and a total of 139 useful responses were collected through the questionnaire. Analyzing the data using the Social Science Statistics Package (SPSS) and Smart Partial Least Squares (Smart PLS). Results showed CMAP has a positive and significant effect on innovation and OP. The components of CMAP (DSS, BSC, TQM) have positive and significant effects on OP. Innovation has positive and significant effect on OP. Service companies in Malaysia are recommended to focus more on deploying the CMAP to improve their competitiveness. In addition, innovation is important for companies to achieve competitive advantage and improve the organizational performance.

Marwan Assim Alhasani, Ruhanita Maelah, Amizawati Mohd Amir
Latest Challenges of International Migration for Ukraine: Theoretical and Empirical Aspects

The article identifies the problem of international labor migration in Ukraine in terms of its theoretical and empirical aspects and reveals interdisciplinary and sectoral priorities. It is determined that the actualization is caused by a number of factors of exogenous and endogenous origin. It is revealed that in the conditions of the Ukrainian economy the source and driver of external migration processes are political, economic and social factors, while the determinants of socio-economic nature remain dominant. It is substantiated that the actualization of non-economic aspects of research on external labor migration in Ukraine in recent years is due to the military conflict in the East and the purposeful policy of individual states to stimulate migration from abroad. It is determined that the institutional dimension of the issue of international labor migration should be assessed as promising given the new challenges for the world to strengthen the recession in the world economy and the problems in labor markets. The expansion of the range of problems that will be revealed in publications on the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on international migration flows: the traditional analysis of macroeconomic effects for all participants in these processes will be supplemented by scientific research on problems that cause general civilizational and sociocultural challenges.

Fedun Igor, Kudyrko Liudmyla, Shnyrkov Oleksandr, Novak Olena, Oleinikov Yuriy, Uzba Valeriy
Optimization of Bank Lending in the Context of Modern Realities and Prospects of Financial Market Development

Optimization of credit activity is the key to stable development, expansion of the customer base, and growth of profits of banking institutions. Therefore, the priority of ensuring the financial stability of a modern bank should be the formation and effective implementation of credit policy. The purpose of the article is to study the features of banking lending and substantiate scientific and practical recommendations for its improvement, taking into account modern realities and prospects for financial market development.We set a task to determine the main directions of bank lending optimization. For this purpose, the analysis of modern tendencies of credit activity of banks is carried out, problems in the sphere of formation and realization of their credit policy are revealed. Suggestions for strengthening the efficiency of the bank with bad debts are provided. Methodological approaches to the formation of a mechanism for managing problem loans of the bank with the justification of management methods and criteria for their selection, which can be used in the management of credit risks of the bank. The methods of improving the efficiency of the bank’s loan portfolio management substantiated in the article have value for improving its quality and increasing the profitability of credit operations. The proposed fundamental aspects of the formation of the bank’s credit strategy with the identification of its main objectives, priorities, factors, and sequence of specific actions are appropriate for use by banks in building an effective credit policy and increase the profitability of credit operations.

Nadiia Reznik, Galina Palchevich, Tatiana Melnyk, Valerii Podplietnii, Volodymyr Shalimov
Management Accounting Information Usefulness, Digital Inclusion and Performance of SMEs

The aspects of life and industry and also model and principles of business has changed significantly parallel with the phenomena of rapid growth in today’s digital age. In addition, the Information and Communications Technology (ICT) will give significant affects to digital economy. Therefore, in the case of fully utilizing the technology, conventional business systems is highly recommending to replace by ICT which is believed as the best platform that could lead the firm to be more competitive in the current market. On the other hand, one of the factor to ensure the effectiveness and efficiency of the business is management accounting information (MAI). MAI is a primary information source for planning, decision-making and control which is crucial for business in achieving competitive advantage. The main focus of this study is to investigate the relationship between MAI and performance moderated by digital inclusion among SMEs in Malaysia. Resource Based View (RBV) has been used as the underpinning theory, which expect that digital inclusion moderates the relationship between MAI and performance. The data was collected by survey method using questionnaires and distributed to SMEs in Malaysia. Based on the samples of 338 respondents the study employs Structured Equation Model (SEM) using SmartPLS 3 software to analyze the data. The results reveal that MAI (include broad scope, timeliness and integration) has a positive direct effect on performance. However, there is no evidence that digital inclusion moderating the relationship between MAI and performance. The finding of this study suggest that SMEs in Malaysia should include all information needed in their management accounting system., quickly and effectively disseminate the information to the relevant parties and integrate the information between departments in order to improve the performance of the organization.

Haslina Hassan, Ruhanita Maelah
Capital Adequacy and Profitability Indicators: An Empirical Study on Palestinian Banks

This study aims to test the relationship between the capital adequacy and profitability indicators of Palestinian banks. The study sample consists of six Palestinian local banks, listed on the Palestine Stock Exchange and operating between 2010 and 2019. A simple linear regression model is used to determine the relationship between the measure of capital adequacy and measures of bank profitability. The results show that, in general, there is a negative relationship between capital adequacy and return on equity and that the capital adequacy ratio for banks operating in Palestine is high and exceeds the minimum specified according to Basel III standards (10.5%), which is a very good indicator of the strength of the banking system in Palestine.

Bahaa Abo Awwad
Market Reaction to an Audit Firm Change Decision

This research aims to test the market reaction following the audit firm change announcement. The sample includes all UK companies listed on the London Stock exchange that have announced changing their auditors between March 2013 and February 2018. The companies’ daily stock prices as well as the market index daily value are collected from the Eikon DataStream. Using the event study methodology, a positive market reaction one day following the switch to a Big N auditor has been observed. The originality of this study lies in its context, as the UK audit market is currently the subject of considerable media attention with the debate of the merits of breaking up the big 4 audit firms considering the demise of the construction giant Carillion, while including the long period windows. The findings help stakeholders better understand the audit firm change context before taking any strategic decision.

Dorine Mattar, Rim El Khoury, Melissa Chaanine
Stakeholders of Yogyakarta Special Region and the Way They Manage Privilege Fund

This study aims to analyze the role of stakeholders in the Special Region of Yogyakarta, which consists of the palace and the Pakualaman, Kaprajan (local government and district/city government), Campus, Village, and Community. This study also analyzes how the stakeholders manage and understand the Yogyakarta privilege fund. This research uses the descriptive analysis qualitative method. Determination of the sample is done by sampling technique, Clustered random sampling. The number of samples in this survey is 462 respondents with a ±5% margin error at the 95% confidence level. The data collection method was that the selected respondents were interviewed face-to-face using a questionnaire by interviewers who had been trained. The results of this study provide evaluations and recommendations for stakeholders in optimizing the management of Yogyakarta’s privileged funds. This study provides a mapping of the management and performance of stakeholders in the Special Region of Yogyakarta.

Dessy Isfianadewi, Unggul Priyadi, Lak Lak Nazhat El Hasanah
How Airline Service Quality (AIRQUAL) Affects Customer Decision Making in Airline Choices—A Conceptual Paper

Airline service quality (AIRQUAL) is an important element for all service providers especially in the airline industry. It derives from the popular service quality (SERVQUAL) model and appear as a medium for gauging customers’ satisfaction towards the services offered to them during the service encounter. Most airlines worldwide, understood the necessity in meeting customer satisfaction with outstanding quality services, and set about toward exploring for proxies to reassure its customers on the grounds of service quality. Hence, the objective of this conceptual study is to develop a modified airline service quality (AIRQUAL) scale in order to gauge the indicators within the dimensions of airline service quality and other expository attributes that can be applied to predict customers’ decision-making in airline choices. Most studies in South East Asian (ASEAN) only focuses on the original element of the airline service quality (AIRQUAL), thus highlighting the need to include airline cultural management as the new element in the airline service quality (AIRQUAL) scale. The final scale can be drawn on to outline a simple matrix for evaluating or tracking process for South East Asia (ASEAN) airlines performance, and it also may be a practical indicator toward determining service quality regionally. This study also presents an opportunity for further studies and will aid the stimulation on the momentum of current research for airline service quality and customers’ decision-making in airline choices.

Muhammad Izwan Mohd Badrillah, Adibah Shuib, Shahrin Nasir
Impact of Audit Quality on the Firms Performance and the Mediation of Accrual Earning Management—Conceptual Paper

The quality of financial reports is key to confident and informed markets and investors. The purpose of the independent audit is to provide confidence in the quality of financial reports. In addition, accrual accounting provides for a better sense of a company’s overall financial health than the cash basis accounting method. Therefore, the rational conceptualization between audit quality, accrual earning management, and financial performance is essential and must be examined especially in the companies listed in the stock market. The proposed model of this research has external audit and audit committee effeteness as predictors for both accrual earning management, and firms’ financial performance. In addition, accrual earning management is mediating the relationships between audit quality and financial performance. Further work is important to empirically examine the model to validate the proposed relationships and make a comparison between the different markets.

Osama Khader
Model of Relational Capital, Networking Customer Capability and Customer Retention to Increase Marketing Performance of SMEs

This study aimed to test capital relational model for conducting management of a company business by increasing customer retention to improve Small and Medium-sized Enterprise (SMEs) marketing performance. The quality of customer networking can improve marketing performance. The population in this study included the owners of SMEs in Bantul, Indonesia. Samples were selected by purposive sampling method covering 80 respondents and the samples were processed using regression analysis. The analysis was conducted by Structural Equation Modeling (SEM) SmartPLS version 3.2.9 computer program. The results showed that Relational Capital, Communication Quality and Customer Retention had a significant effect on Networking Customer Capability. Meanwhile, Networking Consumer Capability and Communication Quality had a significant effect on marketing performance. Moreover, customer retention had no significant effect on Marketing Performance. In addition, data analysis implied that there is a mediation effect of consumer networking and communication quality which has a significant role in improving marketing performance in Small and Medium Enterprises.

Naili Farida, Ida Bagus Nyoman, Mochamad Taufiq
Organization of Management of Moral Risks of Banking Activity in a Modern Business Environment

It is substantiated that the basis for effective functioning of banking institutions in the conditions of uncertainty is the identification and management of risks inherent in banking activities. In view of this, the purpose of the article is to substantiate the nature, determinants and varieties of moral risks, determine their place in the system of risks of banking activities and develop proposals to improve the effectiveness of moral risks management in the context of economic uncertainty’s. The article determines that among the whole set of banking risks, moral risks are inherent in not only one, but almost all types of banking activity. Therefore, the emphasis is placed on the consideration of moral risks as a component of such systemic risks of banking activities as credit, market, operational and technological, currency risks and risk of change in interest rate. The necessity of considering the moral risks in the two-level plane, at the macro- and micro-levels is argued. It has been determined that one of the ways thus to neutralize moral risks, is to have a system of guaranteeing of banking deposits. It is substantiated that the detection of tendencies unwanted development of events with the purpose of subsequent neutralization of the negative consequences that can lead to one or another risk is carried out through an organized system of management of risk of the functioning of the bank. It is determined that the system of management of risks of the bank should be consistent with the risk classification, which is mandatory to separate into a separate group of moral risks, which will allow banks to have clear and transparent guidelines for building a system of management of risks in banks. Considering the specific nature of moral risks and the considerable level of their unpredictability, are proposed to create in the banks a separate department or position whose functional area of activity will be the identification, assessment and general management of moral risks, as well as to specify the tasks and methodological support of this department (position) in management of the moral risks of bank.

Raisa Kvasnytska, Inna Dotsenko, Lesia Matviychuk, Larysa Oliinyk
The Links Between Banking Theories and Financial Inclusion: A Theoretical Framework

This paper will present and discuss the theories related to the banks, as financial intermediation playing a significant role in enhancing financial inclusion. Furthermore, trying to link the target of financial inclusion with banks target to enhance their performance, decreasing risk to maximizing the stockholder’s wealth. Meanwhile, this paper will present three main theories behind banks and link them to financial inclusion; Financial Intermediation Theory of Banking; Fractional Reserve Theory of Banking; The Credit Creation Theory of Banking.

Fadi Hassan Shihadeh
Examining the Practice of Tawarruq Credit Financing in Malaysian Credit Co-operatives

Credit co-operatives are one of the co-operatives that contribute to Malaysia’s economic development and progress. These co-operatives have provided credit facilities to their members, either individually or institutionally. Nowadays, credit co-operatives have applied an Islamic contract known as Tawarruq. However, there is limited research and literature on the practices of Tawarruq in this sector. Many studies only focused on the Tawaruq practices of Islamic Banking Institutions (IBs). While Tawarruq practices in IBs face some issues, the question is whether the same issues apply to the credit co-operatives. Therefore, this study focused on the application of Tawarruq practised by the credit co-operatives. This study was conducted qualitatively by compiling data and information from interviews with the management and observations on the process and other related documents. This study revealed that credit co-operatives contain two modes of Tawarruq arrangements or transactions. The first arrangement is credit co-operatives acting as principals, while the second arrangement is credit co-operatives acting as agents. Hopefully, the findings will provide a good understanding of Tawarruq practices in this sector.

Rusni Hassan, Harith Hamidi

Corporate Governance, IT Governance, Financial Markets and Performance

The Impact of Robotic Process Automation (RPA) Technology in Banking Sector in Bahrain

Organizations has lots of repeated activities that are done manually by employees, these activities are done periodically (daily, weekly, monthly, etc…) which consume lots of time to be completed. These activities are done manually so it can result of non-accurate output because of the mistakes done manually by the employees because it is the nature of human and doing these activities regularly can decrease the motivation of the employees which lead to more mistakes. In the latest years, Robotic Process Automation (RPA) technology was introduced to overcome these issues. RPA was used in the Banking sector in Bahrain with a strong recommendation to use it especially in the Operation activities of the banks. RPA is used to automate the repeated tasks and studies on these technologies found it RPA systems will lead to reduce the cost of these activities, minimize the time take to finish these activities, reduce mistakes done by individuals and enhance the productivity of the organisation. All these advantages can be applied to the Banks and these operation’s activities.

Abdulrahman Rashed, Mohammed Alchuban, Allam Hamdan, Bahaaeddin Alareeni
The Role of Governance in Analysing Waqf Performance

Over the years, waqf institutions have played an essential role in addressing a wide range of socio-economic development for the ummah (society) all over the world. The growth of waqf with time has led to increasing expectations surrounding the role of waqf institutions. Nevertheless, there has been an inefficiency issue regarding waqf institutions in Malaysia. The literature emphasises that inefficiency is usually associated with internal factors such as governance and management. Hence, the present study examines whether governance moderates the relationship between human capital in Waqf institution and waqf regulations (both as a proxy of waqf management attribute) with waqf institutions’ performance in Malaysia. The current research employed a quantitative research methodology by analysing a selected sample of 99 respondents in waqf institutions. The developed model was tested using the Structural Equation Model (SEM) technique through the Partial Least Square (PLS) approach. The results revealed a positive relationship between waqf management attribute and waqf performance, which becomes stronger with high governance. Moreover, it should be noted that the use of governance as a moderator between waqf management attribute and waqf performance is very limited in past research. Therefore, the present study’s result is expected to enhance the understanding of existing conceptual literature on the importance of governance in influencing the relationship between waqf management attributes and waqf institutions’ performance in Malaysia.

Nur Azni Mohd Zeni, Mohd Rizuan Abdul Kadir, Noraina Mazuin Sapuan
The Earnings Management in Jordanian Banks: Do Profitability Measures Matter?

The purpose of this study is to analyze the relationship between profitability measures and earnings management in Jordanian commercial banks. The quantitative methodology was used to collect the research data from the financial statements of (35) Jordanian commercial banks from (2013 to 2019). The results of the study reveal that there is a negative and significant relationship between Return on Equity (ROE) and earnings management, and a positive and not significant relationship between Return on Deposits (ROD) and earnings management. It’s also documented that there is a positive and significant association between each Return on Investment (ROI), Earnings Per Share (EPS), and earnings management.

Abdul Razzak Al-Shahadah, Dea’a Al-Deen Al-Sraheen, Mohammad Khudari
Study of Impact of Dematerialization of Shares on the Indian Stock Market

In the modern world, the stock market plays a crucial role in the country’s economic development and is amongst the most versatile sectors in the country’s financial system. It provides a platform for investors to trade shares, bonds, and debentures and allows the companies to raise the much-required funds to boost their business. In this way, the stock market plays a crucial role in enhancing the country’s industry and commerce growth. The reason for selecting this topic is that the Indian Share Market has grown unprecedented after the introduction of Dematerialization by the government of India in the mid – 90’s. Hence, to study how the Dematerialization and electronification of shares have shaped the tremendous growth and potential of the Indian Stock Market became an interesting study to explore its various possibilities. The journey traces the growth of the Indian Stock Market from its humble beginning with just a few traders to the globally competitive and colossal stock market of the present day. Currently, the Indian Stock Market boasts of having 5 70 000 traders and a total market capitalization worth 2.27 trillion dollars, leading to becoming the world’s 11th largest stock exchange. This paper explores the multiple benefits that they share trading industry gained as a result of Dematerialization.

Shreya Bhadra, Ashok Chopra
Performance Analysis of Indian Mutual Funds During Covid-2019

The outbreak situation of the COVID-2019 pandemic is an Unpredictable shock to the world economy. World Economy faces the slowdown of share market prices, especially the value of mutual fund value decreases. Companies and Businessmen primarily invested in the mutual funds to play a safer role, modify their risk into the return, and increase the Net Assets Value (NAV). This study attempts to describe the state of mutual funds in India during this COVID 2019 period. Thus the performance of mutual funds when compared with before and during COVID 2019, the proposed model specifies on testing the performance of mutual funds both in the public and private sectors and attains to access the impact of COVID 2019 on mutual funds. The author has used correlation for finding out the relation of COVID 2019 and Mutual Funds. This paper mainly addresses the causes of investors during economic fluctuation and the return of top mutual companies by comparing the return of 1 year and during these last three months. COVID 2019 is not only on particular sectors; it affects almost every sector like construction, manufacturing, business, agriculture. While all the sectors are affected by COVID 2019 pandemics, it hits the society and the economy; once the economy comes down, the inflation rate increase, the Forex rate will increase, and it affects our whole country. In this paper, the author included sectors that are affected and their performance now and how well the different types of funds are performing, which will be helpful for the reader to analyze the affected areas. The paper concluded with the help of a survey and statistical tools whether the investors can make a further payment and hold for some period or continue with the investment whatever situation crisis impacts our economy.

Rekha Nagarajan, Ashok Chopra
Psychological Contract Breach as Moderator to the Influence of the Organizational Justice on Job Satisfaction and Employee Procrastination

The relationship between employees and the organization is not only transactional, which is regulated in formal contracts, but also involves informal and relational relationships as described in the social exchange theory. The formal relationship is in the form of organizational justice, while the informal relationship is in the psychological contract between the organization and employees. A fair relationship can positively affect job satisfaction, and can negatively affect employee behavior such as procrastination. Procrastination is behavior influenced by complex factors such as personal characteristics, task characteristics, and organizational environment. The relationship between organizational justice, psychological contract, job satisfaction, and procrastination is still a gap in the literature, as well as has become the motivation for this research. This article discusses the moderating role of psychological contract breach on the effect of organizational justice on job satisfaction and procrastination. This study contributes through a literature review on the effect of flexible and fair contracts on job satisfaction and procrastination behavior.

Sunarta Sunarta, Heru Kurnianto Tjahjono, Muafi Muafi, Wisnu Prajogo
The Impact of Working Capital Management on the Financial Performance of Industrial Companies Listed on the Palestine Stock Exchange

This study aimed to test the impact of some working capital management indicators (such as average collection period, average storage period and average repayment period) on the financial performance of industrial companies listed in Palestine Stock Exchange during the period 2012–2018. The researchers meant to analyze the content of the financial statements of the industrial companies listed on the Palestine Stock Exchange as a study tool based on the annual reports of thirteen companies whose data were available during the period when this study was being conducted. The study findings showed that there was no impact of the working capital management represented in the average collection period on the financial performance of industrial companies listed on the Palestine Stock Exchange. A review of the results of the statistical analysis revealed an effect of (the average storage period and the average repayment period) on the financial performance of the companies listed on the Palestine Stock Exchange. One of the most important recommendations of the study is that industrial companies are supposed to review the collection policies by adopting credit policies that depend on the financial ability of customers to repay because this has an impact on the financial performance of companies. Thus, the results of the study showed that there was no effect of the collection period on the financial performance of companies.

Alaa Akram Hosni Sulaiman, Hosni Shareif Hussein Shanak
The Impact of Ownership Concentration on Stock Performance in the Palestinian Firms Listed in the Stock Exchange

This study aimed to investigate the impact of corporate governance specifically, ownership concentration on stock performance of all firms listed in the Palestinian Stock exchange, 220 observations from a total of 44 firms between the years 2016–2020, was taken, panel data method was used and the pooled Ordinary least squares (OLS) method was used, the results show that there was a positive and significant relationship between managerial ownership, large ownership and foreign ownership and stock performance, there is a negative significant relationship between foreign ownership and stock performance (MV/BV) in the Palestinian Stock Market.

Suhair I. Shumali, Mohammad K. Abuamsha
The Importance of Compliance Management in SMEs Ambidexterity Towards Innovation Performance Aside of Corporate Openness: Theoretical Framework

Ambidexterity is still a concern of many researchers, especially in the field of SMEs because of its influence on innovation performance. Many of the previous studies have explored various factors, but not many put together corporate openness and compliance management in perspective. As such, this paper offers the concept as a foundation for improving innovation performance through openness and compliance management. Corporate openness is a key factor in the relationship of ambidexterity and innovation performance. Openness helps SMEs to gain access to external knowledge at minimal cost, and also understands competitor activity in the market thus helping SMEs to bridge the innovation gap between them, competitors and markets, with less time and cost. Compliance Management is a process to ensure companies and employees complies to all laws, regulations, ethical standards and practices applicable to organizations and industries. We argue that the absence of compliance with the laws, regulations, standards and ethical practices conducted by SMEs into the performance of innovation will be hampered. This is due to SMEs need to concentrate on resolving things that are obstacles to operationalization, then innovate after the problems are resolved. Therefore, compliance is needed in addition to corporate openness to improve the performance of SME innovation.

Ari Pranaditya, M. Trihudiyatmanto, Heri Purwanto, Alfian Yuda Prasetiyo
World Experience of Investing and Human Capital Development

In modern business conditions, an important factor in financial and economic activities is employees, their competence, and professionalism. Globalization processes in the economic environment motivate the use of new information resources and technologies, the development of the economy’s new areas. At the same time, there is a growing need for a high level of human capital development. Therefore, today it is necessary to develop and implement measures aimed at investing in human capital. In the context of the COVID-19 pandemic, investing in human capital is more vital than ever, as it can lay the foundation for sustainable, comprehensive recovery and growth in the future.It is investments in technology, education, science that guarantee the formation of highly qualified competitive human capital at all levels of the economy. Hence, one of the main tasks of the company is to support and constantly improve the skills of its employees, the formation of such skills and abilities that would allow them to quickly adapt to innovative technologies and complex realities of the modern economy.The purpose of the article is to review the foreign experience of developed countries in solving social problems that affect the human capital index. Studying the world experience of human capital formation and borrowing it for Ukraine can be an effective tool of state social policy. After all, investments in physical capital and infrastructure without sufficient investments in human capital may not give Ukraine the expected dividends.

Antonina Bazyliuk, Viktoria Khomenko, Victoria Ilchenko
Application of the Balanced Scorecard and Costing System Relying on Activities to Reduce Costs of Bank Services

The study aims to show an analytical merging into the balanced scorecard and costing system in bank services. In order to accomplish the requirements of the research, the study relied on the field method and used the questionnaire as a means to collect data; the sample size of this study was (97), the Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) as statistical tools and techniques were used to analyse the data. The study reached a set of results, including The increasing use of modern technology in providing banking services made the bank seek to adopt the activity-based costing system. The bank’s management realised that the financial and non-financial information provided by the balanced scorecard and activity-based costing systems enables senior management to make rational strategic decisions towards reducing costs. The study recommends managers of banks to establish a sub-management for costs and benefit from its cadres of cost accountants who occupy other jobs to apply the costing system based on activities and use of information which is provided to ensure more accurate control of the cost banking services.

Marwan Rushdi Yousef, Asaad Ali Karam
Principal-Agent or Patron-Client? The Unspoken Concord of Indonesia’s Two-Tier Corporate Governance

Corporate governance (CG) in the banking sector is deemed as one of the most structured and regulated. When it applies to regional development banks, the regional dynamics contribute to the quality of corporate governance. Using Indonesia as a case in point, this paper aims at analyzing corporate governance practices based on dynamics amongst actors in regional development banks. Using agency and patron-client theory, the underlying dynamics amongst different actors representing the two-tier system applied by Indonesia are presented and elaborated. The study applies a qualitative approach. Data are collected using in-depth interviews with representatives from the board of directors and board of commissioners of selected regional development banks as well as regulatory agencies in Indonesia. This study proposes the application of the patron-client approach to understand the interactions amongst controlling shareholders, the board of commissioners, and the board of directors. In conclusion, a model of dynamic interactions amongst the actors is proposed based on two case studies constructed from a series of interviews to elaborate the dynamics.

Novita Ikasari, Umanto, Ika Sri Hartantiningsih
How Do Human Capital Empowerments Constitute the Organizational Performance?

Much research has proven the effect of human capital on the organizational performance; the present study demonstrates how this causal relationship take place in the reality. In other words, in this research, first, organizational factors that cause human capital to flourish and be empowered are identified, and then their effects on the factors that shape the performance of an organization are identified. Hence, the main objective of this study was to examine the impact of the organizational factors empowering human capital on the organizational performance enablers. To do so, a questionnaire is administrated and Linear regression analysis using SPSS 22.0 applied for data analysis. According to the results, human capital empowerment factors have a statistically significant impact on the performance enablers. Finding disclosed that an effective performance evaluation system and effective leadership, which empower human capital in the organization, have a positive significant effect on the organizational performance. The findings indicate that organizations with an effective performance appraisal system and effective leadership not only provide a platform in which human capital is identified and grown, but also improve the factors that shape the performance of an organization. This research contributes to the literature on human resources, human capital, organizational management, and ultimately organizational performance.

Saeed Nosratabadi, Parvaneh Bahrami, Hamed Motaghi, Mohar Yusof, Azrul Fazwan Kharuddin

Corporate Social Responsibility and Organizational Culture

The Impact of Ownership Structures on Corporate Social Responsibility Disclosure in Palestine

This study investigates the impact of managerial ownership and blockholder ownership in determining Corporate Social Responsibility Disclosure (CSRD) in Palestinian listed firms. This study is based on panel data of 576 observations from all firms listed on the Palestine Security Exchange during the period from 2009 to 2020. The result reveals that blockholders’ ownership is significant and positively related to CSRD. However, managerial ownership is positive but not significantly related to CSRD. This study measured the CSRD as content analysis for five elements; employees, environment, community, value-added, and product. CSRDL measured as a number of words identified in each item were utilized to capture the nature of disclosure made in each of the five issues. The few studies in Palestine and the mixed results in the prior studies in developed countries make it necessary to study the impact of ownership structures on CSRD in Palestine, in order to enrich the previous literature.

Nafieh Assaf, Mohammed W. A. Saleh
Antecedent and Consequence of Work Life Balance in Islamic Perspective: Cases in Indonesia

This study is testing and analyzing the work environment as an antecedent and intent to turn over as a consequence of the Work Life Balance in Islamic Perspective (WLBIP). This study uses generation Y employees at a state-owned enterprise in Indonesia as respondent. 43 employees as samples is obtained by purposive sampling. This study uses SPSS 24 as statistical techniques. The conclusions in this study are (1) the work environment has positive effect on WLBIP, (2) WLBIP has negative effect on Intent to Turn over, (3) the work environment has negative effect on Intent to Turn over, (4) WLBIP is unable to mediate Work environment toward intent to turn over.

Muafi Muafi, Yuni Siswanti, Wirman Syafri
A Qualitative Approach to Develop an Assessment Instrument for Homestay Operators’ Environmental Behaviour

This study elucidates the early stages of developing an assessment instrument, projected to get Homestay coordinators’ feedback related to their members’ behaviour of environmental practices. Nine informants participated in a voluntary semi-structured interview, conducted at different Homestay settings around Malaysia. A five-item semi-structured interview guide was used to record their perception, pursual their personal experience. Thematic analysis with codes was implemented to categorise the responses. Later, 25 questions were included in the preliminary assessment instrument and identified as the Homestay operators’ Environmental Behaviour Assessment Instrument (EBAI). However, the EBAI needs additional research for it to be considered consistent and effective. Nevertheless, the qualitative approach implied to develop the assessment may be beneficial specifically to Homestay researchers and practitioners.

Nur Farihin Abd Hadi Khan, Yuhanis Abdul Aziz, Azmawani Abd Rahman, Rusmawati Said, Nik Madeeha Nik Mohd Munir
Real-Time Dream House Decorator in the Virtual Reality Environment

Virtual Reality (VR) technology has begun entering the repertoire of tools used by commercial architects. Today, architects are using VR for visualization and sales. For example, VR is used as a promotional tool for both the architectural firms and their developer clients in retail and commercial architecture. Very importantly, VR can help architects and clients communicate better about proposed projects. Hence, the proposal application for the Real-time Dream House Decorator proposed. Real-time Dream House Decorator is home decorator application. The main objective of the study is to develop an application, test the usability of this application. This application is a platform for users to makes user who want to explore and virtually decorate it themselves with various texture design. This involves to use the application development software Unity to produce Real-time Dream House Decorator Virtual Reality.

Muhammad Nur Aiman Bin Doktah Mokhtar, Ismahafezi Ismail, Wan Mohd Amir Fazamin Wan Hamzah, Syadiah Nor Wan Shamsuddin, Mohd Azhar M. Arsad
The Determinants of Cooperative Sustainable Development: A Case Study of Malaysian Cooperatives

Sustainability has become one of the strategic essential in the 4th industrial revolution era. Most cooperatives strive to endure a sustainable development on economic, organizational, social, and environmental. In today’s competitive market environment, for cooperatives to achieve sustainability, many of them rely on business sustainability models to highlight the logic behind cooperative value creation and its potential impact. There are previous studies that explored the continuous development of cooperatives from various perspectives. However, only a small portion of information is known about factors influencing cooperatives’ sustainable development, especially in Malaysia. Therefore, this study aims to address this gap by exploring this phenomenon. For the methodology approach, a set of three different case studies were conducted through protocol discussion with Malaysian cooperatives across various sectors. This was done to learn more about the topic, enhance the research questions, and expand the ideas. The findings of the qualitative investigation revealed several determinants, which led to the following themes: (i) members’ participation; (ii) governance management; (iii) business strategy; (iv) resource management; and (v) leadership. The qualitative methods used yielded rich information that will guide future research. In brief, this study contributes to the existing literatures in cooperative and sustainable development knowledge and will benefit future research.

Mohammad Ismail, Nurul Ashykin Abd Aziz, Noor Raihani Zainol, Mohd Nor Hakimin Yusoff, Rooshihan Merican Abdul Rahim Merican
Impact of Employee’s Engagement and Task Identity on Employee’s Retention Strategy Mediated by Job Satisfaction

This study aims to examine factors expected to be effective on employee retention strategy in the Malaysian industries. Employee engagement and task identity are tested for its’ direct impact on employee retention, while job satisfaction will be examined as mediator of the relationships between the independent and dependent variables. the study follows the quantitative method of data collection, the survey distributed among employees in the Malaysian industries and 463 surveys collected as valid questionnaires for data analysis. The collected data analysed descriptive analysis via Social Package for Social Science SPSS and hypothesis testing via Analysis of a Moment Structure AMOS. The study found a direct significant impact of employee engagement, task identity and job satisfaction on employee retention, and job satisfaction significantly playing the role of mediating the relationship between employee engagement and employee retention and insignificant mediating role on the relationship between task identity and employee retention. Accordingly, these factors should be implemented by the Malaysian industries toward a successful employee retention in the country.

Ishaq Ibrahim, Kalsom Ali, Ibrahim Azzam Alzoubi, Mohammad Mahmoud Alzubi, Ali AL-Tahitah, Kadhim Ghaffar Kadhim
Corporate-Community Engagement—The Case Study of Malaysian Palm Oil Companies in Indonesia

Corporate-community engagement is one of the integral components of Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR), this is especially challenging in international business endeavour where a company is considered a foreign entity and any negative encounter against a local community would easily backfire its existence as well as portrays negative image of its home country. By and large, any business’ CSR initiatives in whatever forms and shapes would positively contribute to the triple-bottom-line of business, namely profit, people and planet. Apart from looking after its employees, engaging local community is inevitably included under the people bottom line. Malaysian Palm Oil Companies over the last three decades have expanded their activities in Indonesia to gain competitive edges by tapping attractive land’s price and relatively cheaper labour resources. Notwithstanding of socio-economic contribution of Malaysian Palm Oil Companies in their host country through job opportunities, improvement in infrastructure as well as economic gains by Indonesian government through tax payment, not much has been studied about their benefits to local communities who live within the vicinity of the palm oil plantations. Against this academic lacuna, this study aims to investigate level of engagement of Malaysian Palm Oil Companies in Indonesia with local communities by using six companies as the case study. Utilising on qualitative method where interviews were conducted with the community leaders and palm oil companies’ management in various provinces in Sumatra and Kalimantan. The results of the study found that majority of those companies hardly engage with their local communities. These findings are instructive where Malaysia Palm Oil Company needs to proactively embrace and engage community engagement through a deeper, meaningful and continuous collaboration the local communities in order to gain minds and hearts of their existence which in turns can contribute to the sustainability of their companies and also the palm oil industry.

Mohd Rafi Yaacob, Siti Amaliya Mohd Radyi, Azwan Abdullah, Juliansyah Noor, Ahmad Firdause Fadzil, Faizu Hassan
Does Environmental, Social, and Governance (ESG) Disclosure Add Firm Value? Evidence from Sharia-Compliant Banks in Jordan

This study aims to determine to investigate the relationship between ESG disclosure and bank value measures in Islamic banks listed on ASE in the period 2013 to 2019. The independent variable is Environmental, Social, and Governance Disclosure (ESGD) and the dependent variables are the banks’ value measures (ROA, ROI, EPS, M/B). This study using two control variables as leverage and board size. The findings deduced the empirical results that there is a significant impact of ESGD on Firms Value, and the disclosure of governance in Islamic banks is better.

Ammar Daher Bashatweh, Thaer Ahmad Abutaber, Mohammed Jamal AlZu’bi, Laith Faris Abu KHader, Saad Ahmed Al-Jaghbir, Islam Jamal AlZoubi
Dynamics of Living Standards Based on Factors of the Remuneration System

The concepts “standard of living” and “quality of life” play an essential role in society. They are indicators of assessing the socio-economic situation in a country. In the paper the model the dynamics of living standards which makes it possible to substantiate management decisions on the formation of a remuneration system at enterprises, taking into account the financial security of employees is developed. The use of the model showed that the financial indicators of the salary system effectiveness at enterprises do not reflect its adequate impact on the living standard of employees. Namely, the positive tendencies of an increase in average salary and an increase in the salary bill do not fully ensure an increase in the level indicator reflecting the volume of consumption of basic food products. This is due to the fact that the level of the real salary index is insufficient to fully meet the needs of employees.

Vasyl Brych, Nadiia Kalinichuk, Nataliya Halysh, Olena Borysiak, Dmytro Shushpanov, Oleksandr Zagurskyy
Influence of the Changing Organizational Culture on the Work Outcomes of Agile Teams in the Pandemic Era

In a VUCA world, contemporary organizations are impacted by many triggers invoked due to government rules, external business environment, and at times by the interaction of people within the organization. This paper focuses on how the changing organizational culture impacts and influences the work outcomes of agile teams operating as complex adaptive systems (CAS) in pandemic situations. During the COVID19 pandemic, the organizational culture of organizations has undergone a remarkable change and more staff are working from home and this impacts the work outcome of the agile teams.

Badri Srinivasan, Debarshi Mukherjee
Formation of Stakeholders’ Interaction of Agricultural Insurance on the Basis of Corporate Social Responsibility

The interaction processes activation of agricultural insurance stakeholders from the regional to the global level testifies to their natural reaction to the possibility of timely and effective counteraction to probable risks in the field of agricultural production. The authors emphasize that the determining condition for the coordination of insurance interests of market participants is their corporate social responsibility. Based on the above, the purpose of this study is to scientifically substantiate the process of generating insurance relations in the agricultural sector based on corporate social responsibility. The initial data of the study was formed by the results of a poll. The participants of the survey were potential consumers of insurance services, 250 enterprises of various forms of ownership within Zhytomyr, Kyiv and Khmelnytsky regions, as well as 40 insurance companies, branches and regional directorates that position their services in the field of property insurance. The empirical study was conducted using the tools for estimating the minimum required sample size for agricultural enterprises and insurance companies. The results of the sociological survey showed the feasibility of forming a systematic interaction between stakeholders of agricultural insurance. The authors emphasize that the achievement of this interaction requires the introduction of four levels of corporate social responsibility, namely: moral and ethical, communicative, financial and economic and inclusive. This will allow participants in the insurance process to implement closed distribution of risks in space and time effectively, while minimizing agricultural risks at the micro and macro levels. At the theoretical level, it is proven that the key components of financial inclusion in the formation of corporate social responsibility of agricultural insurance stakeholders are “affordability”, “service and quality” and “reliability of insurance protection”. Summarizing scientific developments, the authors of the article have formed certain recommendations and proposals that can be used by state and non-state insurance market institutions to ensure the reliability of the agricultural sector of the economy.

Oleg Skydan, Oleksandr Vilenchuk, Nataliia Valinkevych, Nataliia Kurovska, Nadiia Reznik
The Application of Planned Behavior Theory to the Adoption of Food Bank Program Among University Students

College meal plan for students is often too expensive, especially for low-income students. To overcome this problem, providing a food bank significant to help food insecurity among students in campus; hence, universities have come up with a food bank program to alleviate student hunger. This study aims to examine the influence of attitudes, subjective norm, and perceive behavior control on the adoption of food bank program at universities. The research population includes Malaysian public university students. The study employed an online survey instrument and received 380 responses from university students. For data analysis, the partial least square (PLS) was utilized by analysing the data using SmartPLS version 3.3 and the findings revealed that the data supported all of the direct relationships. This study adds to the body of knowledge in relation to the influence of attitudes, subjective norm, and perceived behavior control on the adoption of the food bank program. Therefore, universities are anticipated to become a catalyst that improves the attitudes, subjective norm, as well as perceived behavioral control towards the adoption of food bank program to help ease student hunger.

Nurul Hafizah Mohd Yasin, Nur Haiza Nordin, Nur Naddia Nordin, Nik Noorhazila Nik Mud, Siti Zamanira Mat Zaib, Fadhilahanim Aryani Abdullah, Nur Dalila Mat Yusoff, Nurul Fardila Abdul Razak
Understanding Green Environment Practices Through Local Authorities Perspectives

This study focuses on green environmental practices on cleanliness city and it was conducted qualitatively and involved four local authorities in Malaysia. The interview method was conducted with the selected four respondents who assigned the tasks to monitor green environment operations in their respective cities. Therefore, the results of the study found that local authorities and NGOs need to work together to improve green environmental practices and awareness campaigns among the community. Local authorities are also advised to take action on any community complaints so that environmental practices remain vigilant. This study found that changes in the behavior and attitudes of the community also need to be enhanced so that they are always concerned about the cleanliness of the respective city. Hence, this study should be continued from time to time covering various aspects and perspectives across districts, states and countries. It is hope that this study could contribute to part and partial achievement of Malaysia's 11th Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs), namely sustainable cities and communities.

Muhamad Saufi Che Rusuli, Noraani Mustapha, Anis Amira Ab. Rahman, Norshahila Ibrahim, Jati Kasuma Ali, Mohd Baharudin Ridzuan
The Case of Malaysian Working Women: A Discussion on Glass Ceiling Phenomenon Towards Career Advancement

Recent developments in manufacturing and services sector in Malaysia have heightened the need for women involvement at management level and decision-making level in labour force. It is government aimed to have 30 per cent of women involvement in top management in Malaysia. Even though there is increasing number of women in labour force involvement, but still there is lack number of women involving in top management post. Despite government had implemented several ways to help women involvement in top management position by offering flexible working arrangement policies (i.e., career break, flexible working hours, part time work, working beyond retirement age and working outside office), family friendly practices and work life benefits, but still this issue is becoming main agenda in labour force. In response to this, the study aims to provide updated review of research in Malaysian women involvement to top management affect due to the glass ceiling issue. Extending prior studies, this paper reviews the literature relating to the factors hindering women career advancement to top management. By understanding the effects of glass ceiling toward women career advancement, this study would give addition to the existing research on the way to overcome the glass ceiling issues that still shackles women particularly Malaysia. Future research on this area is significant to provide needed inputs to the related policy makers for the development of further action plans in providing support to aspiring women to top management.

Nurul Azwa Mohamed Khadri, Norehan Abdullah, Cheah Yong Kang, Yusrinadini Zahirah MD Isa Yusuff, Syamsuriana Sidek, Hazrina Hasbolah
Financial Profiling and Possible Financial Inclusion of Rohingya Refugees in Malaysia

This article provides a critical examination of the current extensive promotion of ‘financial inclusion for refugees’. The current system largely ignores refugees from the marketplace, and they are not very visible in their host country financial service providers, particularly in the Malaysia narrative. This article establishes financial profiling, examining the possible financial inclusion of unbanked refugees, particularly Rohingyas in Malaysia. Hence, this study distributed questionnaires to 306 Rohingya refugees registered in UNHCR. The findings reveal that some refugees are unaware of financial service providers, especially digital financial services such as E-wallet. However, they were fascinated by having access to affordable and suitable financial services. The paper further explores the possible financial and economic impact of extending financial services to unbanked refugees. This study is amongst the pioneer in Malaysia, exploring challenges in the financial inclusion of refugees. The results are relevant to governments, financial regulators, and central banks to structure the right interventions to counter the challenges of extending financial services to this group.

Mohd Safwan Ghazali, Tan Peck Leong
Bibliometric Analysis of Optimization in Sports from 2011 to 2020 Using Scopus Database

This study intends to conduct a bibliometric analysis in the field of study of optimization in sports by analyzing articles published between 2011 and 2020. In this study, the year’s corresponding to the greatest number of articles published, significant journals, highest cited articles, important authors, and most dominant countries were analyzed. The VOSviewer software was implemented for providing a visualization of co-authorship, intercountry co-authorship, and keywords co-occurrences analysis. A total of 344 articles were retrieved from the Scopus database. In conclusion, this study provides the available literature on optimization in sports over the last 10 years.

Nurul Izyan Mat Daud, Fatihah Mohd, Noorshella Che Nawi, Mohd Asrul Hery Ibrahim, Wai Hong Tan, Zaifilla Farrina Zainuddin, Nurul Hajar Mohd Yussoff
The Quality of Corporate Social Responsibilities Disclosures in Malaysian Companies

This paper examines the association between the quality of Corporate Social Responsibilities Disclosures (CSRD) and four variables namely Malay Dominated Board, Malay Dominated Shareholders, Ethnicity of CEO and the ethnicity of the Board of Directors’ Chairperson in annual reports. This study used content analysis and a dataset from Bursa Malaysia public listed companies. Findings founded on the full regression framwork with the four variables showed that all the independent variables Malay Dominated Board, Malay Dominated Shareholders, the Ethnicity of CEO and the Ethnicity of the Board of Directors’ Chairperson showed association with quality of CSRD in the predicted directions. Of these Malay Dominated Board (MalBoD), and The Ethnicity of CEO (MalCEO) are highly significant at the 1% level. While Malay Dominated Shareholders (MalSh) is found to be positive and substantial but at 10% level. In contrast, the variable the ethnicity of the Board of Directors’ Chairperson (MalCh) is identified to be not significant when regression examines are completed.

Abdul Wahid Bin Mohd Kassim, Raman Bin Noordin, Junainah Jaidi, Sulaiman Bin Tahajuddin
Elucidating the Role of Human Governance to Eradicate Corruption

Corruption is considered a major issue and is faced by many countries, big and small. Efforts have been taken and multiple initiatives have been implemented to reduce this global problem but unfortunately, reports from various studies show that these efforts are ineffective. A person’s character, good or bad is said to be the reflection of the state of his soul. Consciences, virtues and ethical behaviour are also believed to be located in the human soul and any damage to the soul results in immoral behaviours such as corruption. Hence, understanding the role of soul in the human body allows for a deeper understanding on how this spiritual element shapes human behaviour. First introduced in 2008, human governance is seen as the pathway to increase compliance and eradicate corruption. It discusses the principle of human beings going back to their essential nature. In essence, it differentiates human beings and being human. Hence, in order to see its importance in eradicating corrupt behaviour, it is important to first understand the concept underlying human governance, human models, and human soul. It provides an in-depth insight on the effectiveness of the concept of human governance in eradicating corrupt behaviours by going back to the essence of humans, a being with a soul.

Noor Aida Md Noor, Ainul Mohsein Abdul Mohsin, Siti Nabiha Abdul Khalid
Islamic Social Finance, Modern Slavery of Children, and Sustainable Development Goals in Indonesia

The purpose of this study is to build an optimization model of Islamic social finance and evaluate the existence of Islamic social finance and its effect on reducing modern slavery of children, using the Islamic social finance optimization framework approach in alleviating poverty and several sustainable development goals in Indonesia. The existence of modern slavery which has re-emerged is an important concern to study because slavery is anti-development. Moreover, Islam seeks to abolish slavery, so that modern slavery should no longer occur in Islamic countries, including Indonesia. This research is conducted using a quantitative descriptive method, with Partial Least Square Method and data from Indonesia in particular since Indonesia is a country with the largest Muslim population in the world. This research is important to be carried out since this subject has never been studied quantitatively. The findings of this study, which are based on the discussion of existing data indicate that quantitatively, in the short term there is no impact on the distribution of Islamic social finance funds, in the form of zakat, infaq, sadaqah on modern slavery of children in Indonesia. Thus, Indonesia, considering that the existence of modern slavery is anti-development as marked by its effect on welfare, as an Islamic country with the largest population in the world should pay more attention to the eradication of modern slavery of children.

Sari Lestari Zainal Ridho, Dodik Siswantoro
The Benefits of Traditional Postnatal Practices: A Narrative Review of Cultural Beliefs vs Scientific Findings

This review attempts to explore the traditional postnatal practices based on cultural beliefs and evidence-based benefits. This narrative review involved published quantitative and qualitative studies, review papers and guidelines and review documents by the Ministry of Health Malaysia. A literature search was conducted by using these databases-Medline, Science Direct and Google Scholar. There are some evidences to support some of the postnatal practices in providing physical and psychological benefits to postpartum mothers. For example, postnatal body massage could reduce anxiety and postnatal depression. Breast massage caused a reduction in breast pain from breast engorgement and improved lactation. A hot compress could reduce breast pain and prevent postpartum weight retention. These findings are essential for healthcare providers to support or refute the traditional postnatal practices and allow better integration of traditional postnatal practices into modern medicine. More studies with good research design are needed to evaluate the effectiveness and safety of the traditional postnatal practices.

Siti Fatimah Ab Ghaffar, Irma Izani Mohamad Isa, Normaizatul Akma Saidi, Nurul Hafizah Mohd Yasin, Hasif Rafidee Hasbollah

Sustainable Finance, Innovation and Business Uncertain Situations

Climate Risks in Tunisia

Every country in the world has been affected by climate change. Global warming is considered a structural handicap for developed economies as well as developing economies. All the scientists have agreed that global warming can lower the pace of their growth and it can disrupt its financial stability. For some countries, this phenomenon can even worsen their financial instabilities. For these reasons, scientific research has been directed towards very advanced empirical studies linking the climate cycle with the economic cycle and these have been noticed by the development of the Integrated Assessment Models (IAM). This kind of model is considered as a macroeconomic model of climate change but in our case, we introduce this module in the Dynamic Stochastic General Equilibrium Model applied for the Tunisian economy. Our paper develops an environmental DSGE (E-DSGE) model whose objective is to try to sensitize political decision-makers as well as Tunisian financial decision-makers, to be more concerned about climate change in their economic policies from an evaluation of the effects of these climatic changes on financial stability in Tunisia. This study finds the negative effect of temperature on the whole of macroeconomic variables which led to the persistence of financial instability in Tunisia.

Haykel Hadj Salem, Nadia Mansour, Salha Ben Salem
Ensuring of Financial Stability of the Enterprise by Financial Management Tools

The article examines the current state tax system’s impact on the ability to finance investment costs of the enterprise. In unstable market environment conditions of domestic enterprises’ financial management system, the investment activity intensification problem for the purpose of their sustainable development and competitive position strengthening maintenance is actual. The insufficient level of modern enterprises’ investment activity is due to limited investment resources. One of the important factors influencing this process is the current taxation system. For businesses, taxes are part of the profits that can be invested in their own development. In these conditions, the objective is to form an investment management system that would provide the company with the opportunity for sustainable development, contribute to the growth of production, increase profitability, increase competitiveness in the market. The scientific work proposes enterprise investment costs financing sources planning model depending on the limit value of the tax burden integrated coefficient. The developed model is an important component of financial management, which determines the level of financial constraints on the opportunities for enterprise development. The comparison of the actual and the limit tax burden integrated coefficient values made it possible to determine the periods in which the enterprise’s tax burden did not limit the possibility of borrowing funds to finance investment activities.

Novykova Innola, Chornyi Roman, Chorna Nelia, Malik Mykola, Rybak Andrii
Financial Investment Management of Trade Enterprises: Analytical Aspect

The purpose of the study is to develop methodological approaches to the analysis of financial investments of trade enterprises. The information base of the article is presented by scientific works of domestic and foreign scientists. The research is based on scientific methods, among which it is expedient to distinguish: analysis and synthesis, comparison, idealization and abstraction, as well as systematization and generalization—during the formulation of conclusions as a result of the study. It has been found that the largest share in the structure of the total number of economic entities of Ukraine is occupied by trade enterprises; it is expedient to direct renewal reforms to them in order to achieve the maximum economic effect. The analysis of statistical information in general shows transformational shifts; however, in the conditions of a pandemic, the positive dynamics have an insignificant (insufficient) level or are absent at all. This confirms the need to manage the financial investments of trade enterprises as a mechanism for obtaining a return on investment in securities—stocks, bonds, contributions, etc. In the course of the research it was proposed to define the concept of risk as the level of financial losses. Methods of risk assessment have been considered: a technique based on the analysis of the sensitivity of the market conditions; methodology based on the analysis of the probable distribution of profitability. The stages of investment portfolio formation are determined, among which are the following: formation of goals taking into account priority; selection of a financial institution according to the following criteria: the reputation of the enterprise, availability of information, types of portfolios offered by the enterprise, the profitability of portfolios, types of financial instruments; choosing a bank that will maintain an investment account.

Blakyta Hanna, Barabash Nataliia, Pashkuda Tetiana, Susidenko Valentyn, Korol Svitlana, Hordiienko Natalia
Total Management of Customer Service Value - A Tool for Sustainable Changes in Service Behavior: Ukrainian Experience in Suburban Passenger Traffic

Services, where clients are served simultaneously in one space, require new approaches for customer service value management. Total customer service value management is a new management concept in the service industry. On the example of suburban passenger transportation, the authors try to prove that it can be an effective tool for customer and transport behavior management. Encouraging drivers of private cars to increase the frequency of public transport usage can reduce harmful emissions, reduce cost of the development of car infrastructure, reduce drivers’ and passengers’ transport fatigue and increase traffic safety. The implementation of purely economic measures aimed at private car owners’ (residents of the suburbs) transport behavior change, can have the effect of increasing the share of those who use public transport. However, this effect may be temporary, as people will gradually return to usage of private cars if they are not satisfied with the value and content of transport customer service value offered by the suburban passenger carrier. Therefore, in order to increase the sustainability of such switching effect, local and state authorities should encourage the suburban carrier to regulate the customer service value of transportation service provided by it, in a certain way. In this way there is a problem of measuring human attitudes to the transportation service offered by the carrier, and developing on this basis the optimal management influence (budget of changes, project implementation time, the magnitude of the effect of switching drivers of private cars to use public transport, combination of these optimization criteria). The largest suburban traffic flow to the capital of Ukraine, Kyiv, is generated by the satellite town Brovary, so the transport situation here is tense. The marketing research results of the possibilities of private cars drivers switching to the use of public transport in this connection are presented.

Olexander Bakalinsky, Victoria Ilchenko, Valentyna Khmylievska, Svitlana Petrovska
Factors Affecting Food Price Stability: Evidence from Turkey

This study evaluates the factors affecting the formation of agricultural commodity prices. The aim is to determine the components for ensuring food price stability and combating food inflation. In order to examine the relationship, agricultural commodity daily price volatility is analyzed with the GARCH methodology, in the periods before and after the national spot market launch in July 2019. Explanatory factors in the model are US dollar/Turkish lira, Turkish lira overnight interest rate and Brent oil return series. It is observed that; shocks in US dollar/Turkish lira returns has a positive effect on the wheat and maize price returns and increase their volatility. Contrary to the positive effect of the US dollar/Turkish lira series on wheat and maize price returns, shocks in Brent oil price returns have a negative effect on these commodities. When compared with the daily price changes within the national agricultural mercantile exchange (TMEX) with the previous decentralized commodity markets period, it has been observed that TMEX has brought stability to the market with a decreasing daily price fluctuation range and contributes to healthy price formation.

Necla Ilter Kucukcolak, Ceren Sopacı
Developing Resilient Financial Wellbeing Among Elderly Citizens in Malaysia

The globe is aging, and the number of old people is increasing. Presently, Malaysia is one of the world’s aging countries. With long life expectancy, less income, and limited financial knowledge, elderly people in Malaysia are seen as helpless in their old age and drastic measures need to be taken, especially by the government to improve the financial wellbeing and quality of life of this group. Even though a great deal of research has been done on the saving behaviour of the aging population, yet, no research has attempted to model and validate the financial wellbeing of elderly retired people in Malaysia. Thus, this study is done looking at previous literature on how to develop financial and digital literacy among Malaysian elderly to ensure they have adequate financial resources and the ability to adapt to new technology in managing their financial assets. The finding of this study indicated that the “Cognitive-Readiness-Opportunity-Internal Values-Technology Adoption Model”, can become an important model concerning the development of an elderly peoples’ financial wellbeing in retirement. The outcome of this study will complement the Malaysian National Strategic Thrust (Improving wellbeing for all) and SDG Agenda 2030 to achieve zero poverty, especially among elderly people.

Noraina Mazuin Sapuan, Mohd Nur Fadzly Basar
Challenges of Family Co-operative Sustainability: An Autoethnographic Narrative

This article focuses on my experience of being a part of family co-operative members. I use the method of autoethnography to contribute to broader academic debates on challenges of family co-operative sustainability as a scarce research area in entrepreneurship study especially in the branch of social entrepreneurship. I will present my personal narrative about my experience of struggling in maintaining the existence of the co-operative. Autoethnography, as an autobiographical research genre, indicates multiple layers of consciousness, connecting the personal to cultural. In this research I am both the research participants and the researcher. My article aims to reveal how the family co-operative dynamic in sustaining their existence in the market. I begin with my personal narrative. I then problematize conceptions about the challenges and discuss them from the point of view of my own narrative and from episodes and ethnography in the literature. Finally, I reflect on family co-operative board can more effectively lead and manage the challenges for the co-operative sustainability.

Anis Amira Ab Rahman, Nor Hafiza Othman, Noor Raihani Zainol

Innovation of Islamic Economics, Finance and Marketing

Online Banking of Islamic Banks: The Customer’s Perceptions in Kelantan

This paper focuses on problems associated with the usage of internet banking and its privacy and security in the Islamic banks in area of Kota Bharu, a state capital of Kelantan which are attributed to the perspective, decision and suggestions from customers for possible actions that could be taken to overcome the problem. This study is conducted utilizing qualitative methods to ensure the data analyzed through a reliable software package of ATLAS.ti. The data employed were drawn from interviews and documents analysis. Interview’s data collected from online banking users in Kota Bharu, Kelantan. The contents and textual analyses also used to achieve this purpose. Researchers concluded that everybody now ends up making online payment transactions by using the technology at their fingertips. Researchers find perception factor to be crucially significant and play a key role in determining whether e-banking adherents are confident and content with the privacy and security of online banking and whether perceptions affect their choice of e-banking. To avoid problems concerning privacy and security, awareness is an essential element. Trusts also influence decision-making and perception in online banking access. The implication of this study is that privacy and security are critical aspects in Islamic banking operation, and Islamic banking should take proactive measures to ensure that privacy and security in internet banking are at an optimal level.

Mohd Zulkifli Muhammad, Farah Hanan Muhamad, Caturida Meiwanto Doktoralina, Dzulkifli Mukhtar, Mohd Fahmi Ghazali, Muhammad Khalilur Rahman, Noormariana Mohd Din
Talent Shortage Assessment in Malaysia Islamic Banking Institution

Generally speaking, the first implicit assumption of an increasing number of talent supply and demand should help to alleviate the talent shortage problem in Islamic banking institutions. However, the situation was contradictory in IBIs, and the situation remained in a state of paradox, resulting in a severe shortage of qualified talent. Despite this, the number of graduates from Islamic banking education institutions and the number of graduates from Islamic banking institutions continues to grow year after year. As a result, who should be held accountable for this state of affairs in the talent pool? In order to determine the factors that were affecting the talent shortage in Malaysian Islamic banking institutions, the purpose of this study is to collect data from a variety of sources. Using a quantitative approach, which includes exploration, description, and explanatory characteristic, the researcher has sent out questionnaires to 380 students in Malaysian public universities. Structural equation modelling used to analyse the data gathered from the questionnaires with IBM-SPSS and IBM-AMOS software to generate the results. Consequently, the curriculum variable was found to have a dominant effect on the supply of available talent. The implications this research has contributed to the economic and societal expansion as the model for talent development able to assist in reduce the talent gap between supply and demand.

Mohd Ikhwan Aziz, Hasannuddiin Hassan, Rooshihan Merican Abdul Rahim Merican, Sathiswaran Uthamapuhtran, Ahmad Syakir Junoh, Marlisa Abdul Rahim
Achieving Islamic Financial Literacy in Malaysia: Issues and Challenges

It is unsurprising that the current pressures of the global economy encourage more people to save their money and protect their prosperities. Given the current unpredictable economic circumstances, the new generation must first become financially literate if they are to properly manage their personal resources throughout life. Indeed, financial literacy has a significant influence on the financial decisions that can affect an individual's financial well-being. This study therefore tries to explore factors that influence Islamic financial literacy among members of local communities. Qualitative research methods using interviews were applied in this study with the communities involved. Results of this study suggest that the factors of knowledge, religion and financial attitude play a great influencing role in propagating the Islamic financial literacy among the local communities participated. Besides, the study also noted that there were some levels of awareness concerning the topic of Islamic financial literacy among the communities when they truly understood its meaning and application in their daily lives. Hence, this study concludes that financial literacy is a basic tool that every consumer need in order to manage their finances avoid financial problems.

Azwan Abdullah, Muhammad Zulfaris Mohd Salleh, Mohd Nazri Zakaria, Noormariana Mohd Din, Mohd Ikhwan Aziz, Mohd Zulkifli Muhammad
Zakat Payers’ Satisfaction as a Mediator in the Relationship Between Service Quality and Zakat Payers’ Trust

This study proposed a research model to examine the relationship between service quality, zakat payers’ satisfaction, and zakat payers’ trust in a particular zakat institution. Questionnaires were completed by 553 zakat payers who had experience paying zakat either through the institution or its proxies. Data were analyzed using partial least squares structural equation modeling. The findings reveal relationships between service quality and zakat payers’ trust, service quality and zakat payers’ satisfaction, and zakat payers’ satisfaction and zakat payers’ trust. Zakat payers’ satisfaction was revealed as a mediator in the relationship between service quality and zakat payers’ trust. Therefore, zakat institutions must focus on service quality to increase zakat payers’ satisfaction and trust. Implications are discussed concerning service quality management in the zakat sector.

Rufaidah Mat Nawi, Nadzirah Mohd Said, Hazriah Hasan
The Assumption of Unlimited Human Wants (AUHW) in Islamic Economics: A Tasawur Perspective

This study examines the assumption of unlimited human wants in Islamic economics where tasawur is brought into play. Drawing from the analytical method, the present study presents new concepts of unlimited human wants. The assumption of unlimited human wants (AUHW) was taken by Islamic economists and therefore altered and assimilated with Islamic elements known as the assumption of Islamic economics. The question is, does the assumption of AUHW accept in Islamic economics? If it fits, what are the assumptions of unlimited human wants parallel with Islamic tasawur? The data employed were drawn from Library research. The contents and textual analyses were used to achieve this purpose. This study found out that the assumption of AUHW was parallel with tasawur, and for that, they are suitable for Islamic economics. This study examines a new approach to measure unlimited human wants in an Islamic context. Our contributions are confined to this area – human wants. Our study also limits its perspective on the general context of tasawur. Future works can provide specific perspectives on unlimited human wants to cover different geographies. This study provides a new parameter for Muslims to manage their resources according to Islam. This study introduces a new measure of addressing unlimited human wants among Muslims.

Mohd Zulkifli Muhammad, Muhammad Naqib Mat Yunoh, Farah Hanan Muhamad, Noor Raihani Zainol, Noormariana Mohd Din, Mohd Rushdan Yasoa’, Ahmad Ridhuwan Abdullah, Nur Fairus Abd Hamid
Developing Social Financial Resources Model for Islamic Microfinance to Reduce Unemployment Rate

The Islamic microfinance institutions (IMFIs) are facing crucial challenges that sought to undermine their vital role in combating the unemployment rate. The most important of challenges is the scarcity of financial resources whereas previous studies revealed that most of Islamic microfinance institutions rely on one financial resource which is social fund for development and this negatively affected the ability of IMFIs in reach out the unemployed. This paper attempted to develop a social financial resource that will be expected to finance IMFIs. The qualitative method was applied in this paper and 11 experts of IMFIs were interviewed as well. The findings of this paper revealed that the waqf, zakat and crowdfunding are considered effective tools to reduce the unemployment rate through IMIFs as well as will be easy to implement. Moreover, it found that these resources will contribute to motivating micro-entrepreneurs to extend and develop their micro-enterprises in Yemen through IMFIs. On the other hand, this paper suggests that government, businessmen and IMFIs should establish foundation for waqf and zakat for purpose of financing IMFIs. It also suggest that businessmen and IMFIs should work together to collect fund through crowdfunding platform to finance IMFIs activities.

Mohammed Yahya Alrashedi, Mustafa Omar Mohammed
The Role of Islamic Psychological Contract on Authentic Leadership and Organizational Commitment

This study tries to explore the dimensions of psychological contract from Islamic perspective, which acts as a mediator between authentic leadership and organizational commitment. There are 3 propositions developed related to this research, namely the relationship between authentic leadership and organizational commitment, authentic leadership and Islamic psychological contract, and Islamic psychological contract and organizational commitment. The literature review used is based on the results of academic research and also from several verses of the Quran and Hadith, especially those related to IPC to obtain the required data. This paper provides an integration of organizational literature, offers an integrated framework, and provides some value additions. The main objective of this study is to develop a model of relationship between authentic leadership and affective organizational commitment, mediated by Islamic psychological contract. This study finds out 3 dimensions of IPC i.e., transactional, relational, and liturgical contract.

Tien Suhartini, Muafi Muafi, Widodo Widodo, John Suprihanto
Promoting Women’s Economic Empowerment Through Islamic Financial Inclusion in Lower Income Economies: Empirical Evidence from Yemen

This research aims to examine the true impact of Islamic financial inclusion (IFI) through (access, use, quality) of Islamic financial services on women’s economic empowerment (WEE) in Yemen. With the help of primary data collected from 421 respondents through non-probability sampling, the study adopted Structural Equation Modelling (SEM) to analyses the relationship between Islamic financial inclusion and the economic empowerment of women. The study findings indicate that the proposed model in its final draft fits the data very well with satisfactory goodness of fit indices. Furthermore, the findings reveal a significant impact of Islamic financial inclusion, specifically the access and quality of Islamic financial services, on women’s economic empowerment in Yemen. However, there is no positive effect of the use of Islamic financial services on women’s economic empowerment in Yemen. The study highlights an earnest need for serious efforts to facilitate and ease the use of Islamic financial services among women who promote their economic empowerment. The study argues that as long as accessing Islamic financial services is influential on WEE, then using such services is supposed to contribute towards improving WEE. These results will assist policymakers, organizations concerned with women’s affairs in designing and implementing effective development strategies, plans, and policies for women’s empowerment and Islamic financial inclusion.

Lina Mohammed Abdo Alaghbari, Anwar Hasan Abdullah Othman, Azman Bin Mohd. Noor
Employee Engagement on Employee Performance: Islamic Perspective

This study aims to explore the concept of employee engagement in Islamic perspective and its consequences on human resource performance. It is based from the Qur’an, hadith of the Prophet Muhammad, the opinions of the theologian, and several studies regarding the essence of Islamic employee engagement, which has stated that vigor means mujahadah, dedication means itqon, and absorption means quwwatul azmi, and become a proof that a construct has been formed. However, for further theoretical development, a comprehensive study regarding the essence of Islamic employee engagement is still necessary. This becomes crucial for the revolution of knowledge and practice, especially in a region or a country with a majority Muslim population.

Noor Arifin, Heru Kurnianto Tjahjono, Arif Hartono, Muafi Muafi
Political Marketing of Muslim Minority Candidates in the Bali Legislative Election

The political marketing of Muslim minority candidates in the 2019 Bali legislative election presents a slick political contestation. The 2019 legislative election is the last in Indonesia before another legislative election in 2024. Bali with the title “Bali Dwipa Jaya” which means Long live the island of Bali. The Bali motto reflects the Hindu community. Religion has not prevented the presence of Muslim minorities in the 2019 Bali legislative election. Minority Muslim candidates represent Balinese Muslims who can fight for and promote a sense of togetherness. This indicator is the basis for the assessment with a qualitative study approach through the case study method. The purpose of this study is to dig deeper into the political marketing of Muslim minority candidates in the 2019 Bali legislative election. The reputation of Muslim minority candidates makes the community a communication partner. Society has a form of moral hazard which is carried out politically. In essence, the candidates for the Balinese Muslim minority formed a political escalation that was conducive to avoiding a political plutocracy and encouraging political assimilation. This action calls for the coffers of the Balinese people's trust in the Muslim minority. The belief in the Balinese Muslim minority is not only based on Muslims but also throughout society in Bali.

Nur Sofyan, Naili Farida, Rina Martini, Dewi Erowati
Shariah and Accounting Principles for Calculating the Actual Cost of Lending Services Among Islamic Banks: Case of Malaysia

Shariah associations and bodies have permitted Islamic Banks to take the actual cost of lending, that’s was due to the permissibility of differentiating between the loan and the services accompanying its amortization, restriction and follow-up, as these proceedings are not included in the principal of the loan. The Islamic banks differed in applying the concept of actual cost based on a lump sum and a percentage. The academies also differed in the methods of taking this cost, because the fee-based services provided by Islamic banks may bring some legitimate issues related to the imposition of fees or the actual cost. The research adopted the descriptive and analytical approach and the quantitative method by studying the case of Malaysian Islamic banks in accordance to the accounting principles and the related rules. The research concluded that the total cost should be calculated by the application of the following equation: Total cost (TC) = Penalty (P) + Compensation (C). In addition, the total cost imposed for late payment must meet the following two conditions: First, the total cost should not exceed the cost that the client bears in the traditional bank, with the condition that the total cost of the penalty is not doubled on the late installments or the due principal amount. Secondly, after calculating the total cost imposed on the client for the late payment, the Islamic bank must submits a written request to the Central Bank, explaining the justifications for imposing late payment fees, the circumstances that led to the imposition of late payment fees, and attaching working a plan after its approval by the Shariah Committee of the Islamic bank.

Abdulmajid Obaid Hasan Saleh, Fahd Al-Shaghdari, Tahani Ali Hakami
The Shariah Framework for Smart Contracts, an Original Analytical Study

A smart contract is a contract that brings together two or more parties that can be programmed electronically and then execute its terms automatically, once certain events or specific conditions are met and it depends on blockchain technology. This paper intends to elucidate this contract at the practical level, and then explains the legal frameworks from Islamic Perspective, by mentioning examples of legal contracts named in Islamic jurisprudence and shows similarities along with an analysis of the jurisprudential problems. The research concluded that there are jurisprudential contracts that are consistent with smart contracts, even in some parts through which the framework of the contract can be constructed from the jurisprudential point of view. The research used the descriptive and analytical method. The researchers concluded that a smart contract can be used in Islamic business framework as long as it meets the requisite legal elements as required under the Shariah principles.

Abdulmajid Obaid Hasan Saleh, Alaa Saleh Halawani, Mohammad Abdelhamid Salem Qatawneh
Sustainable Finance, Digitalization and the Role of Technology
Assist. Prof. Bahaaeddin Alareeni
Prof. Dr. Allam Hamdan
Copyright Year
Electronic ISBN
Print ISBN

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