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About this book

This proceedings present current trends in the transport growth. It presents transport solutions both at a micro-level, such as that of a single city or a single company, as well as at a macro-level of a whole transportation system. The transport decisions made by an individual in regards to the transport mode and route, add up to the structure and efficiency of the whole system. Transport systems cannot grow extensively anymore, due to lack of space or the amount of additional costs, so the authors presents new solutions, ones which are innovative and sustainable, while also increasing the efficiency of transport operations. These solutions are analyzed for performance at a scale of individual cities or companies, as well as whole transport systems. The researchers, who are often also practitioners in the field of transport, provide not only the theoretical background for the transport analysis but also empirical data and practical experience.

Table of Contents

Frontmatter

Logistics Startups and Logistics Service Providers: Competitors or Partners in Exploration?

Abstract
The logistics industry is facing digital disruption along its entire value chain. Agile, innovative startups develop an expanding range of technology-driven solutions for industry pain points. The purpose of this chapter is to look at logistics startups, their characteristics and taxonomy, but foremost their relationships with incumbent logistics service providers (LSPs). Within this chapter the author analyzes whether startups and incumbent LSPs are competitors or partners in exploration and how LSPs should cooperate with startups to fuel their innovativeness and growth. The chapter is based on the qualitative analysis of logistics startups websites as well as semi-structured interviews with three leading LSPs. At the theoretical level, the research contributes to enriching logistics studies by presenting logistics startups and analyzing their impact on the logistics service industry. At a managerial level, the findings provide illustration on how to collaborate with startups to increase LSPs’ innovativeness.
Marzenna Cichosz

Modelling the Relations Between the Primary Resources and the Financial Result: Trans Polonia Group Case Study

Abstract
Each entity builds a specific model of functioning, which is related to the selection and configuration of resources, so that the assumed goal can be achieved in given market conditions. This goal in the short term amounts to achieving the planned profit, while in the long term it means competitive advantage and durability of being. This objective is accomplished by shaping the level of used and necessary resources, such as material and personal resources. The article assumes that for transport companies the basic resources that affect the level of profit are means of transport and employment. The thesis of the article is that it is possible to build a model describing the determinants of the use of resources to generate a certain profit by transport companies. The test method of Engle–Granger cointegration was used to build the model. The study was based on data of the Transpolonia entity.
The research has allowed to confirm the usability of the Engel–Granger method to verify the relations between the primary resources of a company and its financial result.
Andrzej Letkiewicz, Michał Suchanek

Changes in Structure and Spatial Distribution of Heavy Goods Vehicles Traffic in Poland in 2005–2015, with Particular Emphasis on Border Traffic

Abstract
The purpose of the chapter is to show the processes which have an impact on the size, structure, and spatial distribution of heavy goods vehicles traffic over the network of national and voivodeship roads in 2005–2015. A particular attention was paid to the border areas and border crossings. The analysis was performed on the basis of a number of databases, including Traffic Census as of 2005, 2010, and 2015, Polish Border Guard traffic database, the modal structure of export and import at the poviat (county) level (Central Statistical Office—GUS), and the National Traffic Survey (Central Board of National Roads and Motorways—GDDKiA). The border (external) traffic was divided into origin-destination traffic and transit traffic.
Piotr Rosik, Tomasz Komornicki, Sławomir Goliszek, Patryk Duma, Barbara Szejgiec-Kolenda

Relationship Between Transport Performance Indicators and GDP in Poland

Abstract
The purpose of the article is to analyse the relationship between transport performance indicators and GDP in Poland. The research takes into consideration the impact of changes in freight transport performance and traffic volume on GDP. Particular emphasis has been put on the analysis of correlation between GDP and road traffic volume. The main thesis of the article is that the data obtained from the measurement of road traffic in the micro scale can be used for predicting the GDP volume at the regional and national level.
Grzegorz Krawczyk

Value Creation for Stakeholders in the Implementation of “Last Mile” Deliveries in Cities

Abstract
Developing of e-commerce services market and increasing volume of parcels is one of the biggest challenges in the field of order execution and “last mile” logistics. Ensuring the highest quality of services and comfort for the customer of the B2C market has an impact not only on the quality of the entire logistics process, but also on the image of service providers. Consumers are increasingly paying attention not only to product price, time, and cost of delivery. An increasingly important role plays the aesthetics of the shipment itself, the declared date of delivery, completeness of the package, driver’s behavior, flexibility of delivery, or ease of picking up the ordered goods. The aim of the discussion is to indicate how to create value for stakeholders and supply chain participants by implementing a new business model supporting the “last mile” delivery of goods in the cities. The research was based on the project of an “open” network management system “delivery box” allowing access to the infrastructure for many service providers. The results of the conducted pilot studies allow to distinguish the preferences of customers in terms of the service of the “last mile”, but also possible problems and barriers to the implementation of a new business concept.
Blanka Tundys, Piotr Niedzielski

Convenience as a Factor Differentiating Air Transport Service

Abstract
Air transport is the branch with the fastest adaptation to the changing conditions of the internal and external environment. Carriers are constantly monitoring the market, examining passengers’ needs and delivering modernized transport services. One of the factors shaping the service in passenger air transport is convenience. Although it is descriptive, it can be analyzed which factors and how they shape it, while also affecting the transport service. The purpose of the work described in this way was subjected to the critical analysis of available literature and the analysis of marketing research carried out at Polish airports on the factors affecting the development of air transport.
On the basis of the presented research results, it was found that there are three levels describing the present state of diversification of the air transport service. Undoubtedly, such analysis of research on the issue of convenience should be carried out not only by academic centers, but also by institutions involved in transport activities. The conclusions from the conducted research can be the basis for a broader analysis of the selected research problem.
Dariusz Tłoczyński

Shaping Levels of City Bus Prices as a Result of Tenders

Abstract
The article attempts to verify the research hypothesis formulated by the author stating that the size of the tender (understood as the number of once purchased vehicles) negatively affected the final unit price of the purchase of a city bus. Confirmation of the hypothesis would testify to the potentially greater cost-effectiveness of functioning of large carriers on the urban transport market. In order to verify the above hypothesis, the current situation of the city bus market in Poland, the criteria used in tender procedures and the results of primary research on the correlation between the size of the tender and the unit price that MAXI class buses in Poland had as a result of tender procedures were presented. In the final part of the article, the author presented the discussion and conclusions from the conducted research.
Aleksander Jagiełło

Railway Special Grid in Near Field Communication Technology for Rail Transport Infrastructure

Abstract
The paper presents the results of research on the author’s solution employed in surveying Railway Special Grid (KOS) signs, based on the Near Field Communication technology (NFC) and reflective (measuring) target. The surveying Railway Special Grid points are at the same time track axis adjustment signs, included in the Railway Surveying Grid (KOG) and having a character of multifunctional surveying signs. The innovative surveying Railway Special Grid sign is equipped with an NFC tag, allowing wireless exchange of information (read and write). It is coated with reflective surveying foil (reflective measuring target) with crosshairs (horizontally and vertically). It determines the X, Y, H coordinates and track axis adjustment data. Thus, it allows measurement with an electronic tachymeter (Electronical Total Station) in relation to the surveying Railway Special Grid points. Black crosshairs—clearly visible on the surface of the reflective target—improve localisation possibilities and make it easier to aim for the central point, as the horizontal and vertical lines guarantee some offset to the track axis, while the NFC tag provides wireless exchange of data. The paper presents the author’s observations and conclusions and was made as a part of statutory research 16.16.150.545.
Arkadiusz Kampczyk

Future of Air Cargo in Poland

Abstract
Air cargo transport constitutes an important part of air transport market and contributes significantly to the economic development. Available data, however, indicate that the Polish market is significantly lagging behind the other European countries, in particular when considering the size of the passenger air transport market and Polish economy. The aim of the paper is to identify possible barriers and reasons behind the weakness of Polish air cargo market like regulations, infrastructure, route network and others. The authors also attempt to identify possible ways to stimulate the Polish market including infrastructure development, route network expansion with particular emphasis on wide-body aircraft and freighters as well as possible cooperation between stakeholders. The authors also attempt to depict possible scenarios of development of Polish air cargo market. The research is based on literature review, analysis of the presentations and discussion held during Future of Air Cargo in Poland conference organised by Warsaw School of Economics on 21st of February 2019, individual interviews with air cargo managers and own experience and desk research.
Elżbieta Marciszewska, Paweł Zagrajek, Adam Hoszman

Conditions of Using the Bi-directional Tram in the Sustainable Urban Transport System (Case Study on the Example of Szczecin, Poland)

Abstract
Tram transport is an important component of the urban transport system. In addition to subway and urban railway (including metropolitan railway), it is a component of the Urban Rail Transport (URT). One of the solutions in this system is the bi-directional tram. The objective of the article was to indicate factors conditioning the possibility of implementing and using the bi-directional tram in the urban transport system, with reference to the case study of Szczecin, Poland. The qualities of this mean of transport and conditions determining its functionality were also indicated, including those underlining its potential advantages over the traditional tram system. The analysis also includes the role that the bi-directional tram plays in European cities and potential benefits of using this mean of public transport in a sustainable urban transport system. The authors of the article applied the method of critical literature analysis, the documentary method and analysis, and the synthesis method. In addition, the results of field studies carried out by the authors in selected European cities with external and participating observations were included. The research was carried out from 2018 to 2019.
Oliwia Pietrzak, Krystian Pietrzak

Customer Service Effectiveness in Shared Mobility Systems Using Artificial Intelligence Algorithms

Abstract
Sharing economy has been developing dynamically for a few years. Shared mobility systems are one of the most interesting dynamically developing concepts of the sharing economy. All around the world alternative transport modes have become an object of interest while being promoted as innovative forms of urban mobility. Shared mobility systems are focused on reducing the number of transport vehicles by using each of them more efficiently. In order for these systems to develop, an efficient customer service is needed. Nowadays, artificial intelligence is increasingly reshaping services by performing various tasks in an innovative way. Artificial intelligence algorithms for customer service are pushing the envelope of innovation and revolutionizing the way customers are assisted. Currently, AI-assisted bots can efficiently handle first-level queries and assist in reducing operational costs. Currently, artificial intelligence is used in customer support service in industries such as: finance, retail, travel, food and transport. The aim of the chapter is to create an algorithm dedicated to the customer service in shared mobility system which includes sample dialogs, flow diagram and prompt lists adapted to shared mobility systems.
Justyna Pawłowska

Poland as an Example of Using Flexible Transportation Systems as a Tool for Meeting the Needs of Mobility

Abstract
The article presents theoretical and pragmatic aspects related to the organisation and operation of the flexible transportation systems. Such systems are seen as promising from the point of view of ensuring mobility to the inhabitants, especially those living in the areas with a low demand for transport services. After 1990, inhabitants in multiple regions across Poland were deprived of their access to public transport. The main reason for which such services were no longer provided was the decrease in demand for public transport. Flexible systems may become a valuable supplementation of the public transport, as well as an alternative for individual car transportation, in the pragmatic level, the functioning of the flexible transportation in the city of Szczecin. This city is one of the two in which the transport on demand has been introduced. The statistical data analysis makes it possible to see the increased use of this form of transportation by the inhabitants.
Tomasz Kwarciński

Analysis of Trends in Development of Electromobility in Poland: Current Problems and Issues

Abstract
The notion of electromobility spans an overall body of problems related to the use of electric vehicles (EV), covering both technical and service-related aspects of the EV, the charging technology and infrastructure, as well as social, economic and legal problems involved in the designing, manufacturing, purchasing and using of electric vehicles. The article addresses such matters as the share of electric vehicles in the automotive market as well as the problems of operation of electric vehicles both by private users and in public transport. Moreover, an analysis of trends in the development of electromobility in Poland, including current problems and issues, has been presented in this chapter. Some results of an analysis of accessibility of charging points and charging stations for electric vehicles currently used in the Conurbation of Upper Silesia and Dąbrowa Basin have also been discussed in the chapter.
Elżbieta Macioszek

Wireless Sensor Networks for Traffic Monitoring

Abstract
Nowadays, one of the most dynamically developing issues inherent to sustainable development is a Smart City concept. Intelligent Transportation Systems become a tool for providing information on traffic conditions as well as traffic control, therefore they require modern and effective measurement methods. Wireless Sensor Networks (WSN) are an example of those solutions as they (due to their functionality) enable continuous and low-cost road network monitoring in selected area.
Authors of the research used Wi-Fi based WSN for traffic streams detection and made an attempt to evaluate the network performance. The presented measurement results were obtained using devices and systems integrated by ITS testing ground located in University of Bielsko-Biala. The research is a continuation of a previous work regarding wireless multisensor networks suitability for traffic flow detection and tracking.
Wiktoria Loga, Justyna Sordyl, Artur Ryguła

Electronic Fare Collection Systems vs. Passenger Rights and Effectiveness of Services Provision

Abstract
The chapter presents premises and benefits resulting from e-ticket systems implementation, in which the obligation was adopted to register each entry when travelling. The check-in registration system may be used to study passenger flows and this in turn to optimise the transport offer on a current basis and to carry out settlements with entities financing the urban public transport from public funds. Also analysis and assessment were performed, to what extent the registration obligation is permissible in the existing Polish legislation and whether it violated the collective consumer interest and is inconsistent with decency. This issue is related to dynamic development of IT technologies and the origination and use of all sorts of IT solutions. It enforces the updating of standards and adapting them to the changing social and economic environment.
Grzegorz Dydkowski

Can the Metropolitan Rail System Hamper the Development of Individual Transport? (Case Study on the Example of the Szczecin Metropolitan Railway, Szczecin, Poland)

Abstract
Rail transport is becoming an increasingly common mode of transport supporting agglomeration/metropolitan traffic. It is affected by a variety of factors, such as substantial degree of punctuality and safety, possibility of transporting a significant number of passengers at the same time, limited negative impact on the natural environment and the quality of being independent from road congestion. The emerging metropolitan rail networks can effectively counteract the uncontrolled development of individual transport, thus promoting the use of public transport in handling passenger traffic in urban and metropolitan areas.
The primary purpose of the chapter was to identify current barriers hampering the use of public transportation by metropolitan residents and show the possibility of reducing those barriers by a metropolitan railway system on the example of the Szczecin Metropolitan Railway investment project in Poland.
To this end, the following research methods were applied: critical evaluation of the relevant literature, documentary method, survey method, and individual in-depth interviews. In addition, the results of research carried out by the Authors during the implementation of the “Concept of the Szczecin Metropolitan Railway” (2012) and “Feasibility Study of the Szczecin Metropolitan Railway” (2014–2015) were used.
The area of research was the Szczecin Metropolitan Area (SMA), Poland.
Krystian Pietrzak, Oliwia Pietrzak

Generalized Cost of Daily Trips on the Example of Public Transport and Private Car Selection

Abstract
Transport users frequently face the dilemma of maximizing the utility of usage of two resources—time and money in relation to the transport services. The perceived value of the transport services for passengers is the result of what they have received in relation to the costs of transport service. It expresses the concept of generalized cost, which includes financial costs, time costs, discomfort, and other elements that can be perceived in general by the user as costs.
The chapter presents the generalized cost on the example of selection of private car and public transport. Car users, while comparing the ability to move by car or by public transport, often do not take into account the full cost of car ownership and usage. While in urban transport homogeneous rates for different tariffs are adopted, whereas in the case of individual transport costs are not limited to the fuel price. The concept of generalized cost is presented in the chapter, based on market research carried out in Szczecin and the proposed method of calculating these costs in transport.
Zuzanna Kłos-Adamkiewicz

Challenges Related to the Implementation and Development of Electromobility in Cities

Abstract
Transport is one of the main urban logistics issues. The discussion on the development of transport systems, expressed in consecutive EU White Papers and communications, highlights two main challenges, i.e. the need to change the modal split, including the growing role of public, rail and intermodal transport, as well as changes in energy sources. The response to the second challenge includes, inter alia, electromobility. Technological advancement turned the electric vehicle into a real alternative to the conventional car, especially in urban areas. This enabled to reduce the negative impact of transport on the environment (e.g. reduced emission and energy consumption) which did not require a major increase in the use of public transport.
The chapter describes challenges for the urban logistics as regards the large-scale implementation of electromobility. It distinguishes four main types of activities, such as the development of vehicles, adjustment of infrastructure, improvement of organizational structure and the support of integrated information systems.
Analyses referred to were implemented as a part of the international research project ‘Electric travelling—a platform supporting the implementation of electromobility in smart cities based on ICT applications’ funded from the National Research and Development Centre under the ERA-NET CoFund Electric Mobility Europe Programme.
Grzegorz Sierpiński, Ander Pijoan, Katarzyna Turoń, Marcin Staniek

Fare-Free Public Transport vs. Private Cars: Zero Fares as an Instrument of Impact on Public Transport Mode Share?

Abstract
For several years in Europe, and particularly over the last few years in Poland, there has been a lively discussion about fare-free public transport (FFPT). The discussions focus mostly on the effectiveness of urban public transport fares in increasing the attractiveness and competitiveness of public transport in cities. This is particularly important in the era of increasing congestion and deteriorating quality of life in cities. The price, after all, directly affects the market demand; it is also the most powerful instrument of marketing mix influencing the customer behaviour. Moreover, public transport fares are an essential tool of transport policy. The aim of the chapter is to investigate the effectiveness of FFPT in increasing its competitiveness, especially in relation to private cars. The chapter presents the results of a survey carried out among individuals commuting by private car in the central part of Silesia Province in Poland.
Anna Urbanek

Methodology for the Evaluation of Walking Trips Among the Inhabitants in the Light of Marketing Research Results in Warsaw and Gdynia (Poland)

Abstract
This chapter investigates walking mobility as an element of modal split on the example of cities of Warsaw and Gdynia (Poland). Research methodology presents a real challenge in trying to establish the precise share of walking in urban modal split. Whilst the methods applied in defining and measurements of mechanised trips have an established presence in the transport economics, the measurement of walking mobility is not as simple. The results vary not only because of the nature of cities (their size, spatial, demographic and socio-economic and natural features) but also because of methodology being used to measure walking trips. The chapter identifies main challenges of measurement of walking mobility, focusing on results of different research methods. The comparison was made using the case study of two cities in Poland conducted in 2015. Conclusions are of practical and methodological importance for future research of sustainable mobility policy.
Katarzyna Hebel, Marcin Wołek

Changes in Urban Transport Behaviour and Preferences of Residents in Employment: Gdynia Case

Abstract
Urban transport policies are currently determined by sustainable mobility. The selection and application of appropriate tools, which takes into account transport behaviour and preferences of residents, as well as the analysis of their willingness to change those, are necessary in order to achieve the goals of sustainable mobility. The identification of these determinants and trends requires research to be carried out among the entire cross-section of residents, as well as on particular groups of consumers targeted by the services offered. Working people constitute one of the basic segments of consumers, regardless of the way in which urban trips are completed. The article presents an analysis of changes in transport preferences and behaviour of the aforementioned group of employed consumers resident in Gdynia. It compares results of comprehensive research into transport behaviour and preferences carried out in 2008 and 2015 and shows to what extent over a 7-year period those preferences and behaviour of people in employment changed compared to the entire cross-section of residents between 15 and 75 years of age. During this period an increase in the number of cars per household (from 64% to 72%) as well as an increase in their share in urban trips (from 47% to 58%) was noted. It also evaluates the effectiveness of measures applied in order to achieve more sustainable transport.
Krzysztof Grzelec, Justyna Staszak-Winkler

The Role of Urban Environmental Sound in the Orientation of People with Impaired Vision

Abstract
This chapter presents results of surveys conducted with blind people and analysed sound signals necessary in the development of the method of teaching spatial orientation to people with impaired vision. The survey was conducted to identify the most important problems faced by people with impaired vision living in a large urban agglomeration and to determine the impact, type and nature of sounds generated in the city in terms of spatial orientation. On this basis, more than 1700 sound situations of the city that are characteristic of a large urban agglomeration were selected for registering. The recorded sounds from characteristic places, vehicles and sound events were analysed in order to create a library of sounds that will be used to teach spatial orientation.
Małgorzata Orczyk, Franciszek Tomaszewski

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