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In recent years, free urban transport has become the area of interest among numerous groups. The article presents the analysis of social, economic and environmental rationale for introducing free urban transport.
Moreover, the Polish national and local laws and regulations were analysed to assess the introduction of free urban transport for various social groups. Using the source information from the Urban Transport Chamber of Commerce the criterion of age was analysed as grounds for free urban transport in Poland.
Using the budget-related data from the Polish cities and municipalities from 2000 to 2016 the economic implications resulting from entitlements to free urban transport were identified.
The conducted analyses revealed current trends regarding the entitlements to free urban transport and indicated that the main reason involves introducing such entitlements for children and youth, in small and medium towns and large cities and for seniors of over 70 years of age.
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Hebel, K., Wołek, M., Wyszomirski, O.: Rola samochodu osobowego w podróżach miejskich mieszkańców Gdyni w świetle wyników badan marketingowych w 2015 roku. Przegląd Komunikacyjny 2, 21–24 (2017)
van Goeverden, C., Rietveld, P., Koelemeijer, J., Peeters, P.: Subsidies in public transport. Eur. Transp. 32, 6 (2006)
Tomanek, R.: Rola bezpłatnego transport zbiorowego w równoważeniu mobilności w miastach. Transp. Miejski i Regionalny 7, 5 (2017)
Robèrt, M., Jonsson, R.D.: Assessment of transport policies toward future emission targets: a backcasting approach for Stockholm 2030. J. Environ. Assess. Policy Manag. 8(4), 452 (2006) CrossRef
Boussauw, K., Vanotrive, T.: Transport policy in Belgium: translating sustainability discourses into unsustainable outcomes. Transp. Policy 53, 11–19 (2017) CrossRef
Canters, R.: Hasselt cancels free public transport after 16 years (Belgium). Eltis (2014) http://eltis.org/discover/news/hasselt-cancels-free-public-transport-after-16-years-belgium-0. Accessed 30 Mar 2018
Fearnley, N.: Free fares policies: impact on public transport mode share and other transport policy goals. Int. J. Transp. 1(1), 82 (2013) CrossRef
Philipson, M., Willis, D.: Free public transport for all? In: Paper Presented on the Australian Transport Forum, p. 633 (1990). http://atrf.info/papers/1990/1990_Philipson_Willis.pdf
http://www.transport-publiczny.pl/watki/bezplatna-komunikacja.html. Accessed 30 Mar 2018
Act of 9 May 1996, on the performance of the deputy and senator’s mandate. Journal of Laws 2016 r., item 1510 with further amendments
Act of 29 May 1974, on supplying war invalids and military invalids and their families, Journal of Laws 2017, item 2193
Act of 7 June 1991, on the education system, TJ. Journal of Laws 2017, item 2198 with further amendments
Act of 24 January 1991, on the combatant and certain victims of repressions in wartime and in the post-war period. Journal of Laws 2018, item. 276
Act of 27 July 2005, law on higher education. Journal of Laws No 2017, item 2183 with further amendments
Regulation of the Council of Ministers of 1st of June 1987 on determining the rules and procedure for keeping records, as well as the scope and forms of assistance for young people affected by invalids and young people with disabilities, Dz. U. 1987, Nr 23, poz. 130
Act of 16 November 2006 r. on providing help and entitlements for civil, blind war victims. Journal of Laws No 2006., No 249, item 1824
Bąkowski, W.: Ekonomiczne podejście do problemu taryfy zerowej w komunikacji miejskiej. Komunikacja Publiczna 1(70), 25–29 (2018)
- Trends in Free Fare Transport on the Urban Transport Service Market in Poland
- Springer International Publishing
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