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2022 | Book

Regionale Mobilität und Hochschulbildung

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About this book

Hochschulbildung ist ein wichtiger Motor interregionaler und internationaler Mobilität. Denn in vielen Fällen ist die Entscheidung für ein Studium gleichzeitig auch eine Mobilitätsentscheidung. Weitere Übergänge und damit typische Gelegenheiten für regionale Mobilität sind der Übergang vom Bachelor- in ein Masterstudium, der erste Eintritt von Absolvent*innen in den Arbeitsmarkt oder die regionale Mobilität von Hochqualifizierten im weiteren Lebens- und Berufsverlauf. Die aktuellen Befunde in diesem Sammelband belegen die Einflussfaktoren auf regionale Mobilität – sowohl auf Seite der Individuen und ihrer individuellen und sozialen Ressourcen als auch auf Seite der Hochschulen und der strukturellen Merkmale des Arbeitsmarktes für Hochqualifizierte.

Table of Contents

Frontmatter
Mobilität als Innovationsmotor für Individuen, Hochschulen und Regionen
Zusammenfassung
Students, graduates and universities interact with their regional environment in a number of ways. Regions offer institutions of higher education a potential for strategic development, while these institutions, in turn, actively influence regional development. Different student groups differ in their regional mobility behaviour. Before summarising the state of research on the regional mobility of students and graduates, this introductory chapter presents research findings on the importance of universities for the regions and the structural development of university regions in Germany.
Monika Jungbauer-Gans, Anja Gottburgsen
Should I stay or should I go? Determinanten der räumlichen Distanz zwischen Schul- und Hochschulort
Zusammenfassung
While there are numerous studies on the influence of study opportunities on the decision to attend higher education, studies on determinants of school leavers’ regional mobility are comparatively rare. This article addresses the question which factors influence the geographical distance between school location and university. For the analyses, we employ a mobility measure of geographical distance (in kilometres) between the university and the school where the university entrance qualification was obtained. Using theories of rational choice, we develop a theoretical framework that integrates several mechanisms explaining mobility. Based on a data set from the German Panel Study of School Leavers, we estimate a Poisson regression with robust standard errors. Our results show that, controlling for opportunity structures, a higher socioeconomic status, better grades, a higher willingness to take risks, a qualification from a general school and the desire for an attractive place to study promote mobility, whereas higher anticipated monetary and non-monetary costs reduce mobility.
Heiko Quast, Hanna Mentges, Dennis Föste-Eggers
Going on for the master’s degree. Does the university make a difference for graduates’ decisions?
Abstract
After the degree structure of German universities changed from a one-cycle to a two-cycle system with bachelor’s and master’s degrees, bachelor graduates’ options have been (1) entry into the labour market, (2) enrolment in a master’s programme at the same or (3) some other university. While previous studies concentrate on individual-level or regional context factors, we focus on universities’ institutional characteristics and their impact on graduates’ decisions whether and where to continue higher education. Using multilevel models and data from a cohort of bachelor graduates in Bavaria (Germany), we analyse the impact of individual- and university-level characteristics separately for four fields of study. In general, mobility between bachelor and master is not particularly common, even within Germany. While certain effects are found in all four fields of study, there are also field-specific effects. Among the university characteristics, university type has the most pervasive impact. However, graduates’ perception of the quality of education and tutoring can influence their decision, as well as the local research orientation and master opportunities.
Susanne Falk, Christina Klug, Maike Reimer
Warum in die Ferne schweifen? Regionale Mobilität beim Übergang ins Masterstudium
Zusammenfassung
This article examines (1) which factors promote or hinder regional mobility within Germany when bachelor graduates take up a master’s programme, and (2) which factors influence the distance of migration when graduates change to a new university. Building on rational choice-based theories of migration we describe a change of university as a two-staged migration decision and analyse it using zero-inflated Poisson Regression models. Data from the 2012 DZHW panel study on school leavers with higher education entry certificate is linked to regional indicators from official statistics characterising the location where graduates take up a master’s programme. In addition to the role of educational background, results indicate that previous migration experiences promote regional mobility. Contrary to our expectations, regional and institutional pull factors at the location of the new university show no effect on the distance between bachelor and master university.
David Ohlendorf, Heike Spangenberg, Dennis Föste-Eggers
Post-study migration behaviour: Differences between native, foreign and international university graduates in Germany
Abstract
We investigate differences in the mobility behaviour of graduates who completed secondary school in Germany (German, foreign) or abroad (international) and analyse factors that may cause disparities in mobility. Our analysis focuses on job-relevant networks and work experience as they seem to be associated with the area of job search and with migration decisions. Results of an event history analysis show that the proportion of long-term “stayers” in the university region is relatively low among international graduates. Regression results indicate that the probability to leave the region differs depending on individual, study-related and regional factors. Pre-study mobility and work experience in particular turn out to be important predictors. When controlling for these factors, the likelihood of staying in the university region does not significantly differ between German and international graduates. In contrast, foreign graduates who attended school in Germany show a higher propensity to leave the university region in order to enter the labour market than the other graduate groups, conditional on covariates.
Annekatrin Niebuhr, Anne Otto, Anja Rossen, Christian Teichert
International students in higher education: Intentions to leave the host country after graduation
Abstract
In the light of an increasing need for skilled labor in Germany, this paper examines whether international students with third-country citizenship (non-EU/EFTA) differ from students with EU/EFTA citizenship in their intentions to leave Germany after graduation. Such differences are expected, as international students from third countries often originate from regions with lower economic development as well as lower political and societal security. Further, individual financial or security considerations could explain potential differences in their intentions to leave. The question is answered using data from a Germany-wide survey of international bachelor’s and master’s students. The study shows that students with third-country citizenship do not differ from students with EU/EFTA citizenship in their intentions to leave. However, third-country nationals indicate less often that they are uncertain about leaving Germany. Although characteristics of the home countries mostly do not influence return migration intentions, students who came to Germany in order to live in safety within a peaceful environment report lower intentions to leave Germany after graduation.
Theresa Thies
Mobilität und adäquate Beschäftigung von Hochschulabsolvent*innen: Welchen Einfluss hat räumliche Mobilität nach dem Berufsstart?
Zusammenfassung
Despite overall good labor market opportunities, not all higher education graduates find jobs that match their qualification level. This can be due to a low propensity of graduates to become spatially mobile. While there is ample evidence documenting the favorable influence of spatial mobility on graduates’ career entry, only a few studies examine the importance of mobility for the further career path. The present article addresses this research gap. A causal analysis of data from the DZHW alumni panel 2013 shows that spatial mobility increases chances of adequate employment even at later stages of a career. However, this applies only to academics who started their professional lives in inadequate positions, whereas employees who started in adequate positions hardly benefit from mobility.
Fabian Trennt, Gunther Dahm
Monetäre Erträge regionaler Mobilität: Auswirkungen regionaler Arbeitsplatzwechsel auf die Lohnentwicklung von Hochschulabsolvent*innen in den ersten zehn Jahren nach Studienabschluss
Zusammenfassung
Monetary returns are an important criterion of professional success. In the labour market, salaries and occupational positions of employees are correlated, with a higher occupational status resulting in higher income. But favourable positions are unevenly distributed across regions, professional fields, and companies. Therefore employers and employees need to match supply and demand in specialised, regional, and segmented labour markets. A higher willingness of employees to become mobile increases the spatial dimensions of the potential labour market and hence the number of positions available as well as the income that can be achieved. Existing studies fail to fully account for the relationship between expected and realised changes in income and the willingness to become mobile. Using data from three waves of the DZHW Graduate Panel 2009, we examine the correlation of mobility between workplaces and the gross hourly wages of graduates. Applying entropy balancing and controlling for other variables that influence the likelihood to become mobile, our analysis confirms that regional mobility has a positive effect on income in the order of five to seven percent in the first ten years after graduation.
Maximilian Trommer, Thorsten Euler
Metadata
Title
Regionale Mobilität und Hochschulbildung
Editors
Prof. Dr. Monika Jungbauer-Gans
Dr. Anja Gottburgsen
Copyright Year
2022
Electronic ISBN
978-3-658-36156-3
Print ISBN
978-3-658-36155-6
DOI
https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-658-36156-3

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