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2019 | Book

Road Vehicle Automation 6


About this book

This is the sixth volume of a sub series on Road Vehicle Automation published within the Lecture Notes in Mobility. The contents have been provided by researchers, engineers and analysts from all around the world. Topics covered include public sector activities, human factors and challenges, ethical, legal, energy and technology perspectives, vehicle systems development, as well as transportation infrastructure and planning. The book is based on the Automated Vehicles Symposium held on July 9-12, 2018 in San Francisco, CA (USA).

Table of Contents

Introduction: The Automated Vehicles Symposium 2018
The 2018 Automated Vehicles Symposium built on the successes of the predecessor meetings, with an even larger and more diverse roster of participants and a broader selection of breakout sessions. The plenary and poster presentations and breakout discussions continued to provide the meeting participants with the most up-to-date and authoritative information about the current international state of development and deployment of road vehicle automation systems, making this the essential meeting for industry, government and research practitioners in the field.
Steven E. Shladover, Jane Lappin

Part I Public Sector Activities

SIP-adus: Field Operational Tests and Regulatory Issues
Large scale field operational tests were conducted under the Japanese national project on Connected and Automated Driving, SIP-adus (Strategic Innovation Promotion Program – Automated Driving for Universal Services). Integration of dynamic traffic data through radio communication with high-definition map data was one of the important focuses of the tests. The first phase of SIP-adus, presented at AVS 2018, was completed in March 2019 and the second phase was initiated with additional set of objectives; deployment of passenger and freight services, development of Dynamic Map data management framework and development of technologies for safety validation and certification. Revision of regulatory framework and deployment scenario for socioeconomic benefits are also vigorously investigated.
Hajime Amano, Takahiko Uchimura

Part II Human Factors and Challenges

How Do We Study Pedestrian Interaction with Automated Vehicles? Preliminary Findings from the European interACT Project
This paper provides an overview of a set of behavioural studies, conducted as part of the European project interACT, to understand road user behaviour in current urban settings. The paper reports on a number of methodologies used to understand how humans currently interact in urban traffic, in order to establish what information would be useful for the design of future AVs, when interacting with other road users, especially pedestrians. In addition to summarising the results from a number of observation studies, we report on preliminary results from Virtual Reality studies, investigating if, in the absence of a human vehicle controller, externally presented interfaces can be used for communication between AVs and pedestrians. Finally, an overview of the mathematical and computational modelling techniques used to understand how AV and pedestrian behaviour can be both cooperative, and effective is provided. The hope is that future AVs can be designed with an understanding of how humans cooperate and communicate in mixed traffic, promoting good traffic flow, user acceptance and user trust.
Natasha Merat, Yee Mun Lee, Gustav Markkula, Jim Uttley, Fanta Camara, Charles Fox, André Dietrich, Florian Weber, Anna Schieben
The Role of Human Factors in the Design of Automated Vehicle External Communication
This chapter presents a summary of the 2018 AVS Breakout Session 25, The Role of Human Factors in the Design of Automated Vehicle External Communications. The session was scheduled for four hours with the majority of the time dedicated to presentations from three speakers and the remaining for an interactive exercise. The three speakers presented on a variety of topics, which included automated vehicle research projects involving external communication, studies investigating vulnerable road user behavior, as well as activities underway exploring the potential value of international standardization. Key points included the importance of exploring new metrics for measuring the performance of automated vehicle external communication, the need to study these systems longitudinally, and the importance of investigating the relationship between safety and road user trust and acceptance of these systems.
W. Andy Schaudt, Sheldon Russell, Justin M. Owens
Designing Automated Vehicles Around Human Values
The impact of automated vehicles will reverberate across society in many dimensions, changing our expectations of mobility, safety, employment and other aspects of life we value. These major societal changes will, in turn, be the result of a number of small engineering decisions that, when aggregated, determine the system behavior. For automated vehicles to have the benefits their advocates envision, we must bridge the gap between these individual decisions and the societal impacts they create. This paper discusses some of the challenges faced by engineers in bridging this gap and proposes a value-centered approach to the design of automated vehicles. Such an approach engages stakeholders early in the process, identifying values and tensions with enough specificity to drive subsequent engineering choices.
J. Christian Gerdes, Sarah M. Thornton, Jason Millar
Four Perspectives on What Matters for the Ethics of Automated Vehicles
The ethical discussion on automated vehicles (AVs) has for the most part focused on what morality requires in AV collisions which present moral dilemmas. This discussion has been challenged for its failure to address the various kinds of risk and uncertainty which we can expect to arise in AV collisions; and for overlooking certain morally relevant facts which are unique to the context of AVs. We take these criticisms as a starting point and outline four perspectives on what matters for the ethics of AVs: risk and uncertainty, value sensitive design, partiality towards passengers and meaningful human control.
Geoff Keeling, Katherine Evans, Sarah M. Thornton, Giulio Mecacci, Filippo Santoni de Sio
Automated Vehicles and Vulnerable Road Users: Envisioning a Healthy, Safe and Equitable Future
This chapter provides an overview and recap of the AVS 2018 Breakout Session #8, AVs & Vulnerable Road Users: Envisioning a Healthy, Safe, and Equitable Future, including summaries of research presentations, perspectives on equity from leading experts in the field, and lessons learned through discussion among panelists and the session audience. The session identified a range of necessary actions and research needs such as engaging stakeholders at all levels from community to OEMs and governments to identify and solve problems before they become evident, recognizing the tradeoff between safety and access to transportation, and learning from the history of how transportation has affected (SES) communities.
Justin M. Owens, Laura Sandt, Azra Habibovic, Sarah Rebolloso McCullough, Ryan Snyder, Robert Wall Emerson, Pravin Varaiya, Tabitha Combs, Fred Feng, Mohammed Yousuf, Bernard Soriano

Part III Vehicle Systems and Technology Development

Evaluation of Automated Driving by Large-Scale Piloting on European Roads – The L3Pilot Project
Automated driving is still the main focus of research activities in the European automotive industry. The European Commission’s flagship project “L3Pilot” is testing the viability of automated driving as a safe and efficient means of transportation and additionally exploring and promoting new service concepts to provide inclusive mobility. Therefore, L3Pilot will create a standardized Europe-wide piloting environment, coordinating activities across the piloting community in order to acquire data from 100 vehicles with 1000 drivers operating in 10 countries in Europe. Concluding, the project will evaluate the automated driving functions (ADFs), calculate the impacts and provide a cost-benefit analysis.
The evaluation of all ADFs is challenging and requires a sophisticated methodology. This paper describes the overall evaluation approach and in particular the methods for technical- and impact assessment that are taken in the project.
Christian Rösener, Adrian Zlocki, Hendrik Weber, Johannes Hiller
New Advances in Intelligent Intersection Management with Connected and Automated Vehicle Technology
Considerable research studies coupled with several deployment projects have been conducted recently to investigate potential effects of different cooperative automation technologies in controlling signalized junctions. The focus has been on how vehicles and infrastructure can cooperate toward safer and more efficient intersection operations. In this chapter, a brief review of some ongoing research projects as well as real world implementations that were presented during the Automated Vehicles Symposium (AVS) 2018 are discussed. The review includes the specifications of the projects and the challenges in implementation of the new technology. Three of the near future possible deployments are presented as well.
Mehdi Zamanipour, Yiheng Feng, Govind Vadakpat
Truck Platooning: Connectivity Enabled, Grounded in Safety, Properly Tested
Development of a truck platooning system that is effective and safe requires discipline along the entire process. This includes setting the right goals for performance, designing the right functionality, implementing that functionality, and thorough testing.
Joshua P. Switkes, Rod McLane, Shad Laws, Mark Luckevich
Automation and Adverse Weather
Like other vehicles, vehicles with automated driving systems have to handle a variety of adverse weather conditions. Furthermore, when anticipated weather for all or part of a trip is outside the operational design domain of the system, the vehicle itself or the humans responsible for it need to take appropriate action.
This chapter opens with a review of literature on adverse weather. Limited experiments with real and simulated adverse weather exemplified current systems’ capabilities and gaps in performance. Results were presented at two meetings to solicit broad input on how all stakeholders can cooperate to improve the performance of automated driving systems in adverse weather.
David Neumeister, Douglas Pape

Part IV Transportation Infrastructure and Planning

Designing Streets for Autonomous Vehicles
How can automated vehicles be deployed on city streets to enhance urban and regional livability? This chapter outlines a visioning process where automakers, engineers, planning and policy professionals shared perspectives on how autonomous vehicles can be integrated onto city streets. It provides an engagement process as well as policy and design outcomes to help achieve aspirational streets of the future that promote equality of modes and environmental sustainability.
William Riggs, Melissa Ruhl, Caroline Rodier, Will Baumgardner
Building Automation into Urban and Metropolitan Mobility Planning
Transport authorities and mobility planning stakeholders have started discussing approaches to planning for road automation in cities and metropolitan areas. We present guiding principles for developing AV ready mobility plans, and show how scenario development, travel demand and transport modelling and participatory street redesign can be part of a planning approach at different temporal and spatial scales. We show best practices from the Rotterdam-The Hague, Boston and San Francisco Bay areas. We recommend a multi-stakeholder approach, integrating AV based travel with other options such as transit, TNC, walking and cycling and embedding transport with other fields such as energy, land use and equity.
Bart van Arem, Aernout Aki Ackerman, Tilly Chang, William Riggs, Augustin Wegscheider, Scott Smith, Siegfried Rupprecht
Digital Infrastructure for National AV-Readiness
We know that we need to build a public/private digital infrastructure to support a coast-to-coast, AV-ready transportation environment – but what does that term actually mean? And what key definitions and models do we need to provide a common vocabulary and roadmap so that agencies can each build their piece of this future system, which must transcend jurisdictional borders?
This session was an opportunity for global stakeholders to hear from the experts on current progress and collaborate to: develop a common definition of “AV-ready digital infrastructure”, generate a short-list of required definitions and models; and review existing frameworks, including a proposed Data Maturity Model.
Jennifer Carter, Valerie Shuman
Road Vehicle Automation 6
Dr. Gereon Meyer
Dr. Sven Beiker
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