Skip to main content
main-content
Top

Hint

Swipe to navigate through the articles of this issue

Published in: Journal of Business Ethics 3/2022

04-02-2021 | Original Paper

The Effects of Top Management Team National Diversity and Institutional Uncertainty on Subsidiary CSR Focus

Authors: Sven Dahms, Suthikorn Kingkaew, Eddy S. Ng

Published in: Journal of Business Ethics | Issue 3/2022

Login to get access
share
SHARE

Abstract

This research investigates how top management team national diversity (TMTND) and corporate social responsibility (CSR) institutional uncertainty affect strategic CSR focus in foreign-owned subsidiaries. The paper develops a theoretical framework based on institutional theory and upper echelon perspectives to test a sample of MNE subsidiaries. Survey data were collected from subsidiaries in Thailand and Taiwan. Non-symmetric analysis suggests that while TMTND plays an important role in establishing a CSR focus, it is not conducive in itself to high-performance outcomes. Performance is measured by market share, sales growth, and profitability for each subsidiary. The results also show that there are notable differences between the subsidiaries located in Thailand and Taiwan as to what extent CSR strategic focus and top management team national diversity are relevant for high-performance outcomes. The study demonstrates that the links between CSR, TMTND, and subsidiary performance are much more complex than previously assumed.
Appendix
Available only for authorised users
Footnotes
1
While diversity in gender, age, race, religion, and other, we follow the arguments by Gong (2006), Hambrick et al. (1998), Salk and Shenkar (2001) who argue that in multinational teams, the nationality is a trait of exalted importance.
 
2
Contrarian case analysis is undertaken to show that there are cases in the sample that are counter to linear or theoretical assumptions. For instance, Table 5 shows that there are some subsidiaries that perform high, even though they report little CSR. Contrarian case analysis is often done before fsQCA is conducted to show that fsQCA is relevant.
 
Literature
go back to reference Aguilera, R. V., & Jackson, G. (2003). The cross-national diversity of corporate governance: Dimensions and determinants. Academy of Management Review, 28(3), 447–465. CrossRef Aguilera, R. V., & Jackson, G. (2003). The cross-national diversity of corporate governance: Dimensions and determinants. Academy of Management Review, 28(3), 447–465. CrossRef
go back to reference Aguilera, R. V., Rupp, D. E., Williams, C. A., & Ganapathi, J. (2007). Putting the S back in corporate social responsibility: A multilevel theory of social change in organizations. Academy of Management Review, 32(3), 836–863. CrossRef Aguilera, R. V., Rupp, D. E., Williams, C. A., & Ganapathi, J. (2007). Putting the S back in corporate social responsibility: A multilevel theory of social change in organizations. Academy of Management Review, 32(3), 836–863. CrossRef
go back to reference Aguinis, H., & Glavas, A. (2012). What we know and don’t know about corporate social responsibility: A review and research agenda. Journal of Management, 38(4), 932–968. CrossRef Aguinis, H., & Glavas, A. (2012). What we know and don’t know about corporate social responsibility: A review and research agenda. Journal of Management, 38(4), 932–968. CrossRef
go back to reference Ahworegba, A. H. (2018). The dilemma of institutional duality and multinational firms 1967–2017: Implications and future research. Multinational Business Review, 26(2), 145–172. CrossRef Ahworegba, A. H. (2018). The dilemma of institutional duality and multinational firms 1967–2017: Implications and future research. Multinational Business Review, 26(2), 145–172. CrossRef
go back to reference Albinger, H. S., & Freeman, S. J. (2000). Corporate social performance and attractiveness as an employer to different job seeking populations. Journal of Business Ethics, 28(3), 243–253. CrossRef Albinger, H. S., & Freeman, S. J. (2000). Corporate social performance and attractiveness as an employer to different job seeking populations. Journal of Business Ethics, 28(3), 243–253. CrossRef
go back to reference Alcácer, J., Cantwell, J., & Piscitello, L. (2016). Internationalization in the information age: A new era for places, firms, and international business networks? Journal of International Business Studies, 47, 499–512. CrossRef Alcácer, J., Cantwell, J., & Piscitello, L. (2016). Internationalization in the information age: A new era for places, firms, and international business networks? Journal of International Business Studies, 47, 499–512. CrossRef
go back to reference Andersson, U., Forsgren, M., & Holm, U. (2007). Balancing subsidiary influence in the federative MNC: A business network view. Journal of International Business Studies, 38(5), 802–818. CrossRef Andersson, U., Forsgren, M., & Holm, U. (2007). Balancing subsidiary influence in the federative MNC: A business network view. Journal of International Business Studies, 38(5), 802–818. CrossRef
go back to reference Andersson, U., Cuervo-Cazurra, A., & Nielsen, B. B. (2014). From the editors: Explaining interaction effects within and across levels of analysis. Journal of International Business Studies, 45(9), 1063–1071. CrossRef Andersson, U., Cuervo-Cazurra, A., & Nielsen, B. B. (2014). From the editors: Explaining interaction effects within and across levels of analysis. Journal of International Business Studies, 45(9), 1063–1071. CrossRef
go back to reference Ando, N., & Paik, Y. (2013). Institutional distance, host country and international business experience, and the use of parent country nationals. Human Resource Management Journal, 23(1), 52–71. CrossRef Ando, N., & Paik, Y. (2013). Institutional distance, host country and international business experience, and the use of parent country nationals. Human Resource Management Journal, 23(1), 52–71. CrossRef
go back to reference Blau, P. M. (1977). Inequality and heterogeneity: A primitive theory of social structure (Vol. 7). New York: Free Press. Blau, P. M. (1977). Inequality and heterogeneity: A primitive theory of social structure (Vol. 7). New York: Free Press.
go back to reference Bouquet, C., & Birkinshaw, J. (2008). Weight versus voice: How foreign subsidiaries gain attention from corporate headquarters. Academy of Management Journal, 51(3), 577–601. CrossRef Bouquet, C., & Birkinshaw, J. (2008). Weight versus voice: How foreign subsidiaries gain attention from corporate headquarters. Academy of Management Journal, 51(3), 577–601. CrossRef
go back to reference Buckley, P. J., Doh, J. P., & Benischke, M. H. (2017). Towards a renaissance in international business research? Big questions, grand challenges, and the future of IB scholarship. Journal of International Business Studies, 48(9), 1045–1064. CrossRef Buckley, P. J., Doh, J. P., & Benischke, M. H. (2017). Towards a renaissance in international business research? Big questions, grand challenges, and the future of IB scholarship. Journal of International Business Studies, 48(9), 1045–1064. CrossRef
go back to reference Buzdugan, S., & Tuselmann, H. (2018). Making the Most of FDI for development: “New” Industrial Policy and FDI Deepening for Industrial Upgrading. Transnational Corporations, 25(1), 1–22. CrossRef Buzdugan, S., & Tuselmann, H. (2018). Making the Most of FDI for development: “New” Industrial Policy and FDI Deepening for Industrial Upgrading. Transnational Corporations, 25(1), 1–22. CrossRef
go back to reference Chang, S. J., Van Witteloostuijn, A., & Eden, L. (2010). From the editors: Common method variance in international business research. Journal of International Business Studies, 41(2), 178–184. CrossRef Chang, S. J., Van Witteloostuijn, A., & Eden, L. (2010). From the editors: Common method variance in international business research. Journal of International Business Studies, 41(2), 178–184. CrossRef
go back to reference Christmann, P., & Taylor, G. (2001). Globalization and the environment: Determinants of firm self-regulation in China. Journal of International Business Studies, 32(3), 439–458. CrossRef Christmann, P., & Taylor, G. (2001). Globalization and the environment: Determinants of firm self-regulation in China. Journal of International Business Studies, 32(3), 439–458. CrossRef
go back to reference Colakoglu, S., Tarique, I., & Caligiuri, P. (2009). Towards a conceptual framework for the relationship between subsidiary staffing strategy and subsidiary performance. The International Journal of Human Resource Management, 20(6), 1291–1308. CrossRef Colakoglu, S., Tarique, I., & Caligiuri, P. (2009). Towards a conceptual framework for the relationship between subsidiary staffing strategy and subsidiary performance. The International Journal of Human Resource Management, 20(6), 1291–1308. CrossRef
go back to reference Crilly, D. (2011). Predicting stakeholder orientation in the multinational enterprise: A mid-range theory. Journal of International Business Studies, 42(5), 694–717. CrossRef Crilly, D. (2011). Predicting stakeholder orientation in the multinational enterprise: A mid-range theory. Journal of International Business Studies, 42(5), 694–717. CrossRef
go back to reference Dahms, S. (2019a). The influence of competences and institutions on the international market orientation in foreign-owned subsidiaries. European Journal of International Management, 13(3), 354–380. Dahms, S. (2019a). The influence of competences and institutions on the international market orientation in foreign-owned subsidiaries. European Journal of International Management, 13(3), 354–380.
go back to reference Dahms, S. (2019b). Foreign-owned subsidiary knowledge sourcing: The role of location and expatriates. Journal of Business Research, 105, 178–188. CrossRef Dahms, S. (2019b). Foreign-owned subsidiary knowledge sourcing: The role of location and expatriates. Journal of Business Research, 105, 178–188. CrossRef
go back to reference Dahms, S., Cabrilo, S., & Kingkaew, S. (2020). The role of networks, competencies, and IT advancement in innovation performance of foreign-owned subsidiaries. Industrial Marketing Management, 89, 402–421. CrossRef Dahms, S., Cabrilo, S., & Kingkaew, S. (2020). The role of networks, competencies, and IT advancement in innovation performance of foreign-owned subsidiaries. Industrial Marketing Management, 89, 402–421. CrossRef
go back to reference Doh, J. P., Littell, B., & Quigley, N. R. (2015). CSR and sustainability in emerging markets: Societal, institutional, and organizational influences. Organizational Dynamics, 2(44), 112–120. CrossRef Doh, J. P., Littell, B., & Quigley, N. R. (2015). CSR and sustainability in emerging markets: Societal, institutional, and organizational influences. Organizational Dynamics, 2(44), 112–120. CrossRef
go back to reference Fainshmidt, S., Wenger, L., Pezeshkan, A., & Mallon, M. R. (2019). When do dynamic capabilities lead to competitive advantage? The importance of strategic fit. Journal of Management Studies, 56(4), 758–787. CrossRef Fainshmidt, S., Wenger, L., Pezeshkan, A., & Mallon, M. R. (2019). When do dynamic capabilities lead to competitive advantage? The importance of strategic fit. Journal of Management Studies, 56(4), 758–787. CrossRef
go back to reference Feurer, S., Baumbach, E., & Woodside, A. G. (2016). Applying configurational theory to build a typology of ethnocentric consumers. International Marketing Review, 33(3), 351–375. CrossRef Feurer, S., Baumbach, E., & Woodside, A. G. (2016). Applying configurational theory to build a typology of ethnocentric consumers. International Marketing Review, 33(3), 351–375. CrossRef
go back to reference Fiss, P. C. (2011). Building better causal theories: A fuzzy set approach to typologies in organization research. Academy of Management Journal, 54(2), 393–420. CrossRef Fiss, P. C. (2011). Building better causal theories: A fuzzy set approach to typologies in organization research. Academy of Management Journal, 54(2), 393–420. CrossRef
go back to reference Fornell, C., & Larcker, D. F. (1981). Evaluating structural equation models with unobservable variables and measurement error. Journal of Marketing Research, 18(1), 39–50. CrossRef Fornell, C., & Larcker, D. F. (1981). Evaluating structural equation models with unobservable variables and measurement error. Journal of Marketing Research, 18(1), 39–50. CrossRef
go back to reference Fransen, L., Kolk, A., & Rivera-Santos, M. (2019). The multiplicity of international corporate social responsibility standards. Multinational Business Review., 27(4), 397–426. CrossRef Fransen, L., Kolk, A., & Rivera-Santos, M. (2019). The multiplicity of international corporate social responsibility standards. Multinational Business Review., 27(4), 397–426. CrossRef
go back to reference Gammelgaard, J., McDonald, F., Stephan, A., Tüselmann, H., & Dörrenbächer, C. (2012). The impact of increases in subsidiary autonomy and network relationships on performance. International Business Review, 21(6), 1158–1172. CrossRef Gammelgaard, J., McDonald, F., Stephan, A., Tüselmann, H., & Dörrenbächer, C. (2012). The impact of increases in subsidiary autonomy and network relationships on performance. International Business Review, 21(6), 1158–1172. CrossRef
go back to reference Garcia-Castro, R., & Francoeur, C. (2016). When more is not better: Complementarities, costs and contingencies in stakeholder management. Strategic Management Journal, 37(2), 406–424. CrossRef Garcia-Castro, R., & Francoeur, C. (2016). When more is not better: Complementarities, costs and contingencies in stakeholder management. Strategic Management Journal, 37(2), 406–424. CrossRef
go back to reference Gaur, A. S., Delios, A., & Singh, K. (2007). Institutional environments, staffing strategies, and subsidiary performance. Journal of Management, 33(4), 611–636. CrossRef Gaur, A. S., Delios, A., & Singh, K. (2007). Institutional environments, staffing strategies, and subsidiary performance. Journal of Management, 33(4), 611–636. CrossRef
go back to reference Gilmore, E., Andersson, U., & Memar, N. (2018). How subsidiaries influence innovation in the MNE value chain. Transnational Corporations, 25(1), 73–100. CrossRef Gilmore, E., Andersson, U., & Memar, N. (2018). How subsidiaries influence innovation in the MNE value chain. Transnational Corporations, 25(1), 73–100. CrossRef
go back to reference Gjølberg, M. (2009). Measuring the immeasurable?: Constructing an index of CSR practices and CSR performance in 20 countries. Scandinavian Journal of Management, 25(1), 10–22. CrossRef Gjølberg, M. (2009). Measuring the immeasurable?: Constructing an index of CSR practices and CSR performance in 20 countries. Scandinavian Journal of Management, 25(1), 10–22. CrossRef
go back to reference Gong, Y. (2006). The impact of subsidiary top management team national diversity on subsidiary performance: Knowledge and legitimacy perspectives. Management International Review, 46(6), 771–790. CrossRef Gong, Y. (2006). The impact of subsidiary top management team national diversity on subsidiary performance: Knowledge and legitimacy perspectives. Management International Review, 46(6), 771–790. CrossRef
go back to reference Hair, J. F., Sarstedt, M., Pieper, T. M., & Ringle, C. M. (2012). The use of partial least squares structural equation modeling in strategic management research: A review of past practices and recommendations for future applications. Long Range Planning, 45(5), 320–340. CrossRef Hair, J. F., Sarstedt, M., Pieper, T. M., & Ringle, C. M. (2012). The use of partial least squares structural equation modeling in strategic management research: A review of past practices and recommendations for future applications. Long Range Planning, 45(5), 320–340. CrossRef
go back to reference Halkos, G., & Skouloudis, A. (2016). National CSR and institutional conditions: An exploratory study. Journal of Cleaner Production, 139, 1150–1156. CrossRef Halkos, G., & Skouloudis, A. (2016). National CSR and institutional conditions: An exploratory study. Journal of Cleaner Production, 139, 1150–1156. CrossRef
go back to reference Hambrick, D. C., & Mason, P. A. (1984). Upper echelons: The organization as a reflection of its top managers. Academy of Management Review, 9(2), 193–206. CrossRef Hambrick, D. C., & Mason, P. A. (1984). Upper echelons: The organization as a reflection of its top managers. Academy of Management Review, 9(2), 193–206. CrossRef
go back to reference Hambrick, D. C., Davison, S. C., Snell, S. A., & Snow, C. C. (1998). When groups consist of multiple nationalities: Towards a new understanding of the implications. Organization Studies, 19(2), 181–205. CrossRef Hambrick, D. C., Davison, S. C., Snell, S. A., & Snow, C. C. (1998). When groups consist of multiple nationalities: Towards a new understanding of the implications. Organization Studies, 19(2), 181–205. CrossRef
go back to reference Harzing, A. W., Baldueza, J., Barner-Rasmussen, W., Barzantny, C., Canabal, A., Davila, A., et al. (2009). Rating versus ranking: What is the best way to reduce response and language bias in cross-national research? International Business Review, 18(4), 417–432. CrossRef Harzing, A. W., Baldueza, J., Barner-Rasmussen, W., Barzantny, C., Canabal, A., Davila, A., et al. (2009). Rating versus ranking: What is the best way to reduce response and language bias in cross-national research? International Business Review, 18(4), 417–432. CrossRef
go back to reference Harzing, A. W., Pudelko, M., & Sebastian Reiche, B. (2016). The bridging role of expatriates and inpatriates in knowledge transfer in multinational corporations. Human Resource Management, 55(4), 679–695. CrossRef Harzing, A. W., Pudelko, M., & Sebastian Reiche, B. (2016). The bridging role of expatriates and inpatriates in knowledge transfer in multinational corporations. Human Resource Management, 55(4), 679–695. CrossRef
go back to reference Henisz, W. J., & Delios, A. (2001). Uncertainty, imitation, and plant location: Japanese multinational corporations, 1990–1996. Administrative Science Quarterly, 46(3), 443–475. CrossRef Henisz, W. J., & Delios, A. (2001). Uncertainty, imitation, and plant location: Japanese multinational corporations, 1990–1996. Administrative Science Quarterly, 46(3), 443–475. CrossRef
go back to reference Hillman, A. J., & Wan, W. P. (2005). The determinants of MNE subsidiaries’ political strategies: Evidence of institutional duality. Journal of International Business Studies, 36(3), 322–340. CrossRef Hillman, A. J., & Wan, W. P. (2005). The determinants of MNE subsidiaries’ political strategies: Evidence of institutional duality. Journal of International Business Studies, 36(3), 322–340. CrossRef
go back to reference Homberg, F., & Bui, H. T. (2013). Top management team diversity: A systematic review. Group & Organization Management, 38(4), 455–479. CrossRef Homberg, F., & Bui, H. T. (2013). Top management team diversity: A systematic review. Group & Organization Management, 38(4), 455–479. CrossRef
go back to reference Husted, B. W., & Allen, D. B. (2006). Corporate social responsibility in the multinational enterprise: Strategic and institutional approaches. Journal of International Business Studies, 37(6), 838–849. CrossRef Husted, B. W., & Allen, D. B. (2006). Corporate social responsibility in the multinational enterprise: Strategic and institutional approaches. Journal of International Business Studies, 37(6), 838–849. CrossRef
go back to reference Hyun, H. J., Oh, C. H., & Paik, Y. (2015). Impact of nationality composition in foreign subsidiary on its performance: A case of Korean companies. The International Journal of Human Resource Management, 26(6), 806–830. CrossRef Hyun, H. J., Oh, C. H., & Paik, Y. (2015). Impact of nationality composition in foreign subsidiary on its performance: A case of Korean companies. The International Journal of Human Resource Management, 26(6), 806–830. CrossRef
go back to reference Ioannou, I., & Serafeim, G. (2012). What drives corporate social performance? The role of nation-level institutions. Journal of International Business Studies, 43(9), 834–864. CrossRef Ioannou, I., & Serafeim, G. (2012). What drives corporate social performance? The role of nation-level institutions. Journal of International Business Studies, 43(9), 834–864. CrossRef
go back to reference Jackson, G., & Apostolakou, A. (2010). Corporate social responsibility in Western Europe: An institutional mirror or substitute? Journal of Business Ethics, 94(3), 371–394. CrossRef Jackson, G., & Apostolakou, A. (2010). Corporate social responsibility in Western Europe: An institutional mirror or substitute? Journal of Business Ethics, 94(3), 371–394. CrossRef
go back to reference Jackson, G., & Ni, N. (2013). Understanding complementarities as organizational configurations: Using set theoretical methods. Configurational theory and methods in organizational research (pp. 129–158). London: Emerald Group Publishing Limited. CrossRef Jackson, G., & Ni, N. (2013). Understanding complementarities as organizational configurations: Using set theoretical methods. Configurational theory and methods in organizational research (pp. 129–158). London: Emerald Group Publishing Limited. CrossRef
go back to reference Jackson, G., & Rathert, N. (2016). Private governance as regulatory substitute or complement? A comparative institutional approach to CSR adoption by multinational corporations. Multinational corporations and organization theory: Post millennium perspectives (pp. 445–478). London: Emerald Publishing Limited. Jackson, G., & Rathert, N. (2016). Private governance as regulatory substitute or complement? A comparative institutional approach to CSR adoption by multinational corporations. Multinational corporations and organization theory: Post millennium perspectives (pp. 445–478). London: Emerald Publishing Limited.
go back to reference Jamali, D. (2010). The CSR of MNC subsidiaries in developing countries: Global, local, substantive or diluted? Journal of Business Ethics, 93(2), 181–200. CrossRef Jamali, D. (2010). The CSR of MNC subsidiaries in developing countries: Global, local, substantive or diluted? Journal of Business Ethics, 93(2), 181–200. CrossRef
go back to reference Jamali, D., & Karam, C. (2018). Corporate social responsibility in developing countries as an emerging field of study. International Journal of Management Reviews, 20(1), 32–61. CrossRef Jamali, D., & Karam, C. (2018). Corporate social responsibility in developing countries as an emerging field of study. International Journal of Management Reviews, 20(1), 32–61. CrossRef
go back to reference Jamali, D. R., El Dirani, A. M., & Harwood, I. A. (2015). Exploring human resource management roles in corporate social responsibility: The CSR-HRM co-creation model. Business Ethics: A European Review, 24(2), 125–143. CrossRef Jamali, D. R., El Dirani, A. M., & Harwood, I. A. (2015). Exploring human resource management roles in corporate social responsibility: The CSR-HRM co-creation model. Business Ethics: A European Review, 24(2), 125–143. CrossRef
go back to reference Kawai, N., Strange, R., & Zucchella, A. (2018). Stakeholder pressures, EMS implementation, and green innovation in MNC overseas subsidiaries. International Business Review, 27(5), 933–946. CrossRef Kawai, N., Strange, R., & Zucchella, A. (2018). Stakeholder pressures, EMS implementation, and green innovation in MNC overseas subsidiaries. International Business Review, 27(5), 933–946. CrossRef
go back to reference Kilduff, M., Angelmar, R., & Mehra, A. (2000). Top management-team diversity and firm performance: Examining the role of cognitions. Organization Science, 11(1), 21–34. CrossRef Kilduff, M., Angelmar, R., & Mehra, A. (2000). Top management-team diversity and firm performance: Examining the role of cognitions. Organization Science, 11(1), 21–34. CrossRef
go back to reference Kim, C., Kim, J., Marshall, R., & Afzali, H. (2018). Stakeholder influence, institutional duality, and CSR involvement of MNC subsidiaries. Journal of Business Research, 91, 40–47. CrossRef Kim, C., Kim, J., Marshall, R., & Afzali, H. (2018). Stakeholder influence, institutional duality, and CSR involvement of MNC subsidiaries. Journal of Business Research, 91, 40–47. CrossRef
go back to reference Kingkaew, S., & Dahms, S. (2019). Explaining autonomy variations across value-chain activities in foreign-owned subsidiaries. Thunderbird International Business Review, 61(2), 425–438. CrossRef Kingkaew, S., & Dahms, S. (2019). Explaining autonomy variations across value-chain activities in foreign-owned subsidiaries. Thunderbird International Business Review, 61(2), 425–438. CrossRef
go back to reference Kock, N. (2013). Using WarpPLS in E-collaboration studies: descriptive statistics, settings. Interdisciplinary Applications of Electronic Collaboration Approaches and Technologies, 62, 1–17. Kock, N. (2013). Using WarpPLS in E-collaboration studies: descriptive statistics, settings. Interdisciplinary Applications of Electronic Collaboration Approaches and Technologies, 62, 1–17.
go back to reference Kock, N. (2014). Stable P value calculation methods in PLS-SEM. Laredo, TX: ScriptWarp Systems. Kock, N. (2014). Stable P value calculation methods in PLS-SEM. Laredo, TX: ScriptWarp Systems.
go back to reference Kogut, B., & Singh, H. (1988). The effect of national culture on the choice of entry mode. Journal of International Business Studies, 19(3), 411–432. CrossRef Kogut, B., & Singh, H. (1988). The effect of national culture on the choice of entry mode. Journal of International Business Studies, 19(3), 411–432. CrossRef
go back to reference Kostova, T., & Roth, K. (2002). Adoption of an organizational practice by subsidiaries of multinational corporations: Institutional and relational effects. Academy of Management Journal, 45(1), 215–233. Kostova, T., & Roth, K. (2002). Adoption of an organizational practice by subsidiaries of multinational corporations: Institutional and relational effects. Academy of Management Journal, 45(1), 215–233.
go back to reference McCloskey, D. (2002). The secret sins of economics. Chicago, IL: Prickly Paradigm Press. McCloskey, D. (2002). The secret sins of economics. Chicago, IL: Prickly Paradigm Press.
go back to reference McWilliams, A., & Siegel, D. (2001). Corporate social responsibility: A theory of the firm perspective. Academy of Management Review, 26(1), 117–127. CrossRef McWilliams, A., & Siegel, D. (2001). Corporate social responsibility: A theory of the firm perspective. Academy of Management Review, 26(1), 117–127. CrossRef
go back to reference Mellahi, K., Frynas, J. G., Sun, P., & Siegel, D. (2016). A review of the nonmarket strategy literature: Toward a multi-theoretical integration. Journal of Management, 42(1), 143–173. CrossRef Mellahi, K., Frynas, J. G., Sun, P., & Siegel, D. (2016). A review of the nonmarket strategy literature: Toward a multi-theoretical integration. Journal of Management, 42(1), 143–173. CrossRef
go back to reference Misangyi, V. F., Greckhamer, T., Furnari, S., Fiss, P. C., Crilly, D., & Aguilera, R. (2017). Embracing causal complexity: The emergence of a neo-configurational perspective. Journal of Management, 43(1), 255–282. CrossRef Misangyi, V. F., Greckhamer, T., Furnari, S., Fiss, P. C., Crilly, D., & Aguilera, R. (2017). Embracing causal complexity: The emergence of a neo-configurational perspective. Journal of Management, 43(1), 255–282. CrossRef
go back to reference Muellner, J., Klopf, P., & Nell, P. C. (2017). Trojan horses or local allies: host-country national managers in developing market subsidiaries. Journal of International Management, 23(3), 306–325. Muellner, J., Klopf, P., & Nell, P. C. (2017). Trojan horses or local allies: host-country national managers in developing market subsidiaries. Journal of International Management, 23(3), 306–325.
go back to reference Narula, R. (2019). Enforcing higher labour standards within developing country value chains: Consequences for MNEs and informal actors in a dual economy. Journal of International Business Studies, 50(9), 1622–1635. CrossRef Narula, R. (2019). Enforcing higher labour standards within developing country value chains: Consequences for MNEs and informal actors in a dual economy. Journal of International Business Studies, 50(9), 1622–1635. CrossRef
go back to reference Neter, J., Wasserman, W., & Kutner, M. (1985). Applied linear statistical models. Homewood, IL: Irwin Press. Neter, J., Wasserman, W., & Kutner, M. (1985). Applied linear statistical models. Homewood, IL: Irwin Press.
go back to reference Nielsen, B. B., & Nielsen, S. (2013). Top management team nationality diversity and firm performance: A multilevel study. Strategic Management Journal, 34(3), 373–382. CrossRef Nielsen, B. B., & Nielsen, S. (2013). Top management team nationality diversity and firm performance: A multilevel study. Strategic Management Journal, 34(3), 373–382. CrossRef
go back to reference Park, B. I., & Ghauri, P. N. (2015). Determinants influencing CSR practices in small and medium sized MNE subsidiaries: A stakeholder perspective. Journal of World Business, 50(1), 192–204. CrossRef Park, B. I., & Ghauri, P. N. (2015). Determinants influencing CSR practices in small and medium sized MNE subsidiaries: A stakeholder perspective. Journal of World Business, 50(1), 192–204. CrossRef
go back to reference Park, B. I., Chidlow, A., & Choi, J. (2014). Corporate social responsibility: Stakeholders influence on MNEs’ activities. International Business Review, 23(5), 966–980. CrossRef Park, B. I., Chidlow, A., & Choi, J. (2014). Corporate social responsibility: Stakeholders influence on MNEs’ activities. International Business Review, 23(5), 966–980. CrossRef
go back to reference Pisani, N., Kourula, A., Kolk, A., & Meijer, R. (2017). How global is international CSR research? Insights and recommendations from a systematic review. Journal of World Business, 52(5), 591–614. CrossRef Pisani, N., Kourula, A., Kolk, A., & Meijer, R. (2017). How global is international CSR research? Insights and recommendations from a systematic review. Journal of World Business, 52(5), 591–614. CrossRef
go back to reference Podsakoff, P. M., & Organ, D. W. (1986). Self-reports in organizational research: Problems and prospects. Journal of Management, 12(4), 531–544. Podsakoff, P. M., & Organ, D. W. (1986). Self-reports in organizational research: Problems and prospects. Journal of Management, 12(4), 531–544.
go back to reference Porter, M. E., & Kramer, M. R. (2006). The link between competitive advantage and corporate social responsibility. Harvard Business Review, 84(12), 78–92. Porter, M. E., & Kramer, M. R. (2006). The link between competitive advantage and corporate social responsibility. Harvard Business Review, 84(12), 78–92.
go back to reference Ragin, C. C. (2008). Redesigning Social Inquiry: Fuzzy Sets and Beyond. Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press. CrossRef Ragin, C. C. (2008). Redesigning Social Inquiry: Fuzzy Sets and Beyond. Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press. CrossRef
go back to reference Rao, K., & Tilt, C. (2016). Board composition and corporate social responsibility: The role of diversity, gender, strategy and decision making. Journal of Business Ethics, 138(2), 327–347. CrossRef Rao, K., & Tilt, C. (2016). Board composition and corporate social responsibility: The role of diversity, gender, strategy and decision making. Journal of Business Ethics, 138(2), 327–347. CrossRef
go back to reference Rathert, N. (2016). Strategies of legitimation: MNEs and the adoption of CSR in response to host-country institutions. Journal of International Business Studies, 47(7), 858–879. CrossRef Rathert, N. (2016). Strategies of legitimation: MNEs and the adoption of CSR in response to host-country institutions. Journal of International Business Studies, 47(7), 858–879. CrossRef
go back to reference Reimann, F., Ehrgott, M., Kaufmann, L., & Carter, C. R. (2012). Local stakeholders and local legitimacy: MNEs’ social strategies in emerging economies. Journal of International Management, 18(1), 1–17. CrossRef Reimann, F., Ehrgott, M., Kaufmann, L., & Carter, C. R. (2012). Local stakeholders and local legitimacy: MNEs’ social strategies in emerging economies. Journal of International Management, 18(1), 1–17. CrossRef
go back to reference Reimann, F., Rauer, J., & Kaufmann, L. (2015). MNE subsidiaries’ strategic commitment to CSR in emerging economies: The role of administrative distance, subsidiary size, and experience in the host country. Journal of Business Ethics, 132(4), 845–857. CrossRef Reimann, F., Rauer, J., & Kaufmann, L. (2015). MNE subsidiaries’ strategic commitment to CSR in emerging economies: The role of administrative distance, subsidiary size, and experience in the host country. Journal of Business Ethics, 132(4), 845–857. CrossRef
go back to reference Rugman, A. M., & Verbeke, A. (2001). Subsidiary-specific advantages in multinational enterprises. Strategic Management Journal, 22(3), 237–250. CrossRef Rugman, A. M., & Verbeke, A. (2001). Subsidiary-specific advantages in multinational enterprises. Strategic Management Journal, 22(3), 237–250. CrossRef
go back to reference Salk, J. E., & Shenkar, O. (2001). Social identities in an international joint venture: An exploratory case study. Organization Science, 12(2), 161–178. CrossRef Salk, J. E., & Shenkar, O. (2001). Social identities in an international joint venture: An exploratory case study. Organization Science, 12(2), 161–178. CrossRef
go back to reference Schneider, C. Q., & Wagemann, C. (2010). Standards of good practice in qualitative comparative analysis (QCA) and fuzzy-sets. Comparative Sociology, 9(3), 397–418. CrossRef Schneider, C. Q., & Wagemann, C. (2010). Standards of good practice in qualitative comparative analysis (QCA) and fuzzy-sets. Comparative Sociology, 9(3), 397–418. CrossRef
go back to reference Sekiguchi, T., Bebenroth, R., & Li, D. (2011). Nationality background of MNC affiliates’ top management and affiliate performance in Japan: Knowledge-based and upper echelons perspectives. The International Journal of Human Resource Management, 22(05), 999–1016. CrossRef Sekiguchi, T., Bebenroth, R., & Li, D. (2011). Nationality background of MNC affiliates’ top management and affiliate performance in Japan: Knowledge-based and upper echelons perspectives. The International Journal of Human Resource Management, 22(05), 999–1016. CrossRef
go back to reference Shin, D., Hasse, V. C., & Schotter, A. P. (2017). Multinational enterprises within cultural space and place: integrating cultural distance and tightness–looseness. Academy of Management Journal, 60(3), 904–921. Shin, D., Hasse, V. C., & Schotter, A. P. (2017). Multinational enterprises within cultural space and place: integrating cultural distance and tightness–looseness. Academy of Management Journal, 60(3), 904–921.
go back to reference Singh, S., Darwish, T. K., & Potočnik, K. (2016). Measuring organizational performance: A case for subjective measures. British Journal of Management, 27(1), 214–224. CrossRef Singh, S., Darwish, T. K., & Potočnik, K. (2016). Measuring organizational performance: A case for subjective measures. British Journal of Management, 27(1), 214–224. CrossRef
go back to reference Skouloudis, A., Isaac, D., & Evaggelinos, K. (2016). Revisiting the national corporate social responsibility index. International Journal of Sustainable Development & World Ecology, 23(1), 61–70. CrossRef Skouloudis, A., Isaac, D., & Evaggelinos, K. (2016). Revisiting the national corporate social responsibility index. International Journal of Sustainable Development & World Ecology, 23(1), 61–70. CrossRef
go back to reference Verbeke, A., & Greidanus, N. S. (2009). The end of the opportunism vs trust debate: Bounded reliability as a new envelope concept in research on MNE governance. Journal of International Business Studies, 40(9), 1471–1495. CrossRef Verbeke, A., & Greidanus, N. S. (2009). The end of the opportunism vs trust debate: Bounded reliability as a new envelope concept in research on MNE governance. Journal of International Business Studies, 40(9), 1471–1495. CrossRef
go back to reference Verbeke, A., Ciravegna, L., Lopez, L. E., & Kundu, S. K. (2019). Five configurations of opportunism in international market entry. Journal of Management Studies, 56(7), 1287–1313. CrossRef Verbeke, A., Ciravegna, L., Lopez, L. E., & Kundu, S. K. (2019). Five configurations of opportunism in international market entry. Journal of Management Studies, 56(7), 1287–1313. CrossRef
go back to reference Voegtlin, C., & Greenwood, M. (2016). Corporate social responsibility and human resource management: A systematic review and conceptual analysis. Human Resource Management Review, 26(3), 181–197. CrossRef Voegtlin, C., & Greenwood, M. (2016). Corporate social responsibility and human resource management: A systematic review and conceptual analysis. Human Resource Management Review, 26(3), 181–197. CrossRef
go back to reference Williams, C., Colovic, A., & Zhu, J. (2017). Integration-responsiveness, local hires and subsidiary performance amidst turbulence: Insights from a survey of Chinese subsidiaries. Journal of World Business, 52(6), 842–853. CrossRef Williams, C., Colovic, A., & Zhu, J. (2017). Integration-responsiveness, local hires and subsidiary performance amidst turbulence: Insights from a survey of Chinese subsidiaries. Journal of World Business, 52(6), 842–853. CrossRef
go back to reference Williams, K. Y., & O’Reilly, C. A. (1998). Demography and diversity in organizations: A review of 40 years of research. Research in Organizational Behavior, 20, 77–140. Williams, K. Y., & O’Reilly, C. A. (1998). Demography and diversity in organizations: A review of 40 years of research. Research in Organizational Behavior, 20, 77–140.
go back to reference Woodside, A. G. (2013). Moving beyond multiple regression analysis to algorithms: Calling for adoption of a paradigm shift from symmetric to asymmetric thinking in data analysis and crafting theory. Journal of Business Research, 66(4), 463–472. CrossRef Woodside, A. G. (2013). Moving beyond multiple regression analysis to algorithms: Calling for adoption of a paradigm shift from symmetric to asymmetric thinking in data analysis and crafting theory. Journal of Business Research, 66(4), 463–472. CrossRef
go back to reference Woodside, A. G. (2019). Accurate case-outcome modeling in economics, psychology, and marketing. Psychology & Marketing, 36(11), 1046–1061. CrossRef Woodside, A. G. (2019). Accurate case-outcome modeling in economics, psychology, and marketing. Psychology & Marketing, 36(11), 1046–1061. CrossRef
go back to reference Wrona, T., & Sinzig, C. (2018). Nonmarket strategy research: Systematic literature review and future directions. Journal of Business Economics, 88(2), 253–317. CrossRef Wrona, T., & Sinzig, C. (2018). Nonmarket strategy research: Systematic literature review and future directions. Journal of Business Economics, 88(2), 253–317. CrossRef
go back to reference Wu, Z., & Salomon, R. (2017). Deconstructing the liability of foreignness: Regulatory enforcement actions against foreign banks. Journal of International Business Studies, 48(7), 837–861. CrossRef Wu, Z., & Salomon, R. (2017). Deconstructing the liability of foreignness: Regulatory enforcement actions against foreign banks. Journal of International Business Studies, 48(7), 837–861. CrossRef
go back to reference Yang, X., & Rivers, C. (2009). Antecedents of CSR practices in MNCs’ subsidiaries: A stakeholder and institutional perspective. Journal of Business Ethics, 86(2), 155–169. CrossRef Yang, X., & Rivers, C. (2009). Antecedents of CSR practices in MNCs’ subsidiaries: A stakeholder and institutional perspective. Journal of Business Ethics, 86(2), 155–169. CrossRef
go back to reference Yin, J., & Jamali, D. (2016). Strategic corporate social responsibility of multinational companies subsidiaries in emerging markets: Evidence from China. Long Range Planning, 49(5), 541–558. CrossRef Yin, J., & Jamali, D. (2016). Strategic corporate social responsibility of multinational companies subsidiaries in emerging markets: Evidence from China. Long Range Planning, 49(5), 541–558. CrossRef
go back to reference Young, S. L., & Makhija, M. V. (2014). Firms’ corporate social responsibility behavior: An integration of institutional and profit maximization approaches. Journal of International Business Studies, 45(6), 670–698. CrossRef Young, S. L., & Makhija, M. V. (2014). Firms’ corporate social responsibility behavior: An integration of institutional and profit maximization approaches. Journal of International Business Studies, 45(6), 670–698. CrossRef
go back to reference Zaheer, S. (1995). Overcoming the liability of foreignness. Academy of Management Journal, 38, 341–363. Zaheer, S. (1995). Overcoming the liability of foreignness. Academy of Management Journal, 38, 341–363.
go back to reference Zerbini, F. (2017). CSR initiatives as market signals: A review and research agenda. Journal of Business Ethics, 146(1), 1–23. CrossRef Zerbini, F. (2017). CSR initiatives as market signals: A review and research agenda. Journal of Business Ethics, 146(1), 1–23. CrossRef
Metadata
Title
The Effects of Top Management Team National Diversity and Institutional Uncertainty on Subsidiary CSR Focus
Authors
Sven Dahms
Suthikorn Kingkaew
Eddy S. Ng
Publication date
04-02-2021
Publisher
Springer Netherlands
Published in
Journal of Business Ethics / Issue 3/2022
Print ISSN: 0167-4544
Electronic ISSN: 1573-0697
DOI
https://doi.org/10.1007/s10551-020-04721-z

Other articles of this Issue 3/2022

Journal of Business Ethics 3/2022 Go to the issue

Original Paper

Stakeholder Friction

Premium Partner