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About this book

This book presents the proceedings of the 8th International Ergonomics Conference (ERGONOMICS), held in Zagreb, Croatia on December 2-5, 2020. By highlighting the latest theories and models, as well as cutting-edge technologies and applications, and by combining findings from a range of disciplines including engineering, design, robotics, healthcare, management, computer science, human biology and behavioral science, it provides researchers and practitioners alike with a comprehensive, timely guide on human factors and ergonomics. It also offers an excellent source of innovative ideas to stimulate future discussions and developments aimed at applying knowledge and techniques to optimize system performance, while at the same time promoting the health, safety and wellbeing of individuals. The proceedings include papers from researchers and practitioners, scientists and physicians, institutional leaders, managers and policy makers that contribute to constructing the Human Factors and Ergonomics approach across a variety of methodologies, domains and productive sectors.

Table of Contents


Invited Lectures


Approach Towards Design of Functional Sportswear for Improved Human Performance

Contemporary design and production of textile and clothing is focused on development of products with innovative characteristics and hi-tech functionalization for improved human performance. Therefore, an important innovation area is the R&D of specifically engineered materials and assemblies. The research is directed towards delivery of a pre-defined performance or functionality to the user, over and above its normal functions. This paper gives review of the state-of-the-art research in the area of functional sportswear design and discusses niches for the innovations beyond. The experimental part covers evaluations within three crucial segments, i.e. thermophysiological comfort of material observed trough the permeability index, thermophysiological comfort of single layered sportswear observed using thermal camera and sensorial comfort of single layered sportswear material. The test results are supported by regression models. Throughout the discussion and conclusion is outlined the need for comprehensive and systematic approach towards design and further evaluation of sportswear in order to enhance and augment body functions.
Ivana Salopek Čubrić

Functional and Subjective Assessment of Spinal Exoskeletons: From Development of Battery of Tests to Experiments with Low Back Pain Patients

Spinal exoskeletons have recently emerged as a potential tool to prevent and treat low back pain (LBP) in workers that are involved in heavy load handing and other demanding jobs. However, the widespread use of these devices is still limited. Notably, discomfort and hindrance of movement is often reported by the end-users. Therefore, there is an increasing interest to explore functional and subjective aspect of exoskeleton use. In this paper, we will present a novel battery of tests that was designed to comprehensively assess the effects of spinal exoskeletons on functional performance, discomfort and task difficulty. Next, we provide evidence that specific populations, such as LBP patients, may respond differently to the use of exoskeletons, which should be considered during design and development. Finally, we briefly summarize the findings from a study that investigated the effects of one of the state-of-the-art exoskeletons, by using the previously developed functional test battery.
Nejc Šarabon, Žiga Kozinc

Session Papers


Skidder Operator Vibration Exposure

The exposure of workers to vibration is expressed as energy equivalent A(8), which is determined by the procedure clearly described in the international standard ISO 5349-1-2001. A(8) is a value that depends not only on the vibration level in certain operating procedures, but also on the duration of exposure. Research was conducted on Ecotrac 120 V and Ecotrac 140 V, the most used skidders in Croatian forestry. Vibration on the steering wheel and seat of the skidders was measured by vibrometer with triaxial accelerometer. Measurements were performed at three characteristic engine operating modes: idling, at maximum torque and full throttle. Daily exposure to vibration of a skidder operator A(8) is calculated based on structural data of daily working times in different working conditions as well as distribution of three characteristic engine operating modes of effective time. The results show differences in vibration levels between different types of tractors and working conditions. The research was carried out within the project “Development of hybrid skidder—HiSkid” co-financed by European Regional Fund in the scope of European Union Operational Program “Competitiveness and Cohesion” 2014–2020 (2014HR16M1OP00-1.2).
M. Šušnjar, Z. Pandur, Z. Zečić, H. Kopseak, M. Bačić

A Preliminary Study of the Possible Impact of Non-related Driving Tasks on the Car Driver’s Performance Using Glance-Based Measures

In road traffic, the knowledge of the impact of drivers’ distraction on the performance is critical to address the safety incidents and to reduce the number of road accidents. Previous research has mostly investigated the impact of different types of driver distraction on the driver’s performance. This preliminary research will explore the possible impact of simultaneous interaction of two or more types of distraction inside a vehicle on the driver’s performance using the driver’s glance behavior. A possible impact on the driver’s performance will be analysed by comparing the driver’s gaze parameters for different driver activities imposed by the scenario in relation to the baseline driving mode. The drivers will perform real-world driving scenarios doing a non-related driving task such as smoking, consuming soft drinks, and using a mobile phone fixed on a stand under the rearview mirror. Two scenarios have been used to evaluate mobile phone use: casual video call conversation and video call conversation while solving a cognitive task. The drivers’ glance parameters such as glance duration, gaze direction, percent of gaze on road center, and others will be assessed from video data on the sample of three drivers. This preliminary study will be a small part of a larger-scale research planned for the near future.
Eva Bolčević, Sandro Tokić, Davor Sumpor, Jasna Leder Horina

Clothing Sizes of China and Japan and Contemporary Design Inspired by Elements of Folk Costume

The system of clothing sizes in China and Japan is described, and the folk costumes of China and Japan are presented. In traditional clothing, one wants to find influence and inspiration for creating contemporary design. This paper contains an experimental or art-technical part which consists of a fashion illustration of the entire collection, project drawings, construction and modeling of each model separately.
Blaženka Brlobašić Šajatović, Dora Busak

Development of Ergonomic Sportswear Based on Thermal Body Mapping

The aim of the research is to get insight into the changes of body temperature of an athlete in order to perform detailed body mapping. Developed body maps are to be further used for design of ergonomic sportswear for a futsal player. In the experimental part in this paper is used thermal camera FLIR E6. The measurement is conducted with participation of active futsal player, before and after a number of training sessions. The measurement is carried in standard conditions for a futsal training, i.e. indoor environment. The measured values of temperature are observed before and after intensive exercise for the zones of upper and lower body and used to develop body maps. The outcomes of the research are to be used for the development of personalized ergonomic futsal sportswear.
Ivana Salopek Čubrić, G. Čubrić, V. M. Potočić Matković

Achilles Tendon Load at Squatting Working Position

Workers often take squatting positions during work, some stay in this position for a short time, and some for longer, and often have an additional load in their hands (tools, instruments, loads). The aim of the study was to determine the load that occurs in the Achilles tendon while squatting. The Achilles tendon is one of the largest and strongest tendons, but too much stress can cause pain, swelling, tendinopathy, tendon damage or even rupture. A mathematical model based on the statics of rigid bodies was set up to determine the force in the Achilles tendon. Experimental part of the study was conducted using the Elite system and the Zebris platform. The loads of the Achilles tendon when squatting on the full foot and on the toes were determined. The determined stress values in the tendon are smaller than the values at which tendon rupture occurs, but still large values that can cause pain and pathological processes.
Maja Šimunić, Daria Ćurko, Tanja Jurčević Lulić, Jasna Leder Horina

Ergonomic Assessment with a Convolutional Neural Network. A Case Study with OWAS

The ergonomic assessment of workplaces is key to optimize work stations and tasks, and in some legal frameworks it is mandatory for companies to perform such evaluations. Currently, most of the evaluations are carried out by means of observational methods like REBA, OWAS, RULA, etc. The usual procedure to apply those methods consists of recording the worker in a normal work day, and then analyze postures, joint angles and movements by visual inspection. That is a tedious and slow process, which is very dependent on the evaluator’s experience. Artificial vision can help to analyze and objectify the video in a few minutes. The objective of this work is the development of an ergonomic assessment method based on artificial vision and a convolutional neural networks, in order to reduce the time of analysis of the videos used in ergonomic evaluations. For this purpose, the neural network used (Simple Pose network) and its application to the analysis of postures is presented, and then a use case is presented, evaluating a workplace with the OWAS methodology.
Helios De Rosario, Enrique Medina-Ripoll, José Francisco Pedrero-Sánchez, Mercedes Sanchís-Almenara, Albert Valls-Molist, Pedro Pablo Miralles-Garcera

Space, Time and Ergonomic Assessment of Order Picking Using Horizontal Carousel

The efficiency of order picking operations can be enhanced by different automated storage/retrieval systems (AS/RS) based on the “part-to-picker” principle. One such system is a horizontal carousel, a rotating rack that delivers parts to the operator. Apart from space and time reduction related benefits, horizontal carousels are often marketed as well as better ergonomic systems compared to traditional shelving rack systems. However, not many papers deal with a quantitative comparison of horizontal carousels with shelving systems that are much more used for small parts order picking. Especially there is a lack of papers analyzing ergonomics of horizontal carousels. In this paper, horizontal carousels are briefly presented, followed by methods to compare horizontal carousels with shelving systems in terms of space, time and ergonomics. For ergonomic assessment, a method of energy expenditure calculation is used. Presented methods can serve as tools for managers for additional justification of horizontal carousel’s implementation.
Goran Đukić, Tihomir Opetuk, Brigita Gajšek

Modified NIOSH Lifting Equation with MATLAB

Work-related musculoskeletal diseases despite decades of efforts, represent a leading workplace risk. The NIOSH modified lifting equation, available in various forms and platform, can be used to assess the risk from manual material handling. While assessing just a few lifts per shift or homogeneous lifting situations is relatively simple; however, in a mixed, high-frequency lifting situation, the risk assessment involves significant data collection and requires complex data processing. In this paper, we present the MATLAB processing of manual handling data retrieved from a production program through an assembly line job as an example. We show the transfer functions for each risk factor and the importance of accurate input data and evaluate their impact on the ultimate risk.
Gyula Szabó

New Proposals for Improvement of Train Driving Support Systems Performances

The modern railway traffic management practice increasingly implies application and development of train driving support systems. The focus of research in this area is on the impact of these systems on the efficiency of railway transport, mostly through the quality and optimization of railway timetables realization and energy efficient train driving. In this paper, an overview of the application of train driver support systems is given and their impact on the efficiency of railway traffic is analyzed. The results of the analysis showed some advantages of train driving support system application related to quality of timetable realization and energy efficient train driving but also marked possible problems related to increase of train driver workload and hence decrease of railway traffic safety. Based on this analysis, new train driving support systems functions for improvement of railway traffic efficiency are proposed. Additionally, a new proposal of systems interface design performance by using human voice for advice information transmission as an addition to displaying information on the monitor for the purpose of railway traffic safety improvement which can be reduced by increase of train driver workload and focus distraction due to application of train driving support system is suggested.
Hrvoje Haramina, Adrian Wagner, Kristijan Dolenec-Čižmek

3D Printing Technologies for Clothing Industry: A Review

3D printing represents a process for making a physical object from a three-dimensional digital model, typically by laying down many successive thin layers of a material. It brings a digital object into its physical form by adding layer by layer of materials. This technology is represented in a large number of different production sectors, especially in the modern aviation industry, construction industry, clothing industry, automotive industry, shipbuilding, medicine, dentistry, film industry and various design and artistic fields. The quality implementation of 3D printing technologies in each of the mentioned branches of production is important. The earliest 3D printing technologies first became visible in the late 1980s, and then they were called Rapid Prototyping (RP) technologies. This is because the processes were originally conceived as a fast and more cost-effective method for creating various prototypes for product development within industry. The paper presents the development of 3D printing technology as well as the opportunities it provides for the clothing and fashion industry.
Renata Hrženjak, Slavica Bogović, Beti Rogina-Car

Research of Working Postures in the Technological Sewing Process Using the REBA Method

The characteristics of the work in the technological sewing process depend on the type and character of the workpiece, the type of the sewing machine used to perform the technological operation, as well as on the training and skills of the worker. In the technological sewing process, the work is performed in a sitting position at the sewing machine, whereby the worker performs hand and/or machine-hand technological suboperations. During the performing of technological operations, the worker uses her hands and torso to handle the workpiece, and the feet to operate the sewing machine pedal at short intervals with continuous repetition throughout the work shift, subjecting the worker to stress. The paper analyses the working position at nine workplaces in the technological sewing process using the REBA method (Rapid Entire Body Assessment). The analysis of the results showed that there is workload (medium or high risk) at all workplaces that requires workplace adaptation in the form of workplace redesign. The redesign of workplaces involves adapting the dimensions of the workplace to the worker’s height and determining a more favourable working method that achieves a lower workload.
Snježana Kirin, Anica Hursa Šajatović

Analysis of Working Conditions and Modeling of Activity Algorithms for Contact-Center Operators

The article examines the issues of ensuring the reliability of the activities of information processing operators who work in contact centers. A study of factors that reduce the effectiveness of call center operators was carried out. A method of formalized description of operators’ activities based on functional networks of professor A. Gubinsky is proposed. The use of this method makes it possible to assess reliability taking into account the structure of the operators’ activities and working conditions. A model is proposed to justify the number of operators, design the structure of activities and working conditions. The study can be useful to justify the feasibility of improving ergonomics in contact centers of commercial and government organizations.
Evgeniy Lavrov, P. Paderno, O. Siryk, E. Burkov, S. Kosianchuk, N. Bondarenko, V. Kyzenko

Prometheus (PN-2003016) Digital Medical Device Collaborative E-Training and Cognitive Ergonomics to Integrate AI and Robotics in Organ Transplantations

Computer Assisted Collaborative E-Training integrating Cognitive Ergonomics of AI and Robotics to interactively train specialists in the procurement phase of Organ Transplantation (OT) is dealt. It is analyzed the clinical simulating collaborative training session among 10 specialists in OT that took place in the Megaron Hall of Athens trial on 26.02.2019 training them interactively how cognitive ergonomics integrated with AI promote the remote evaluation of the grafts and the pre- and post-grafting and pre-transplant decision making and planning so as to minimize the rates of the damaged organs focusing on infections, by using the Prometheus digital medical device (pn:2003016) integrated with the Robotic framework “Stamoulis” Rb. The results showed that AI and Robotic based cognitive ergonomics integration in ΟΤ interactive e-training enhances significantly operational maneuverability and inter-operability to remotely and with the minimum errors: a. Make accurate diagnosis and minimize damaged or diseased, with infection, trauma and cancer, grafts, b. Intensify an international clinical surveillance ergonomic system development in the procurement phase of OT, and c. Integrate ergonomically robotics in OT with the minimum errors in the clinical process.
Constantinos S. Mammas, Adamantia S. Mamma

Prometheus I (PN 1008239) Digital Medical Device Integrated with AI and Robotics Cognitive Ergonomics in Breast Cancer Prevention

The necessity, technology, process, service, and ergonomics of the clinical remote massive public education, primary, secondary and tertiary breast cancer prevention upon innovative networks for specialists and citizens in the context of the clinical prevention operations of the tele-medicine and cloud technology based novel mobile clinical unit (MCU) called “Macedonia” has been studied, tried and standardized in the program of Excellence 2014–16. It is analyzed the clinical prevention operability, maneuverability and reliability of the above mentioned technology and method empowered with cognitive ergonomics of AI and a robotic framework the “Charicleia” Rb integrated with Prometheus Ι (pn 1008239) digital medical device all integrated with (MCU) in the tenth and the eleventh clinical diseases prevention action in Promyrion village of the Municipality of South Pelion Mountain and in the Parish of Agioi Anargyroi of Volos on 05-06.06 and in Demene village of Municipality of Aisonia on 07.07.2020 for remote clinical remote massive public education, primary, secondary and tertiary breast cancer prevention. Ergonomic Integration of (MCU) operations enriched with AI and Big Data analytics and Robotics may optimize: (1) breast cancer prevention status, (2) quality of healthcare especially in developing countries.
Constantinos S. Mammas, Adamantia S. Mamma

Portuguese Firefighters’ Anthropometrics: Pilot Study Results

Personal protective equipment is of paramount importance in aiding and protecting firefighters against hazardous conditions. Personal protective equipment should be compatible to firefighters’ body dimensions. However, the lack of updated anthropometric data for this specific occupational group can lead to ill-fitting equipment, compromising work performance and the level of protection. To understand if Portuguese firefighters’ protective equipment is adjusted to their anthropometrics a study designated as Size FF Portugal is currently underway. A pilot study was conducted in a fire brigade located in the North of Portugal aiming to collect preliminary anthropometric data. Thirty-two male firefighters participated in the pilot study. This paper contrasts some preliminary anthropometric data of Portuguese firefighters with an anthropometric database of U.S. firefighters. The results show statistically significant differences between the stature and weight of Portuguese and U.S. firefighters. Conversely, crotch height and calf circumference measurements were not statistically different when comparing firefighters of both countries. Final considerations regarding the study limitations are presented.
Anna S. P. Moraes, Miguel A. F. Carvalho, Rachel S. Boldt, Fernando B. N. Ferreira, Susan P. Ashdown, Linsey Griffin

Embedding Function Icons into QR Codes

This paper proposes an approach to produce high-quality visual QR codes introducing the concept of function icons (FI)—images embedded into QR code. FI design resembled abstract symbols, like identifiable and memorable smartphone app icons or logos. The embedding visually points to the function of a QR code and therefore is more attractive to the end-user than the traditional QR code. Also, the FI perceptual simplicity increases users’ navigation and accessibility over different media. For optimization, the proposed FI design was altered by pixel size, color, and luminance modification, without affecting the decoding reliably. The contrast between dark and light modules of the FI color tone was determined to a minimum of 70% to enable the code reader’s conversion of the image to grayscale and then segmentation it into black and white pixels. The eye-tracking research on QR codes with implemented icons confirmed the subjective attractiveness evaluation. The technical quality of the proposed design was verified with a QR code readability test. Since more than 95% of examinees successfully recognized the content behind a QR code before scanning and evaluated the design as more attractive than a traditional solution, we demonstrated that our approach produces high-quality results for a variety of FI designs.
Filip Cvitić, Jesenka Pibernik, Josip Bota, Ante Poljičak

Suitability of School Furniture and Correlation with Pain Prevalence Among Slovenian 6th to 9th Graders

School furniture has been recognised as a potential risk factor for musculoskeletal pain among primary school pupils. The aim of this study was to assess student-furniture mismatch and to determine the association between unsuitable school furniture and musculoskeletal pain among Slovenian pupils. Firstly, pupils’ body dimensions were measured, and student-furniture mismatch was calculated. Secondly, pain prevalence was assessed using adjusted Nordic questionnaire. A total of 68 pupils from 6th to 9th grade (age 12 ± 1, 44% males) participated in the study. Seat height was unsuitable for 90% of pupils and desk height for 82% of pupils. One third of pupils reported knee pain and more than one fifth of pupils reported neck, shoulder, upper, and lower back pain. Logistic regression revealed no significant impact of school furniture on pain occurrence among pupils. However, the data indicated upper back pain might be associated with unsuitable backrest. The results showed that school furniture in Slovenian primary school is unsuitable for most pupils. The association between furniture and pupils’ musculoskeletal pain needs further investigation. Redesign of school furniture is desired, and the anthropometric data obtained could be considered when designing new school furniture.
N. Podrekar, K. Kastelic, M. Burnard, Nejc Šarabon

Hammer Design Using Ergonomic Knowledge-Based Guidelines

Manual hand tool design must meet all requirements making usable, safe and comfortable hand tool. An effective plan of design guidelines must define and implement all aspects of influence factors at the same time. Advances and innovativeness in tool design nominate complex geometry to achieve a better interaction between user and its tool. The goal of the paper is to create and evaluate an ultimate hand tool design preventing inefficiency and musculoskeletal disorders. A case study was conducted on the hammer.
Nebojsa Rasovic, Adisa Vucina, Diana Milčić

Functional Networks for Modeling and Optimization Human-Machine Systems

The article examines the issues of reliability of human-machine systems and modeling of human-machine interaction. The classification of models for describing human activity and its interaction with a machine is carried out. The advantages of functional networks for ergonomics are shown. The description of the mathematical apparatus of functional networks is given. The characteristics of the models for describing, evaluating and optimizing the algorithms of the human operator’s activity when they work with automation are given. Examples of models for control systems for complex objects of different types are given. A computer system for modeling and optimizing the activities of operators of control systems is described. The tasks are set for improving the theory and practice of functional networks, associated with the development of situational control models and intelligent analysis of data on the reliability of the human operator. The results will be useful for finding ergonomic reserves for increasing the reliability of automated systems.
Evgeniy Lavrov, P. Paderno, O. Siryk, V. Kyzenko, S. Kosianchuk, N. Bondarenko, E. Burkov

Burnout and Workload Among Health Care Workers in Bulgaria

This study aimed to estimate the relationship between workload and burnout syndrome among healthcare professionals working in training or non-training healthcare organizations in Bulgaria. The study was conducted using the web-based Bulgarian Version of the Boyko’s Burnout Inventory, which contains 84 statements grouped in 12 symptoms and 3 phases, and questions related to the weekly workload. The data were exported directly to SPSS 17.0 statistical software and analyzed with descriptive statistics and Spearman’s correlation coefficient rs. The level of significance of 5% probability (p < 0.05) was adopted. Based on the responses to the Boyko’s Inventory 29.0% of the respondents had a high level of emotional exhaustion, 51.6% had a high level of resistance, and 31.50% had a high level of strain. The high level of burnout was found among 27.4%. The average weekly working hours for all respondents were 43.78 ± 16.51 h. For specialists who have been diagnosed with burnout, the average weekly working time was 48.47 ± 13.72 h. For those who did not receive a positive diagnosis, the average weekly duty time was 37.72 ± 15.22 h. There were average correlations between the level of burnout and the weekly working hours (rs = 0.286; p = 0.001).
Rumyana Stoyanova, Stanislava Harizanova

The Advantages of Woven Wraps as Baby Carriers

The paper describes the ergonomic benefits of carrying children in woven wraps. The method of babywearing with woven wraps is a modernized approach which includes several aspects apart from just babywearing. The forms of wearing are proscribed through norms and they stimulate development as well as advance safety and health of the baby. In the experimental part of the paper, a research was conducted into babywearing with woven wraps through a survey among parents aged 18–60 years of age. The purpose of the survey questionnaire was to discover how well informed the participants were as to babywearing with woven wraps and its beneficial effects. How many parents use this method, what are the benefits of this type of babywearing and an overview of ergonomic benefits as well as benefits to the baby’s health. The results of the survey prove that the method of babywearing with woven wraps is being recognized by an increasing number of users and it provides numerous benefits for both the child and the parents which is why it is practiced by an increasing number of users.
Irena Šabarić, Stana Kovačević, Franka Karin, Barbara Šandar

The Moisture Management Properties of Laundered Hospital Textiles

The influence of repeated laundering to the change in moisture management properties of hospital protective textiles was researched in this paper. For that purpose, green cotton fabric for surgical gowns and white one for linen were subjected to repeated laundering according to ISO 15797:2017 up to 25 washing cycles. Washing procedures for white workwear and/or sensitive coloured trimmingsPeracetic acid (PAA) bleach were performed in Wascator FOM71 CLS machine at 75 ℃ using Reference Detergent A1 with optical brightener by WFK. The physical-chemical properties were monitored on FTIR-ATR, Spectrum 100, PerkinElmer after 1st, 3rd and 25th cycle. The liquid moisture management properties were determined according to AATCC TM 195-2017 on Moisture Management Tester (MMT M290, SDL Atlas). It has been showed that hospital protective textiles contain finishing treatment, which removes during laundering, even after one washing cycle, changing the moisture management properties. Fabrics goes from water penetration, through moisture management to fast absorbing and quick drying fabrics. The MMT results indicate better comfort of such treated fabrics.
Anita Tarbuk, Tihana Dekanić, Sandra Flinčec Grgac, Ivana Čorak

Research Methodology Used to Investigate the Effects of Noise on Overhead Crane Operator’s Performances

Cranes are among the most hazardous mechanical equipment and are widely used in several industrial fields. During heavy loads’ handling, crane operators are exposed to high risks of accidents. Environmental and psychological factors can detriment crane operators’ efficiency. To investigate the effect of noise on overhead crane operators’ performances under mental fatigue, a Virtual Reality overhead crane simulator has been built to be used in experimental sessions in laboratory. This paper illustrates the research methodology of an ongoing study. In the first part is discussed the approach used to investigate the issues of crane operation safety (risk factors, accidents, errors, training, workers wellbeing), in the second one is described the VR simulator and the experimental design used for the pilot study on a group of inexperienced operators. In the last part are showed the methods used to obtain and analyze the data and discussed the limitations and the design of corrective measures of the experimental environment.
M. Masullo, R. A. Toma, A. Pascale, G. Ruggiero, L. Maffei

Mobile App Authentication Systems: Usability Issues for Cyrillic Alphabet Users (Pilot Study)

According to World Advertising Research Center 72% of internet users worldwide will solely use smartphones to access the web by 2025 [1]. Nevertheless, developers continue to design authentication systems within the desktop computer paradigm. The paper aims to assess the usability of authentication systems interfaces in smartphones used by Cyrillic alphabet users. The authors study authentication practices, among which password authentication is the most common. Then, the authors identify the features of creating passwords by Cyrillic alphabet users and discuss the usability issues of existing authentication tools, proposing experiment design for further study.
Aleksandr Volosiuk, Semyon Kuznetsov, Svetlana Podkolzina, Evgeniy Lavrov

Proposal of an Ergonomic Interface for Supervision and Control of an Automated Shunting Device

In rail freight transport, certain processes require shunting activities to form or dissolve freight trains. In the present form, this requires shunting staff to carry out these physically demanding tasks. In spite of all precautions, accidents at work occur during such activities, which can be accompanied by serious injuries or even death. One approach to prevent such accidents will be the use of automated shunting units and an automatic uncoupler. In this paper the process of an automated system is sketched. It describes the responsibilities relating to the controlling and supervision staff of the process. It is shown how the flow of information between the parties involved can take place. Results of this research show how the proposal of an ergonomic interface for supervision and control of an automated shunting device can be sensibly integrated into the existing operation of marshalling yards. The proposal offers improvement of railway staff safety through reducing dangerous operating procedures and help to reduce the future lack of available staff.
Adrian Wagner, Hrvoje Haramina, Frank Michelberger
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