Microarrays are part of a new class of biotechnologies which allow the monitoring of expression levels of thousands of genes simultaneously. In microarray data analysis, the comparison of gene expression profiles with respect to different conditions and the selection of biologically interesting genes are crucial tasks. Multivariate statistical methods have been applied to analyze these large data sets. To identify genes with altered expression under two experimental conditions, we describe in this chapter a new nonparametric statistical approach. Specifically, we propose estimating the distributions of a t-type statistic and its null statistic, using kernel methods. A comparison of these two distributions by means of a likelihood ratio test can identify genes with significantly changed expressions. A method for the calculation of the cut-off point and the acceptance region is also derived. This methodology is applied to a leukemia data set containing expression levels of 7129 genes. The corresponding results are compared to the traditional
-test and the normal mixture model.
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