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Über dieses Buch

This book highlights the acoustic performance of concrete made with Coal Bottom Ash (CBA) that has contributed to environmental issues. The usage of CBA in concrete can be recommended as good concrete due to its absorption properties. This book focuses on the principles and techniques employed in acoustic design. The book first elaborates on the perception of noise and properties of noise, followed by physical data, units and measurements. Finally, it takes a look at acoustic analysis which includes acoustic performance effects using different volumes of CBA, density and porosity of concrete.

Inhaltsverzeichnis

Frontmatter

Chapter 1. Introduction

Abstract
Acoustic quality of closed spaces is an increasing concern all around the world, since noise pollution is one of the main nowadays pollutants especially in urban areas. Noise is one of the most negative impacts of transport affecting the quality of the environment. It affects a large number of people as it often causes annoyance and irritation which affect various human activities. Noise pollution had been treated as a public health concern by World Health Organization.
Shahiron Shahidan, Nurul Izzati Raihan Ramzi Hannan

Chapter 2. Coal Bottom Ash (CBA)

Abstract
Coal bottom ash (CBA) is waste product that has been produced during the coal combustion for current generation. It is porous particle, angular and irregular in shape. Besides that, some of the particles were spherical and semi-spherical. There were also agglomerate particles and some CBA particles with interlocking characteristics compared than fine aggregate which is round, smooth and uniform in size. CBA has the potential to be used in concrete production. This is due to the material properties such fineness modulus, specific gravity and bulk density of coal bottom ash which is comparable to that of fine aggregate.
Shahiron Shahidan, Nurul Izzati Raihan Ramzi Hannan

Chapter 3. Environmental Noise

Abstract
Due to the rapid development in urban areas, environmental pollution such as noise pollution is getting worse due to increasing traffic congestion. Noise created by transportation can influence human health by causing loss of hearing, insomnia, headache and other diseases when they are exposed to noise pollution for a long time. Based on previous research, noise created by railways is getting increasing attention among researchers. Nowadays, the railway system is one of the main modes of public transportation which is popular among the public due to its efficiency. However, the rapid development of rail transportation has also caused discomfort such as noise pollution to residents living in the city, especially those who live close to railway stations. However, this issue can be solved through noise reduction devices. One of the effective ways to reduce noise is by using noise barriers.
Shahiron Shahidan, Nurul Izzati Raihan Ramzi Hannan

Chapter 4. Acoustic Performance Testing of CBA Concrete

Abstract
The acoustic performances of CBA concrete have been determined by evaluating the sound absorption coefficient by using impedance tube (small scale) and in reverberation room (large scale). Impedance tube test is used for determination of the sound absorption coefficient concrete specimen. Meanwhile, reverberation time refers to the time needed for a steady-state sound pressure level in an enclosed space.
Shahiron Shahidan, Nurul Izzati Raihan Ramzi Hannan

Chapter 5. Acoustic Performance of CBA Concrete

Abstract
In this chapter, all data obtained on the acoustic properties of CBA concrete was analysed and discussed. The acoustic properties of CBA concrete can be determined through the impedance tube test and the reverberation time test. From the tests conducted, the sound absorption coefficient, noise reduction coefficient and reverberation time of CBA concrete were determined. The sound absorption coefficient of CBA concrete was measured from low and high frequency. Tables and graphs are used to present the data and the effect of incorporating CBA as fine aggregate replacement towards acoustic properties was assessed. Based on the acoustic tests conducted, the sound absorption coefficient of CBA concrete is higher than that of normal concrete. From the impedance tube test, the highest noise reduction coefficient recorded was 0.35 when 100% of CBA was used to replace fine aggregate. Meanwhile, normal concrete has a noise reduction coefficient of 0.20. It was observed that the sound absorption coefficient increases when the percentage replacement of fine aggregate in the concrete mixture increases.
Shahiron Shahidan, Nurul Izzati Raihan Ramzi Hannan

Chapter 6. Mechanical Properties of CBA Concrete

Abstract
This chapter describes the procedures of the tests carried out for determine the non-acoustic performance of CBA concrete as sound-absorbing material. Besides that, material collection, material preparation and followed by tests to evaluate the mechanical properties of hardened CBA concrete including compressive strength, water absorption, splitting tensile strength and ultrasonic pulse velocity. All the tests and standards used in this study are presented and discussed in this chapter.
Shahiron Shahidan, Nurul Izzati Raihan Ramzi Hannan

Chapter 7. General Conclusion and Recommendation on CBA and Noise

Abstract
This research has towards investigated the effect of CBA as fine aggregate replacement in concrete mixture. The properties of CBA concrete (CBAC) such as strength and durability were studied. The properties of concrete studied include workability, unit density, compressive strength, splitting tensile strength, water absorption, water permeability and pulse velocity. Besides that, the acoustic performance of CBA concrete was also examined. The sound absorption coefficient and noise reduction coefficient were determined based on the impedance tube test and reverberation room test.
Shahiron Shahidan, Nurul Izzati Raihan Ramzi Hannan
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