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Über dieses Buch

This book collects together several of the tutorials held at EUROGRAPHICS'89 in Hamburg. The conference was held under the motto "Integration, Visualisation, Interaction" and the tutorials reflect the conference theme. The Springer series EurographicSeminars with the volumes "Advances in Computer Graphics" regularly provides a professional update on current mainstream topics in the field. These publications give readers the opportunity to inform themselves thoroughly on the topics covered. The success of the series is mainly based on the expertise of the contributing authors, who are recognized professionals in their field. Starting out with one of the conference's main topics, the chapter "Visualization of Scientific Data" gives an overview of methods for displaying scientific results in an easily surveyable and comprehensible form. It presents algorithms and methods utilized to achieve visualization results in a form adequate for humans. User interfaces for such systems are also explored, and practical conclusions are drawn. The chapter "Color in Computer Graphics" describes the problems of manipulating and matching color in the real world. After some fundamental statements about color models and their relationships, the main emphasis is placed on the problem of objective color specification for computer graphics systems. It is very hard to match colors between devices such as scanners, printers and displays. Some suggestions on the effective use of color for graphics are also made.



Chapter 1. Visualization of Scientific Data

“Data visualization” has recently become one of the hottest buzzwords in the computer industry, especially when proceeded by the word, ‘scientific’. A great deal of interest has been generated in this relatively new field, and most computer vendors have jumped on the bandwagon.
Mikael Jern

Chapter 2. Color in Computer Graphics: Manipulating and Matching Color

Color in graphic workstations has rapidly transitioned from a novelty with great expected potential to a highly useful tool for the communication of complex databases to a human brain. Perhaps the most dominant feature of this transition has been the recognition that color provides a significant mechanism for the communication of such large and complex sources of information. This realization builds a critical cornerstone of the emerging discipline of interactive visualization. Although disagreement exists within the graphics industry as to the exact definition of visualization, most experts agree that the concept connotes the ability to render complex databases by visual means in order to capitalize on the sensory processing capability of the visually-oriented human mind.
Gerald M. Murch, Joann M. Taylor

Chapter 3. Advanced Topics in Solid Modeling

Solid modeling is now a relatively well establihed technology widely used in various areas. Even so, many research problems of solid modeling are still being investigated, and much room for new results seems to exist. The tutorial explores some research directions which are under current study. In particular, advanced techniques for CSG visualization and for manipulating boundary models are described. It is assumed that the reader is familiar with basic techniques of solid modeling as presented in textbooks [29, 30].
Martti Mäntylä

Chapter 4. Computational Geometry and its Application to Computer Graphics

The area of computational geometry deals with the study of algorithms for problems concerning geometric objects like e.g. lines, polygons, circles, etc. in the plane and in higher-dimensional space. Since its introduction in 1976 by Shamos the field has developed rapidly and nowadays there are special conferences and journals devoted to the topic.
Mark H. Overmars

Chapter 5. Object-Oriented Graphics

Any attempt to deal with the complexity of computer graphics should have a well founded and appropriate underlying abstraction. This tutorial introduces and critically examines the object-oriented paradigm as it applies to computer graphics. Regarding the parts of a model, interaction, or animation, as independent actors communicating via messages has an intuitive appeal. This initial appeal, elaborated to become object-oriented graphics, does seem to stand up to the closer scrutiny.
The object-oriented paradigm seems to be well suited to applications in dynamic graphics. Dynamic graphics comprises two broad areas: human-computer interaction and three-dimensional animation and simulation. The connection between the two is that in both cases users/modellers have intuitions which correspond closely to the notion of objects within the object-oriented paradigm.
We first introduce the concepts of object-oriented programming and pay special attention to those which are most relevant to computer graphics. Next object-oriented and classical approaches to providing usable abstractions for computer graphics are compared. The use of inheritance in a graphics kernel is treated. The concept of a multi-level graphics systems with group and part editing facilities is introduced.
To give a practical introduction to the use of object-oriented methods we present two examples: one of user interfaces and another of coordinate transformations. In paragraph 4 the concepts introduced earlier are brought together in the design of a simple animation system. It is clear that the design process is made much easier by the use of object-oriented methods.
Finally a brief survey of the field and references for further study are given on more advanced topics.
Edwin H. Blake, Peter Wisskirchen

Chapter 6. Page Description Languages (PDLs)

About a decade ago laser printers were first used to print images. In the mean time laser printers have become a standard component not only in desk top publishing (DTP) systems. The advent of the page description language PostScript (tm Adobe) was a major milestone in this development. Today PDLs offer a high quality output road ranging from 300 dots per inch non impact printers to 3000 dots per inch laser image setters. PostScript and its predecessor Interpress (tm Xerox) will be discussed and used as examples. The underlying concepts of PDLs, their advantages and drawbacks are discussed together with PDL applications. Performance considerations with respect to functionality are also dealt with. An outlook to developments in standardization of PDLs is given, which is based on the status and latest version of SPDL, the Standard Page Description Language worked on in ISO.
Jürgen Schönhut

Chapter 7. Standards for Computer Graphics and Product Model Data Exchange

Integration is a key issue for people writing or purchasing software or hardware, or indeed appointing new staff who need to be quickly assimilated into the new environment. New software and hardware need to be linked in with existing systems. Implementation of existing software and hardware need to be as easy and cost-effective as possible. Existing files of data, including graphical and product data, may need to be accessed and exchanged. It is the need to integrate products and people in a cost-effective way, that makes standards a desirable requirement in any computing environment.
Michael Mittelstaedt, Anne M. Mumford


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