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An efficient assessment of energy consumption, energy flow, and energy use efficiency in crop (maize) production is inevitable to accomplish the intensive demand for energy. Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA) models based on energy input-output analysis are commonly used for the assessment of energy efficiency. However, standard implication of traditional (CCR) and extended (SBM) models has shortcomings in reporting efficiency score; CCR neglects slacks while SBM caused problems when reporting efficiency over time. To overcome this problem, an ensemble approach that compromised the characteristics of two models (CCR-SBM) is proposed in the current study. Based on the weighted average of the relative efficiencies of two contending models, an ensemble efficiency (EE) score was reported for energy efficiency evaluation of considered DMUs. Preliminary analysis ensued average maize yield of 6874 kg ha−1 with an overall energy input of 42,241.45 MJ ha−1, and net energy gain, energy use efficiency (average), specific energy, and energy productivity, were 58,806 MJ ha−1, 2.39, 6.15 MJ kg−1, and 0.16 kg MJ−1, respectively. Using four major shareholders of input energy (i.e., fertilizer, diesel fuel, irrigation water and chemicals) and, maize yield as output, the projected ensemble approach resulted in an unproductive trend of energy use efficiency in Pakistan with an average ensemble efficiency score of 59.67%, and plausible potential of energy saving from 7181.046 to 33,370.74 MJ ha−1. Furthermore, the ensemble approach showed that EE score could help to significantly reduce the shortcomings of slacks and time fluctuation when reporting efficiency score, compared with using individual models. The proposed approach scrutinized and provided a comprehensive state of the actual situation of energy efficiency in maize production of Pakistan that is important in the context of decision-making. Results of the study suggest resource conservation measures through better agricultural management practices, and production methods and extension activities are required to improve the efficiency of energy consumption in maize production of Pakistan.
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- An ensemble approach for assessment of energy efficiency of agriculture system in Pakistan|
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