Skip to main content
main-content

Über dieses Buch

It is universally recognized that the end of the current and the beginning of the next century will be characterized by a radical change in the existing trends in the economic development of all countries and a transition to new principles of economic management on the basis of a resource and energy conservation policy. Thus there is an urgent necessity to study methods, technical aids and economic consequences of this change, and particularly, to determine the possible amounts of energy resources which could be conserved (energy "reserves") in different spheres of the national economy. An increased interest towards energy conservation in industry, one of the largest energy consumers, is quite natural and is manifested by the large num­ ber of publications on this topic. But the majority of publications are devoted to the solution of narrowly defined problems, determination of energy reserves in specific processes and plants, efficiency estimation of individual energy conserva­ tion measures, etc. However, it is necessary to develop a general methodological approach to the solution of such problems and create a scientific and methodical base for realizing an energy conservation policy. Such an effort is made in this book, which is concerned with methods for studying energy use efficiency in technological processes and estimation of the theoretical and actual energy reserves in a given process, technology, or industrial sector on the basis of their complete energy balances.

Inhaltsverzeichnis

Frontmatter

Introduction

Abstract
Chapter 1 briefly describes the concepts and laws of thermodynamics that form the basis for the exergy method. It also considers in detail the technique for drawing and analyzing the complete energy balance of a process, methods for computing the chemical energy and exergy of substances which have been developed with the participation of the author and differ from those proposed by other researchers (Chaps. 2 and 3).
Vladimir S. Stepanov

1. The Technological Process as a Subject of Thermodynamic Analysis

Abstract
All processes proceeding in nature and technical facilities transform some given form of energy into another. Therefore, material changes that underlie any technological process should be considered as the consequences of the energy transformations.
Vladimir S. Stepanov

2. Efficiency of Technological Processes Based on Energy Balance

Abstract
The law of conservation of energy, the first law of thermodynamics, allows us to evaluate the efficiency of a given technological process via an energy balance. The methods of drawing the energy balance and the possibilities it affords for studying various technical systems can differ. This author has developed his own version for studying processes with complex physico-chemical transformations of matter and energy.
Vladimir S. Stepanov

3. Calculation of Chemical Energy and Exergy of Elements and Elementary Substances

Abstract
The chemical energy and exergy of substance are calculated from the values of these quantities for the elements composing the substance. The correct determination of the latter to a great extent specifies the accuracy of calculations and resulting energy and exergy input of a considered process, in particular, with non-conventional energy carriers (processed raw material, fluxes, auxiliary materials, etc.). In this chapter the methods for determining the chemical energy and exergy proposed by different authors are renewed and compared.
Vladimir S. Stepanov

4. Optimizing the Use of Thermal Secondary Energy Resources

Abstract
One of the most important contributors to fuel conservation in industry is the utilization of secondary energy resources that inevitably appear in production processes [5, 15, 24, 42, 73, 118, 124, 141, 188, 192, 194, 196]. Secondary energy resources imply an energy potential of products and wastes formed in technological processes (aggregates) that is not used fully in the primary considered process, but can be used as a source of energy supply of other consumers. Depending on the form of this potential the secondary energy resources are divided into three principal groups: fuel, thermal, and hyper-pressure sources.
Vladimir S. Stepanov

5. Energy Balances in Ferrous Metallurgy

Abstract
Consumption of iron and its alloys currently accounts for nearly 90% of the total consumption of all metals. This fact above all stipulates the urgency of increasing the energy efficiency of ferrous metallurgy, as even a small increase can have a net considerable effect on the sector on the whole.
Vladimir S. Stepanov

6. Energy Use and Energy Efficiency Increase in Non-Ferreous Metallurgy

Abstract
The special feature of non-ferrous metallurgy is that the chemical energy of the raw materials constitutes the major (and sometimes even greatest) part of the energy supply. It was the study of the energy efficiency of the processes in this industry that led to improvements in the techniques for drawing up and analyzing energy balances. Advantages of the methodology developed by the author are most vividly revealed in studies on the processes of non-ferrous metallurgy, particularly:
  • drawing up the complete energy balance that takes into account the chemical energy of raw material and other non-combustibles, the exergy value is indicated for each energy flow;
  • use of the ideal and idealized analogs of actual processes for determining their relative energy efficiency;
  • application of the exergy criterion when sharing the energy consumption for realization of the complex processes.
Vladimir S. Stepanov

7. Predicting Energy Conservation in an Industry by Modeling Individual Sectors

Abstract
Although active, goal-oriented energy conservation policies have been pursued internationally for over ten years, development of scientific methods to design better policies is being continued even now. These methods must take into account the inter-sectoral character of energy consumption, and thus be comprehensive, using the available mathematical modeling to formalize the problem of determining the energy reserves, and the best methods for their implementation. For simplicity, in the following discussion we assume that a national economic system is under scrutiny.
Vladimir S. Stepanov

8. Evaluation of Energy Reserves as a Result of Energy Conservation. Ferrous Metallurgy

Abstract
This chapter deals with the results of experimental calculations performed by our technique for evaluating the reserves of energy saved in ferrous metallurgy. We assume that future energy consumption will depend on the introduction of more efficient production steps and improvement o technological structure of product output, improvement in equipment, and effective utilization of secondary energy resources. Specifically, we anticipate the following large-scale energy saving measures:
a)
change in the production structure of steel smelting methods;
 
b)
introduction of continuous steel casting;
 
c)
increase in the extent of utilization of the potential energy of the blast-furnace gas, the chemical energy of converter gas, and the heat of hot coke;
 
d)
intensification and improvement of existing processes (e.g., increase of blast temperature and rate of oxygen feeding, heating of scrap loaded in the steel smelting furnaces).
 
Vladimir S. Stepanov

Backmatter

Weitere Informationen