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Über dieses Buch

Künstliche Intelligenz, Machine- oder Deep-Learning sind Treiber des automatisierten Fahrens. Das Zusammenspiel von künstlicher und menschlicher Intelligenz sowie die Fähigkeit von Mensch und Maschine zu kooperieren müssen in neuen Interaktionsebenen gestaltet und für zukünftige Mobilität nutzbar gemacht werden. Dafür ist es notwendig, dass die Gesellschaft diese Entwicklung akzeptiert. Vor diesem Hintergrund gewinnen Methoden, Werkzeuge und Prozesse ebenso an Relevanz wie Sensoren und Connectivity.

Inhaltsverzeichnis

Frontmatter

Validation of level 4-5 functions with a cloud-based simulation

Zusammenfassung
The validation and verification of level 4-5 highly automated driving (HAD) functions requires a vast number of test kilometers. If real test drives are applied exclusively, it can be safely assumed that the required test scope cannot be covered within feasible limits of time and money [Winner]. This is not only due to the functional complexity of HAD applications, but also due to short development cycles and legal safety requirements.
Jürgen Häring, Johannes Wagner

Handling complex systems: systems design for AD vehicles

Zusammenfassung
Architecture Trend: Architectures move from Distributed to Centralized to Service-Oriented Architectures Complexity: Adoption of new automotive trends (e.g. zones & servers) helps to cope with complexity Process: Champion best practices in Systems Engineering Development enhanced by dedicated system architecture views.
Martin Grießer, Maged Khalil, Stefan Dreiseitel

HAD development game changers and changing SW creation

Zusammenfassung
Bringing automated driving functions and systems on the road is a highly complex task. We expect SW with >20 million lines of code per high performance computer and a significant increase in complexity especially for HAD applications. From the point of view of a software Tier 1 company, there are major game changers when it comes to developing such functions.
Michael Reichel, Jens Petersohn

Start the flow! Why timing of autonomous driving functions needs to be taken into account at an early stage

Zusammenfassung
A large number of sensors and actuators, combination of high-performance computer and safety critical applications, complex data flows with a huge amount of data and many Tier-2 software suppliers are fundamental challenges for the development of autonomous driving systems. To handle the technical and organizational complexity the most proven development methods and tools are just good enough. Many customer projects have shown focussing early on timing is a key for success. Using state-of-the-art simulation and worst-case analysis tools for evaluation of real-time requirements and design optimization does massively reduce project costs and risks.
Olaf Schmidt, Ralf Münzenberger

High-performance data acquisition and replay

Zusammenfassung
PCIe Interface will be the standard interface in data acquisition Ethernet will be the standard for the in-vehicle network architecture Data amount will increase due to amount and resolution of sensors.
Thomas Schöpfner

Driver assistance systems and automated driving functions – impact potentials, challenges and solutions from the point of view of the AZT

Zusammenfassung
It has been demonstrated that driver assistance systems are making a significant contribution toward increasing road safety. For more than a decade, the Accident Research Department of the Allianz Center for Technology (AZT) has been analyzing impact potentials as part of several research projects, including AKTIV, TRACE and euroFOT [1, 2, 3], and was largely responsible for the fact that effective driver assistance systems are now taken into account in several countries when pricing insurance premiums. Potential effectiveness is regularly assessed on the basis of third-party liability (TPL) and motor own damage (MoD) claims reported to Allianz Versicherung [4, 5, 6, 7].
Johann Gwehenberger, Christoph Lauterwasser, Marcel Borrack, Melanie Kreutner, Carsten Reinkemeyer

Vehicle Data for Automated Driving over the Vehicles Lifecycle

Zusammenfassung
As todays modern state of the art vehicles are underlying incremental changes with regard especially to ‘Automated Driving’ (e.g. sensor suite, control units, processing units), ‘Connectivity’ (e.g. software updates, over-the-air, infotainment), ‘Electrification’ (e.g. battery cells, drive train), and ‘Shared Mobility’ (e.g. changing customers behaviour, changing markets, different usage of the car), vehicle data gains in importance. Thus, this article focuses on data and data sets generated during the usage of vehicle fleets in general and individual vehicles in particular. In addition to the general relevance of vehicle data for several stakeholders and interested parties, further complexity arises due to the development of vehicles from driver operated mobility devices towards system enhanced automated driving systems (according to the five level SAE approach).
Gerald-Alexander Beese, Helge Kiebach

Haftungsfragen im Zusammenhang mit hoch- und vollautomatisierten Fahrzeugen

Zusammenfassung
Autonom fahrende Autos erobern mehr und mehr unseren Alltag. Bereits jetzt sind viele Fahrzeuge mit Assistenzsystemen des Level 1 ausgestattet. Diese unterstützen den Fahrer, indem sie den Abstand zum vorausfahrenden Fahrzeug regeln, die Geschwindigkeit halten oder beim Spurwechsel vor einem Fahrzeug im toten Winkel warnen.
Philipp Ehring

Allocation of liability costs between motor insurers and vehicle manufacturers – an analysis of the current liability and insurance framework for automated vehicles

Zusammenfassung
The progressive technical development in the field of advanced driving assistance systems (ADAS) and automated driving makes it feasible that motor vehicles with a high level of automation will be ready for market within the next decade. The vision of automated vehicles on public roads not only depends on technical progress but also requires an adequate liability framework to ensure legal certainty for the relevant stakeholders on both the demand and supply side.
Fabian Pütz

Is artificial intelligence the solution to all our problems? Exploring the applications of AI for automated driving

Zusammenfassung
Deep Learning and AI has become the standard model for object detection and recognition such as situation understanding, prediction and planning. In this chapter we explore how AI can be used to improve parts of the classical ADAS algorithm chain. Based on this, we investigate the full Automated Driving pipeline. Firstly, we describe the building blocks of the pipeline composed of standard computer vision tasks. We provide an overview of use cases for automated driving based on the authors’ experience in commercial deployment, e.g. Sensor-Fusion, Perception, SLAM or End-2-End Driving. Finally, we discuss the opportunities of using AI and Deep Learning to improve upon state-of-the-art classical methods.
Stefan Milz, Jörg Schrepfer

Artificial intelligence for automated driving – quo vadis?

Zusammenfassung
Making Automated Driving (AD) a reality is a challenging task and still subject of intensive research and development. The core component for realizing AD beside the actual vehicle platform and the sensors for perceiving the environment is the AD system, i.e., the software that enables a vehicle to perform distinct dynamic driving tasks in a distinct operational design domain. Briefly speaking, an operational design domain defines environmental and time-of-delay conditions and restrictions, respectively, the presence or absence of certain traffic, and roadway characteristics.
Alexander Jungmann, Christian Lang, Florian Pinsker, Roland Kallweit, Mirko Taubenreuther, Matthias Butenuth

Training and validation of neural networks in virtual environments

Zusammenfassung
In recent years, artificial intelligence has increasingly become the focus of public attention. The automotive industry can profit greatly from this – especially in the rapid development of autonomous driving functions and driver assistance systems. In addition to established OEMs, newcomers to the industry are also investing large sums of money and are putting enormous effort into advancing this technology.
Raphael Pfeffer

Methodology for the generation and execution of scenarios for the virtual driving test with automated driving functions

Zusammenfassung
It is now generally accepted that it is – to a reasonable extent – impossible to test and validate automated driving functions exclusively with the help of real driving tests. It certainly makes sense to feed measurement data from the field test into an SIL environment in order to test new software versions. However, the usable amount of data is by far not sufficient for a statistical proof of safety [1].
Martin Herrmann

Solving the validation challenge of automated driving with a holistic test center

Zusammenfassung
Driver assistance and automated driving functions are already changing driving as we know it, and not simply by removing the need for human interaction. They are also making driving more enjoyable – and vastly safer. Thanks to significant improvements in software, hardware, and especially Artificial Intelligence (AI), cars will soon be able to think and make life-saving decisions completely by themselves.
Simon Tiedemann, Andreas Mank

Toolbox for test planning and test realization of scenario-based field tests for automated and connected driving

Zusammenfassung
Current test and validation procedures for automated and connected driving functions use field tests on public roads primarily to identify unknown critical scenarios. These scenarios are then validated or varied within simulations or on closed proving grounds. In order to validate complex urban driving scenarios, this approach may need to be supplemented by the method of scenario-based field tests in real traffic environments. Scenario-based tests constitutes the methodical basis for an efficient and purposive test of automated and connected driving functions in public testbeds.
This paper focuses on concepts for the design, planning and implementation of scenario-based tests of automated and connected driving functions under real traffic conditions. The developed toolbox will be explained using the example of the “Digital Testbed Dresden / Saxony” as part of the initiative “Synchrone Mobilität 2023”.
Thomas Otto, Rico Auerswald

Fusion of raw sensor data for testing applications in autonomous driving

Zusammenfassung
To achieve the goal of an autonomous driving vehicle, more and more sensors are being integrated in the vehicle. For the last generations it was sufficient, that those sensors did send object data, which was then fused into an environment model. However, in order to have a more accurate model and to be able to navigate autonomously, the raw sensor data is needed.
Julius von Falkenhausen, Qi Liu

Core components of automated driving – algorithms for situation analysis, decision-making, and trajectory planning

Zusammenfassung
Automated driving is a key technology for the future of transportation. There are several motivations to develop automated vehicles. First and foremost, it promises to reduce the number of traffic accidents. Figure 1 shows the accidents recorded by the German police over the past years ([1]) ranging back to 1960.
Christian Lienke, Manuel Schmidt, Christian Wissing, Martin Keller, Carlo Manna, Till Nattermann, Torsten Bertram

Do you trust driverless vehicles?

Zusammenfassung
Today the level of confidence in many means of transport such as the car, bus, train, and airplane is in general very high, mainly due to the high reliability and safety, which is perceived during using those means of transport. Behind this are continuous improvements and advances in vehicle development and manufacturing, improved infrastructure, and ongoing adjustments of the legal framework worldwide.
Alfred Eckert, Markus Schneider

Keeping the balance between overload and underload during partly automated driving: relevant secondary tasks

Zusammenfassung
In partly automated driving the driver has to both monitor the system and be able to take over driving immediately if necessary (SAE Level 2: L2) [SAE16]. The optimal monitoring performance is reached if the driver is neither under- nor overloaded in terms of strain [DeW96]. Advanced driver assistance systems may assist the driver in remaining in this optimal load during potentially long, monotonous automated drives. This is evaluated in a driver simulator study. The study assessed the impact of several secondary tasks (ST), naturalistic as well as standardized, during partly automated driving. 34 participants went through eight test conditions: Two baseline drives (manual driving (L0) and L2 without secondary activity) and six conditions with a L2 automation and different secondary activities. These activities included an auditory n-back task (1- and 2-back) (e.g. [Lor15]) and the surrogate reference task (SuRT) [ISO14198]. Furthermore, an activating task (stretching exercises) as well as a condition in which a video was played were integrated. Subjective strain was measured by using questionnaires (Subjective Experienced Stress: SEA; Stanford Sleepiness Scale: SSS), objective strain in terms of monitoring performance by using a detection task. The results suggest that visual secondary tasks lead to a decrease in drivers’ monitoring performance – not necessarily reflecting the drivers’ perceived strain. For example, subjectively demanding auditory tasks did not lead to substantial monitoring lapses but may induce positive effects in potentially monotonous automated driving situations.
Paula Lassmann, Matthias Sebastian Fischer, Hans-Joachim Bieg, Marcus Jenke, Florian Reichelt, Gregory-Jamie Tuezuen, Thomas Maier

Haptic shared control of electric power steering – a key enabler for driver automation system cooperation

Zusammenfassung
Safety in automated vehicles is related to how the driver and the automation system cooperate in the driving task [1]. Intuitive and consistent operation of the vehicle up to SAE automation level 4 through elaborated human-machine interaction is a key enabler for safety, comfort and market acceptance of driving automation [2]. Sharing manual and automated lateral control provides a new driving experience where the driver can steer the vehicle over the automation system without deactivation.
Naoki Shoji, Mitsuko Yoshida, Tomohiro Nakade, Robert Fuchs
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