Skip to main content
main-content

Über dieses Buch

NATO Advanced Research Workshop “The Black Sea: Strategy for Addressing its Energy Resource Development and Hydrogen Energy Problems” was held in order to evaluate the Black Sea Region’s environment, discuss the ways and means of protecting it, and to evaluate the methods of production of the energy carrier, hydrogen. Papers presented at the workshop, proposed various methods of hydrogen production from the hydrogen sulfide, from marine macro algae and other bacteria, storage and utilization of hydrogen, oil spills and pollutants in the Black Sea, degradation of the sea and the land around the region, and ways and means of protecting the environment.

The workshop participants unanimously expressed the need to establish close cooperation amongst the Region’s countries regarding the development of its energy resources, and at the same time protecting its environment. These recommendations have been put together in the Batumi Manifesto.

This book entitled “Black Sea Energy Resource Development and Hydrogen Energy Problems” puts together the papers presented at the workshop, starting with the Batumi Manifesto. This valuable volume should be in the libraries of all the scientists, engineers, environmentalists, economists and decision makers involved in the development of the Black Sea Region and in the introduction of clean and abundant Hydrogen Energy.

Inhaltsverzeichnis

Frontmatter

Chapter 1. Complex Investigation of Ecological State of the Black Sea and Actions for Its Protection

The history and development of the Black Sea are overviewed. The peculiarities of the creation of the modern structure of the Black Sea are considered. The features of the ecological conditions of the Black Sea are presented.

The individual character of the pollution of the Black Sea (hydrosulphates, main ions, organic matters etc.) is overviewed. The international efforts for the preservation of the Black Sea as well as the actions needed are pointed.

Ecological problems of the Black Sea Region and presence of deep hydro sulphuric layer in Black Sea waters are the main problems for the protection of the Black Sea. The Intentionally organized efforts with creation of necessary international organizations are discussed.

M. Alpenidze, R. Diasamidze, George Kordzakhia, Ramin Jomidava, Marat Tsitskishvili

Chapter 2. Conclusions from First Black Sea Hydrogen Sulfide Workshop (BSHSW): A Review

Black Sea, unique in presence of H

2

S and higher organic carbon levels compare to other seas and oceans, the interest to explore its energy potential. Organic and industrial wastes flowing into the Black Sea is leading to increased H

2

S thickness year by year impacting sea-life. Several extraction technologies (Land Base Extraction, Off Shore Platform and Subsea Extraction) are possible to remove H

2

S, while producing hydrogen, chemicals and energy. Main cost driver in the process is extracting H

2

S through pumping to the surface. Extracted H

2

S can be utilized through direct burning, using in H

2

S Fuel Cell (H

2

S Fuel Cell), electrolyzing, Claus process and wet sulphuric acid processes. Depending on the processes and associated sub-processes, cost of H

2

S extraction, separation and utilization for energy purposes may or may not have economic value. During extraction and conversion, value added products and processes, i.e. H

2

, H

2

SO

4

, S, CS

2

, rare earth metals, heavy water, can impact feasibility aspect significantly. Black Sea Hydrogen Sulfide Workshop (BSHSW) has concluded that research in energy, environment and economic aspects of H

2

S in different countries has to continue and a common platform including Black Sea countries should be formed to organize the actions. Moreover, establishment of a pilot plant to develop and test the proposed technologies is necessary.

M. Süha Yazici

Chapter 3. Hydrogen Production with Zero Emissions Footprint: Challenges and Solutions Towards Commercialization

Fossil fuel economy has been under continuous criticism due to impending shortage, and environmental consequences because of heavy consumption of fossil fuels for steam, power, and commodity generation. It is unavoidable that the current fossil fuel economy will be replaced by a new economy. However, prospective alternative energy sources should conveniently replace fossil fuels and the transition from the old economy to a new one should take place smoothly. This can only happen if commonality is found between the goals of current major energy industries and the future new economy demands. Considering the significant consumption of hydrogen by the oil industry to convert crude oil into practical fuels, the most reasonable approach is to start with hydrogen as a commodity first prior to consider it as an alternative fuel. Because of the substantial emissions from the way hydrogen is produced, the best approach would be to adopt a new process which produces hydrogen with zero emissions. The use of concentrated solar energy can provide us the means to produce hydrogen with zero emissions. This would be the most appropriate first step in a transition where an alternative energy is used to produce another alternative energy source where in turn it serves in the refinement of the target fossil fuel. Once the new way of hydrogen production is fully adopted, it could be produced for consumption as a fuel as well. The main challenge, however, is to produce emission free hydrogen at a competitive cost so that it is attractive to industry. This paper presents a very promising technology for hydrogen production, which is called “solar cracking”, where natural gas is decomposed into its components solar thermally with zero emissions. With this process, not only hydrogen but also another very valuable commodity is produced, namely carbon black. Emission free production of carbon black via this technique adds significant economic value and competitiveness into the process along with securing zero cost to CO

2

sequestration, transportation, and storage. The paper defines the technical details on the challenges of this process to become commercial, and presents promising solutions to the problems of hydrogen producing solar cracking reactors.

Nesrin Özalp

Chapter 4. Photolysis of Hydrogen Sulfide in Gas Mixtures

The kinetic scheme of the processing reactions at the UV photolysis of oil refining gas products has been proposed on the basis of the experimental date. The kinetics of decomposition process of hydrogen sulfide and other components of the initial gas mixture, as well as formation of intermediate and stable products by means of the numerical simulation has been calculated. Comparative analysis of the experimental and calculation dependencies of elemental sulfur formation rates has been carried out.

S. A. Huseynova, Hokman Mahmudov, Islam I. Mustafayev

Chapter 5. Photochemical Decomposition of Hydrogen Sulphide in the Gas Mixtures and Generation Molecular Hydrogen

The process of molecular hydrogen achievement during the photolysis of gas mixtures generated in the course of oil treatment processes and containing hydrogen sulfide has been studied in this work. The photochemical decomposition of hydrogen sulfide and the kinetics of hydrogen generation have been investigated in the wide range of temperature and hydrogen sulfide partial pressure variation. The role of “hot” hydrogen atoms and the mechanism of the on-going processes within the process of molecular hydrogen generation due to the photochemical decomposition of hydrogen sulfide have been discussed.

S. A. Huseynova, Hokman Mahmudov, Islam I. Mustafayev

Chapter 6. Rational Cost-Benefit Analysis for Optimizing Future Energy Resources

Securing reliable energy resources is, ultimately, a matter of securing the survival of humanity. In other words, the indefinite prolongation of human activities, all of which require energy, requires sustainable energy resources. The laws of thermodynamics already place some constraints on what is achievable in this respect, but fortunately the Earth is an open system and can afford a certain profligacy. This situation is analysed in this paper to a suffcient level of detail. Nevertheless, such knowledge only gives very general prescriptions for energy policy matters. What is needed is a universal methodology for deciding what resources are affordable. Since the provision of such resources has to compete against other demands, some of which might be less indispensable in the long-term but more urgent, general affordability has to be measured against the actual benefits. The previously developed judgment (J)-value, designed to achieve regulatory consensus on health and safety expenditure, is adapted for this purpose. The purpose of this paper is to introduce the J-value for assessing possible energy supply options.

Jeremy J. Ramsden

Chapter 7. Novel Fuels and Materials for Nuclear Energy Generation Technologies

Existing energy generations technologies both electrical and thermal based on the burning of natural energy carriers are dangerous for biosphere of our planet. It became obvious that the further intensive development of modern energetic and transport leads to large-scale ecological crisis.

During last decade attention of worldwide frontier research and technology together with hydropower wind, photovoltaic, earth thermal water, etc. energy generation systems is focusing on the novel nuclear energy production technologies based on the last scientific and engineering achievements. Nuclear power is the principal carbon-free source of electricity, and therefore plays a key role in limiting greenhouse gas emissions. Improving scientific and technical knowledge and competences in the areas of safety, sustainability, security, reliability and cost effectiveness of novel nuclear fuel and materials are one of the main tasks of world science and technology community. The paper represents the analysis of existing level of nuclear materials development. The primary task in this research area is to coordinate the development of concepts and processes that can address the key outstanding issues in elaboration of novel effective technologies for novel technologies of nuclear energy preparation. It is shown that performed theoretical, physica-technical and technological research works clearly indicate the prospects of using new materials, devices and designing schemes for creation of highly effective energy generating technologies also applicable for hydrogen based energy production.

Paata Kervalishvili

Chapter 8. Feasibility of H2S Production from Black Sea Waters

A model for transporting of seawater with H

2

S to shoreline, and possible energy production scheme from H

2

S and its feasibility are introduced. In addition to the transport model, various aspects of energy production from H

2

S are discussed.

Hüseyin Murat Çekirge, Rafat Al-Waked

Chapter 9. The Low Cost Hydrogen Production from Hydrogen Sulfide in Black Sea

Hydrogen sulfide (H

2

S) is a polluting gas, smelly, corrosive and highly toxic. Hydrogen sulfide is commonly found in the Petroleum nature gas and Black Sea as follows:

Petroleum natural gas and refineries contain H

2

S especially if the crude oil contains a lot of sulfur compounds (10 %), i.e., Kirkuk Oil Field North of Iraq.

Black Sea contains H

2

S gas which may be produced by microbial sulfur cycle at the equilibrium depth of thousand meters (10 ppm). The total sulfur pool in Black Sea is believed to be 11.38 mg/l (around 4.6 × 10

9

tons).

The extraction of 10 ppm H

2

S from Black Sea at a depth of 1,000 m is the main part of this project, which we believe it is contributing about 90 % of the problem, as it will be very costly if we pump the water from that depth to the surface. Therefore, two pilot plants (Laboratory and Industrial) have been suggested and built by our research group for separation of H

2

S gas from water, according to Henry’s Law which it is a function of pressure, temperature, pH and salt continent. The results of our laboratory pilot plant gave us good separation efficiency of only H

2

S gas from the water condition of the Black Sea.

Therefore, we built another new extraction Industrial pilot plant according to Henry’s principle suitable to operate and separate this gas inside the sea at the depth of 1,000 m to transfer this gas to the surface of the Black Sea.

Then with respect to the production of hydrogen from H

2

S on the surface of sea, we have built two suitable pilot plants for thermal decomposition and photo thermal decomposition of H

2

S to hydrogen and sulfur.

We have used these pilot plants to convert our two Clause process plants in Iraq to produce hydrogen and sulfur. We then found that the mixture of H

2

S and methane will reduce the cost of production of hydrogen to a very low price due to the production of CS

2

. We used in our laboratory pilot plants for the above thermal and photo-decomposition of H

2

S gas different catalysts and semiconductors at a temperature range of 450–800 °C instead of 1,500 °C.

Salah A. Naman, Ayfer Veziroğlu

Chapter 10. Traditional and Sustainable Energy Production in Southern Ukraine and Crimea: Current State and Prospects

Traditional energy generation technologies cause numerous environmental problems and consume non-renewable resources. Therefore, substitution of traditional energy generation technologies with modern sustainable methods is an important and promising issue.

Current distribution of energy production in Ukraine is: 40–50 % at the nuclear power plants (4 plants); ~40 % at the thermo power plants; ~6–10 % at the hydro power plants and less than 0.5 % at various sustainable power plants (wind power, small hydropower, PV, etc.).

Northern Near-Black Sea steppe region and Crimea possess considerable wind power generation potential. Total estimated wind power potential of the Southern Ukraine and Crimea is about 5,000 MW, which in the long-term outlook can cover about 20 % of the national energy consumption. The Crimean annual wind power energy production can reach about 10 billion kWt-h/year.

Besides, Northern Black Sea steppe is a region of very intense grain production, which produces high-tonnage by-products (hay, non-conditional grains, sunflower wastes, etc.). Most of them can be easily utilized in the biopower energy production (house and water heating, etc.). This would also decrease the need for electricity and other energy consumption required for these purposes.

Detailed estimation proves that total sustainable energy generation potential of the Northern Black Sea region and Crimea is quite considerable and can cover up to 30–40 % of its own energy need.

Igor Winkler, Yarema Tevtul, Margarita Winkler

Chapter 11. Evaluation of Biohydrogen Production Potential from Marine Macro Algae

Biomass can also be used as a substrate for energy production, particularly for hydrogen production. By use of microorganisms, hydrogen can effectively be obtained from wood and marine biomass according to purposes. Biomass (i.e., organic matter) such as marine macro algae can be degraded biologically. The use of seaweeds as energy crops have certain advantages: the need for large land areas (which may not be available) is avoided; marine crop yields are expected to be considerably higher than land crop yields although experience from large-scale cultivation is lacking; seaweeds do not contain lignin, which is almost non-degradable under anaerobic conditions; and many valuable extracts, such as alginate, can be extracted from the waste, which is important to environmental protection.

Recent research has shown that the red algae

Gelidium amansii

and the brown algae

Laminaria japonica

are both potential biomass sources for biohydrogen production through anaerobic fermentation. The objective of this review article is to give an overview of marine algae as a prospective source for biohydrogen production.

İlknur Şentürk, Hanife Büyükgüngör

Chapter 12. Approaches to Aquatic Ecosystems Organic Energy Assessment and Modelling

The energetic potential of each water reservoir is formed by main components: solar power, gravitational energy, energy of environmental matter (cosmic, chemical, etc.) and biomass production energy processes. However, the energy contained in biomass producents is an important component of the energy balance of any aquatic ecosystem. Autotrophs production (primary production) is the only process of organic matter formation from inorganic compounds and therefore the energy of the primary products is the only source and indicator of biological energy loading in aquatic ecosystems.

Gathering information about the total annual primary production of biomass and about temporal dynamics of primary biomass is the basis for trophic and energetic process management in freshwater bodies and seas.

We have developed the conceptual approaches and mathematical model for potential energy of organic matters in natural systems assessment which allows the user to calculate on the basis of climatic and hydrochemical monitoring data the total amount of primary biomass within water volume or surface square units. The use of such approaches for energy potential estimation for the Black Sea unconventional power engineering purposes will allow elaborating a new effective management technique for energetic strategy and for environmental protection.

Viktor Moshynsky, Olhga Riabova

Chapter 13. H2 Producing Activity by Escherichia Coli During Mixed Carbon Fermentation at Slightly Alkaline and Acidic pHs: Novel Functions of Hydrogenase 4 (hyf) and Hydrogenase 2 (hyb)

Molecular hydrogen (H

2

) production by

Escherichia coli

was studied during mixed carbon (glucose and glycerol) fermentation at slightly alkaline (7.5) and acidic (5.5) pHs. Wild type cells, in the assays with glucose, produced H

2

at pH 7.5 with the same level as cells grown on glucose. Compared to wild type, H

2

production in

fhlA

and

fhlA hyfG

mutants decreased ~6.5 and ~7.9 fold, respectively. In wild type cells H

2

formation at pH 5.5 was lowered ~2 fold, compared to the cells grown on glucose. But in

hyfG

and

hybC

mutants H

2

production was decreased ~2 and ~1.6 fold, respectively. However, at pH 7.5, in the assays with glycerol, H

2

production was low, when compared to the cells grown on glycerol. In contrast to slightly alkaline pH, at pH 5.5 in the assays with glycerol H

2

production was absent. Moreover, H

2

evolution in wild type cells was inhibited by 0.3 mM

N,N′

-dicyclohexylcarbodiimide (DCCD), an inhibitor of the F

0

F

1

-ATPase, in a pH dependent manner. At pH 7.5 in wild type cells H

2

production was decreased ~3 fold but at pH 5.5 the inhibition was ~1.7 fold. At both pHs in

fhlA

mutant H

2

formation was totally inhibited by DCCD. Taken together, the results indicate that at pH 7.5 in the presence of glucose glycerol also can be fermented. They suggest that Hyd-4 mainly and Hyd-2 to some extent contribute in H

2

production by

E. coli

during mixed carbon fermentation at pH 5.5 whereas Hyd-1 is only responsible for H

2

oxidation.

Karen Trchounian, Armen Trchounian

Chapter 14. Glycerol Fermentation and Molecular Hydrogen Production by Escherichia Coli Batch Cultures Affected by Some Reducing Reagents and Heavy Metal Ions

Glycerol fermentation redox routes by

E. coli

wild type batch cultures and effects of Ni

2+

, Fe

2+

and Fe

3+

ions of different concentration (0.01–0.3 mM) on cell growth and H

2

production were investigated. Influences of aforementioned metal ions and Cu

2+

, as well as Fe

2+

on H

2

production rate

in vitro

assays were also studied in wild type and

hyaB hybC

double mutant (with defective hydrogenase (Hyd) 1 and Hyd -2). Cell growth was shown to be followed by decrease of pH and redox potential (ORP) measured by both titanium-silicate (E

h

) and platinum electrodes (E′

h

). After 8 h growth, at pH 7.5, E

h

dropped down negative value (−120 mV) and H

2

production was observed at the middle log phase. Whereas at the same pH in the presence of 0.05 mM Fe

2+

both E

h

and E

h

′ electrodes readings dropped to more negative values ~ −170 ± 10 and −450 ± 12 mV, respectively. All ions used at 0.05–0.1 mM concentrations stimulated bacterial growth ~1.2 to ~1.4 fold at different pHs. Ni

2+

enhanced H

2

formation in a concentration-dependent manner: maximal stimulation, up to 1.5 fold, was observed at 0.2 mM NiCl

2

only at pH 7.5. Ni

2+

also promoted to high H

2

yield at pH 6.5 and 7.5

in vitro

. In addition, 0.05–0.1 mM Fe

2+

also affected on H

2

production rate and increased it ~2 fold

in vitro

at pH 6.5 and 7.5 whereas, 0.05–0.1 mM Cu

2+

had inhibitory effect on H

2

production rate. In

hyaB hybC

mutant H

2

production rate was decreased compared with wild type and Fe

2+

had no effect on H

2

production rate and yield both at pH 6.5 and 7.5.

The findings indicate the strengthening of reductive processes by

E. coli

during glycerol fermentation and point out the role of essential heavy metal ions in H

2

production. Furthermore, enhanced H

2

production by heavy metal ions probably depends on operation of Hyd- 1 and Hyd- 2 at pH 6.5 and 7.5.

Anna Poladyan, Karen Trchounian, Mikayel Minasyants, Armen Trchounian

Chapter 15. The Effect of Various Metal Ions on Bio-hydrogen Production and F0F1-ATPase Activity of Rhodobacter Sphaeroides

The important aspect in regulation of bio-hydrogen (H

2

) production by purple bacteria and its energetics is the requirement of the F

0

F

1

-ATPase, the main membrane mechanism generating proton motive force.

Rhodobacter sphaeroides

MDC 6521 (isolated from Arzni mineral springs in Armenia) is able to produce H

2

in anaerobic conditions under illumination in the presence of various metal ions. In order to examine the mediatory role of the F

0

F

1

-ATPase in H

2

production, the effects of various metal ions (Mn

2+

, Mg

2+

, Fe

2+

, Ni

2+

, and Mo

6+

) on

N,N′

-dicyclohexylcarbodiimide inhibited ATPase activity of

R. sphaeroides

membrane vesicles were investigated. These ions in appropriate concentrations considerably enhanced H

2

production. But the latter was not observed in the absence of Fe

2+

, indicating the requirement of Fe

2+

. The

R. sphaeroides

membrane vesicles demonstrated significant ATPase activity. The absence of Fe

2+

caused to marked inhibition (~80 %) in ATPase activity. In the presence of Fe

2+

(80 μM) and Mo

6+

(16 μM) a higher ATPase activity was observed. These results indicate a relationship between H

2

production and the F

0

F

1

-ATPase activity that might be an important pathway to regulate bacterial activity under anaerobic conditions and provide novel evidence on responsibility of F

0

F

1

in H

2

production by

R. sphaeroides

.

Lilit Hakobyan, Lilit Gabrielyan, Armen Trchounian

Chapter 16. Hydrogen Accumulators for Various Purposes

The hydrogen storage in metal hydrides is the urgent problem of hydrogen power engineering and the demand for metal hydrides as capacitive, safe and convenient in service sources of hydrogen has stimulated the study of hydrogen capacity of multicomponent alloys. In recent years, much attention has been given by scientists to the investigation of hydrogen-sorption and desorption properties of different materials, including nanocarbon structures and composites on their base, the study of peculiarities of the reversible hydrogen interaction with hydride forming metals and alloys, the development of high-pure hydrogen storage and transportation in solids. This chapter deals with the designed hydrogen metal-hydride torches with piezoelectric firing of flame, two models of accumulators/compressors of great capacity on hydrogen, and three modifications of laboratory hydrogen accumulators used in operation of fuel cells. We show the construction of all torches and accumulators, their technical operating characteristics, the special features and advantages of devices developed and produced in our department and their extremely effective applications in conditions of high ecological requirements.

Dmitry V. Schur, A. F. Savenko, V. A. Bogolepov, Svetlana Yu. Zaginaichenko, Z. A. Matysina, A. Magrez, M. Baibarac, T. Nejat Veziroğlu

Chapter 17. The Peculiarities of Hydrogenation of Fullerene Molecules C60 and Their Transformation

This chapter provides an explanation for the kinetic features of C

60

molecule hydrogenation by analyzing the state and structure of double bonds in the frame of fullerene molecule. The status of these bonds, that changes the chemical activity of C

60

molecules, and hence the ability of fullerene molecule to accept different number of reagents particles, has been proposed. The special features of fullerene molecule formation and mechanism of structural transformations of fullerene molecule in solutions and fullerite have been considered.

Dmitry V. Schur, Svetlana Yu. Zaginaichenko, T. Nejat Veziroğlu, N. F. Javadov

Chapter 18. Solubility of Fullerenes in Naftalan

From ancient times naftalan is used to treat various diseases both of animals and of humans. The positive use of fullerenes in medicine, pharmacology and perfumery makes them an attractive and promising object of extensive research. The combination of fullerenes and naftalan oil together in one compound, affecting positively on the vital functions of the human body, can bring the unexpected results. The solubility of fullerenes in naftalan oil may be the key moment in the synthesis of products of such kind. A detailed study focused on the elucidation of the fullerenes solubility in naftalans has been presented in this chapter: (1) determination of the solubility of fullerite in naftalan; (2) definition of the regions of naftalan transmission in toluene; (3) measurement of fullerenes solutions spectra in naftalan; and (4) comparison of the measured spectra of fullerene solutions in naftalan and toluene.

Dmitry V. Schur, N. S. Anikina, O. Ya. Krivuschenko, Svetlana Yu. Zaginaichenko, G. A. Kazimov, A. D. Zolotarenko, M. A. Polischuk, N. F. Javadov, T. Nejat Veziroğlu, Ayfer Veziroğlu

Chapter 19. The Prospects for Use of Hydrogen Accumulators on the Basis of Lanthan-Magnesium-Nickel Store Alloys

A theoretical study of hydrogen solubility in alloys with structures of the L2

2

, D2d, L6

0

types and in phase mixtures of these alloys has been developed on the basis of the molecular-kinetic concept. The absorption and desorption isotherms have been investigated, their dependence on the hydrogen activity and the magnesium concentration has been found. It is presented that horizontal plateau appears and is lengthened in the isotherms with increasing concentration of magnesium and with decreasing activity of hydrogen atoms. Considering volume effects, the hysteresis phenomena have been studied and hysteresis constants have been evaluated. A fall in hysteresis constant with reduced activity of hydrogen atoms has been shown. Our calculation results are in agreement with experimental data.

Svetlana Yu. Zaginaichenko, Dmitry V. Schur, A. F. Savenko, V. A. Bogolepov, Z. A. Matysina, Ayfer Veziroğlu

Chapter 20. Polyether Urethane Nanocomposition as a Multi-functional Nanostructured Polymeric Coating for the Future

Modern science and technology level requires availability of polymeric insulating materials which would have not only high strength, but also the features like adhesion, tensile, impact and erosion resistance. The elaboration of the technology of production of new erosion resistant coating as new generation of materials with high hydrophobic properties is the achieved goal of the presented investigations. This problem has been solved by the development of new primary polyester on the basis of which the polyether urethane composite material containing ferromagnetic nanoparticles has been produced. The synthesis of ferromagnetic superparamagnetic nanoparticles fixed in polymeric matrix of ferromagnetic polymeric nanocomposite has been carried out in special reactor where composition of the polymeric nanocomposite has been controlled.

This nanostructured polymeric nanocomposite will be introduced into the oil production, oil processing (against paraffin and salt deposition processes), petroleum chemistry, aviation, instrument engineering, shipbuilding industry and other sectors. Particularly, application of this nanocomposite in paraffin containing oil production will start a new age in the prevention of paraffin, asphaltic-resinous components deposits on the inner surface of pipes and also hydrogen sulphide corrosion of pipe material that is a real disaster for oilmen.

It has been proved experimentally that magnetic field was induced in NCT, which accelerate and give special direction of moving for salts ions and paraffin nuclei crystallization centers with the use of polymeric nanocomposite. It has been expected that net cost of the developed polymeric nanocomposite will be 25–30 % lower compare with it for polyether urethane varnish.

N. F. Javadov, T. I. Nazimov, E. G. Ismailov, Dmitry V. Schur, Svetlana Yu. Zaginaichenko, A. P. Pomytkin, R. S. Aliev, R. S. Suleimanov, T. Nejat Veziroğlu, Ayfer Veziroğlu

Chapter 21. On the 80-th Brainstorming for Complex Research of Black Sea Ecosystem (The Restoration of the Black Sea Ecosystem: Necessary But Not Sufficient Conditions for Harmonic Existence of the Region)

This chapter describes the efforts of an international scientific group, which worked in the 80-th with aim to explore, quantify and predict the ecosystem variability of the Black Sea on the basis of complex research. We tried to apply the lessons of Nuclear winter model in practice for creating and development of the models which would allow: the descriptions of the past states of the sea, displaying trends and changes, as well the prediction of the future states of the sea.

In fact, we created the first NGO, where participating scientists from Bulgarian, Georgian, Russian and Ukrainian Academy of Sciences Institutes, Hydrographic Services of Bulgaria, Black Sea Soviet Navy, GosGidroMet and other organizations, connected with the Environment and Fishing economy.

Strachimir Chterev Mavrodiev, Marat Tsitskishvili

Chapter 22. On the FP7 BlackSeaHazNet Project and Its Possible Application for Harmonic Existence of the Regions

This chapter describes briefly our long journey from the time of working for “Clean and peaceful Black Sea” in the 80-th to the FP7 support of the project “Complex research of Earthquake’s Forecasting Possibilities, Seismicity and Climate Change Correlations”. The participants are from Slovenia, Macedonia, Greece, Turkey, Bulgaria, Georgia and Armenia. The main aim of the project and the preliminary results were published in the Ohrid, Macedonia (ISBN 978-9989-631-04-7) and Tbilisi, Georgia (UDC 550.348.436 + 551.583.C-73, ISSN 2233–3681), also the proceedings are presented.

Strachimir Chterev Mavrodiev, Lazo Pekevski

Chapter 23. Serbian Efforts to Improve Environmental and Overall Security in Black Sea Regional Cooperation

In recent international relationships, the Black Sea region is recognized as extremely important, especially in the European Union agenda. Energy and overall security, as well as performed activities in creating a favourable political climate for cooperation in the region represent an important aspect of the Black Sea Economic Cooperation (BSEC). At the beginning of the crucial changes in international relations, the Republic of Serbia recognized the importance of the Black Sea region. Many data available from a recent research project gave the author a motive for this article. Applying the appropriate methodology in social science, the article highlights some of Serbian past activities, which lead to significant success in the area of environmental protection of the Black Sea region, mainly through permanent cooperation within the International Commission for the Protection of the Danube river (ICPDR) and other projects financed through the Instrument for Pre-Accession Assistance program (IPA). In the present situation, Serbia is making additional efforts to find a solution for issues raised in the past, although it is suffering from unfavourable macroeconomic conditions and consequences of delayed decision on its candidacy to the EU. Serbian intention to develop cooperation with its neighbouring countries and the countries of the broader region is unquestionable. The visible role of the Republic of Serbia has been shown within the BSEC and was a priority as a current a Chairmanship -in-Office of the Black Sea Economic cooperation (1 January – 30 June 2012). Other parts of the article consist of several best examples of Serbian contribution in the area of developing renewable energy sources, energy efficient technologies in terms of environment protection, decreasing and controlling of industrial and agricultural pollution of the Danube, as well as its new role in the regional security. The recently established Serbian Russian Humanitarian Centre in the town of Nis should have the significant role in the future intensification and extension of cooperation in the transportation/transiting of energy resources across the BSEC region and other countries. Conclusion remarks of the article present a clear recommendation on how to avoid some obstacles on the path of sustainable governance, and strengthening institutional, organizational and other capacities of Serbia for the purpose of improvement of its future role in BCES.

Vesela Radovic, Alexandar Andrejevic

Chapter 24. Numerical Modeling of Spilled Oil Seasonal Transport Processes Into Georgian Coastal Zone of the Black Sea

In this study, spreading of the oil pollution in the Georgian Black Sea coastal zone on the basis of a 2-D numerical model of distribution of oil pollution is simulated. The model is based on a transfer-diffusion equation with taken into account reduction of oil concentrations because of physical – chemical processes. The splitting method is used for solution of the transfer-diffusion equation. Numerical experiments are carried out for different hypothetical sources of pollution in case of different sea circulation regimes dominated for the four seasons the Georgian Black Sea coastal zone. Some results of numerical experiments are presented.

D. I. Demetrashvili, Teimuraz P. Davitashvili

Chapter 25. The Ecological Evaluation River Basins in West Georgia

The Black Sea is on the marine arias of the world, most damaged by human activities. The high degree of isolation from the world ocean, the extensive drainage basin and the large number of incoming rivers – all contribute to the unique water balance of the Black Sea. In this work, we have attempted the regulation implementation of the Water Framework Directive of the European Union (2000/60/EU) for Western Georgia area in the framework of implementation of the water management basin principle.

Katerina Verbetskaya, N. Klymenko, N. Voznyuk

Chapter 26. Numerical Simulation of the Sea Pollution for the Case of Mine Waters Discharge

Huge quantities of mine waters are discharged to the rivers from Krivoy Rog iron ore mines in the south of Ukraine. At present, the project of these mine waters discharge into the Black Sea is worked out. The problem of this discharge environmental impact assessment is of great interest. One of the branches of this problem is the prediction of the sea pollution in the case of mine waters discharge. Numerical model to calculate the sea point pollution in the case of the mine waters discharge was developed. The model is based on the 3D equations of potential flow and pollutant dispersion. The implicit difference schemes were used for the numerical integration of the governing equations. New type of arrangement for the mine waters discharge into the sea was developed.

Mykola M. Biliaiev, P. S. Kirichenko, Mykola M. Kharytonov

Chapter 27. Geomining Site Ecological Assessment and Reclamation Along Coastal Line of the Kerch Peninsula

Kerch district bounded by the sea in the east and by mines in the west was developed along the shore line of the Black Sea due to the free areas located inside city boundary. The territory of the Kerch Peninsula is characterized by open pits, dumps and sludge storages left after opencast mining of iron ores. The assessment of land cover condition on the study area was carried out in the course of time and area. The results of vegetation cover assessment were used to evaluate the changes in normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) from 1992 to 2010. It was fixed various density of vegetation cover for the same site after two decades of natural restoration. To make research on reclaimed lands fertility more detailed we studied the influence of different thickness of covering layer of soil mass and mining rocks bottom (or their technical mixtures) on the agricultural crops productivity with various adaptive potential. Artificial profiles of creating reclaimed lands to retrieve abandoned ore-mining territories for agricultural use have been proposed.

Mykola M. Kharytonov, O. Mitsik, S. Stankevich, O. Titarenko

Chapter 28. Desulphurisation of Karaman-Ermenek Lignites of Turkey at the Accelerated Electrons Impact

The regularities of desulphurization of lignites from Karaman-Ermenek deposits of Turkey under accelerated electron impact were studied. The absorbed doze in lignites changed within the limits of 1,170–3,120 kGy. As basic indexes of process rate of gas formation, decreasing of initial mass of lignite, the contents of sulfur in the solid have been defined. The gaseous products Н

2

, CO and СН

4

were identified. The specific features of radiation-chemical decomposition of organic mass of lignite under accelerated electrons impact are discussed.

Fethullah Chichek, Samira Aliyeva-Chichek, Kamal Yakubov, Islam I. Mustafayev

Chapter 29. Influence of Static and Cyclic Tensions on Corrosion – Mechanical Destruction of Steels in Hydrogen Sulfide Environments

It has been investigated that influence, in terms of loading and composition of hydrogen sulfide environments, are resistant to corrosion-mechanical destruction of typical steels appointed to marine constructions, gas and oil equipment, and pipelines which are exploited on a marine shelf: steel 20, steels 10CrSiNiCu, 28Cr2МoVNbCu, 30CrМo, stainless steel 12Cr21Ni5Тi and steel of 17Mn1Si with the welded joint.

It is discovered that the high resistance of steels to sulphide stress corrosion cracking (SSCC) does not guarantee it high endurance in solution of NACE (5 % NaCl + 0.5 % CH

3

COOH + H

2

S, sat., рН3…4, t = 20 ± 3 °С) at cyclic tensions: at a symmetric cycle endurance the least resistant to SSCC of steel 20 goes down comparatively with air in ~1.4 times, and more resistant steel 30CrМo and 12Cr21Ni5Тi – in ~2.6 and 1.9 times, accordingly. An analogical tendency is observed at an asymmetric cycle at amplitude σ

а

= 0.2σ

0.2

. In presence of the welded joints asymmetric tensions reduce their resistance destruction in a greater measure, than specimen from basic metal. It has also been established that the addition of 3.5 % solution of marine salt 15 mg/l to H

2

S does not influence the stress intensity factor of high-strength steel 28Cr2МoVNbCu. At the repeatedly static loading with frequency f = 1.1 · 10

−5

Hz depending on the level of this steel strength, the value of conditional critical stress intensity factors K

scc

in this solution goes down on 10–15 %.

Thus at the selection of materials for work in hydrogen sulfide environments, it is necessary, except for the generally accepted approaches, for an estimation of high ability to work to take the influence of alternating tensions.

Myroslav S. Khoma

Chapter 30. Hydrogen and Hydrogen Containing Gas Formation at the Radiation-Thermal Clean Up of Water from Oil Pollution

The regularities of hydrogen and hydrogen-containing gas formation at the purification of oil industry sewage by radiation-chemical method have been studied. Radiation-thermal transformations of hydrocarbon admixtures in the water medium have been established. As a model was selected heptane-water system, the received results have been tested on an example of Caspian oil. The experiments have been carried out in the static and thermostable conditions under impact of γ-radiations Co

60

. The influence of the dose, temperature, medium, initial concentration of components to the radiation-chemical yield of the hydrogen and other gases have been established. It was shown that in the temperatures higher 300 °C as a result of interaction of components and active particles, which are formed from their radiolysis decomposition of hydrocarbons turns into the chain mode and yields of gas products (H

2

, CO, CH

4

, ΣC

2

−ΣC

6

) were higher than additive quantity. It is defined optimal temperature interval Т = 400–450 °С and absorbed dose D = 2.5–4.0 kGy for purification of 87–90 % of Caspian oil with initial concentration less than 0.1 % in the water.

The influence of oxygen on radiation-chemical production of hydrogen-containing gases from the water-heptane system was studied. In the water medium proposed four stages, it simplified the kinetic model of the hydrocarbon admixtures radiation-chemical decompositions and hydrogen-containing gas formation. Calculations were carried out according to this model. The mechanism of proceed processes and results of feasibility studies on developed method are discussed.

Islam I. Mustafayev

Chapter 31. Quantum Effects Based Materials for Nanosensory Systems

Development of sensory elements, devices and novel information technologies based systems is unique for solving organization difficulties of multiparametral and precise measurements of hydrocarbons and related substances. An effective prevention implies sensory system that provides combines and interprets applicable individual information in due time and then takes appropriate measures. Such sensory systems should record data as soon as an action is necessary. Utilization of quantum effects in solid state systems opened a new way for elaboration of novel sensory materials and devices widely using the nanoscience and nanotechnology methods for their preparation.

One of the most suitable examples of nano and quantum effects connection is the process of the spin-polarized transport of charge in -ferromagnetic semiconductor nanolayers with controlled disorder. Operation of a spintronic device requires efficient spin injection into a semiconductor, spin manipulation, control and transport, and spin detection. The relevant role in solution of this problem is shunted to search and investigations of new ferromagnetic materials, which are capable to be reliable spin injectors and effective memory resistors as well.

The execution of researches within the framework of the given chapter will allow studying the quantum effects in ferromagnetic nanolayers with controlled disorder. The most essential mechanisms, responsible for the transport properties, electronic and magnetic structures of these materials were determined. It also served as basis for creation of practical spinelectronics sensory devices having in their structure the interfaces such as ferromagnetic discrete alloy – non-magnetic semiconductor.

Paata J. Kervalishvili, Tamara M. Berberashvili

Chapter 32. Physical Properties of Some Metal Hydrides Applicable for Hydrogen Detectors: Brief Review

There are briefly reconsidered results of theoretical and experimental investigations performed during the last decade on hydrides of rare-earth and refractory metals in E. Andronikashvili Institute of Physics (I. Javakhishvili Tbilisi State University).

Ioseb Ratishvili, Natela Namoradze

Backmatter

Weitere Informationen